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Suggestions for Modes of National Education

在文檔中 Moral and National Education (頁 159-165)

 Based on the guiding principles for the learning and teaching of MNE, the following three learning and teaching strategies are suggested for national education:

(a) The basis for the learning and teaching of national education: to be triggered by

“passion”

(b) Lesson organisation for national education: the CPET national situations learning model and multi-perspectival learning approach

(c) Promotion of national education: complementing classroom learning with visits, exchange programmes and learning activities

(a) The basis for learning and teaching: to be triggered by “Passion”

 As for the learning in the National Domain, students should first develop an understanding of “national situations”. National situations generally refer to the country’s development conditions in various areas including its politics, economy and culture. It is an integrated and dynamic concept rather than a static and fixed concept. The contents of national situations can be classified into four dimensions, including natural resources, contemporary development, humanities and history:

- Natural resources: The aim is to help students understand the exploration and use of natural resources by the country, hence the potential of the country and the opportunities and challenges facing the country.

- Contemporary development: The topics cover politics, economy, diplomatic relations and technology, enabling students to study and explore the current national situations, and look into the future of the country.

- Humanities: The aim is to introduce the learning of the country’s cultural achievements and its fine heritage.

- History: Students are encouraged to study the historic eras, figures, events and regions in the history of the country as well as the trends of major developments.

 With the above four dimensions forming a framework and with the inclusion of the relevant learning contents, students can have a better grasp of the major concepts and achieve systematic learning of the national situations.

 The learning of the national situations emphasises “affection”, focuses on “feeling” and is based on “emotion”:

- Emphasises on “affection” - “Affection” is derived from the emotional connection between an individual and their country. Teachers should develop students’ affection for their country. The cultivation of national identity cannot be separated from the development of affection for the country. Memorising information alone cannot

history, race and culture.

- Focuses on “feeling” - Teachers should help students appreciate their affection for their country through access to information related to the national situations so that they will be moved by the rich tapestry of feelings inherent in the information. At the same time, the learning of the national situations emphasises genuine communication between one another. A thorough understanding of the development of the country does not rely solely on information from books or the media. Apart from classroom learning, students should set foot on the motherland and participate in exchange programmes to learn more about the development of their country through engaging all their senses.

- Based on “emotion” - To implement the learning of the national situations, teachers and students should show dedication and engage in mutual encouragement. To successfully promote national education, teachers should impassion their students if their teaching is to make any impact. National education is not simply about the accumulation of knowledge. It is through the interactions between teachers and students and mutual encouragement that true emotions can be nurtured to become the impetus behind national education.

Exploring Chinese culture through rational and emotional ways

 The learning objectives for the National Domain of the MNE curriculum include the appreciation of Chinese culture and understanding of the interest and essence embedded. Students can, for example, start from understanding the roof ridge decorations of traditional architecture and explore the essence of Chinese culture at the rational or emotional levels.

 Using rational thinking as the starting point, students can study roof ridge decorations in an objective manner and then examine their relationship with architecture and life. They then express their feelings through artistic means like drawing and pottery making.

 Students can also make speculations on the expectations behind the roof ridge decorations after looking at relevant pictures, drawings, etc. They then collect information on the designs and styles of roof ridge decorations and their impact on the constructor sector. For example, in Shiwan, a town in Foshan in the Guangdong Province well known for its pottery, clay is widely-used in roof ridge decorations. Students can explore the impact of Foshan’s pottery industry on the local economy, society and people’s livelihood.

 The rational and emotional levels are complementary to each other during the learning process. They can motivate students to appreciate Chinese culture from multiple perspectives.

(b) Strategies for lesson organisation (i) The CPET learning model

 A multi-perspectival learning model (the CPET learning model) for the learning and teaching of the National Domain of the MNE subject can be adopted. The learning model enables students to take Character, Place, Event and Time as the starting points to set off thinking. Through analysing from the political, social, humanities and technological perspectives, students will be able to think from multiple perspectives and arrive at a multi-dimensional understanding of the development of the country.

 Details of the four elements, i.e. Character, Place, Event and Time, included in the CPET learning model are as follows:

- Character - people who have made major contributions to the country from the perspectives of politics, military, economy, culture, arts and technology and people involved in the development of the country

- Place - places of great significance in the development of the country such as economic development zones, congress venues, industrial centres and regions with unique culture and traditional custom

- Event - events of great significance in the development of the country such as system reform, promulgation of policies or regulations, innovations and inventions, and technological breakthroughs.

- Time - eras of great significance in the development of the country such as phases of philosophical transformation, research milestones, academic development, periods of cultural distinctiveness and dates of major events

 Four entry points, i.e. time, place, character and event, are identified in the CPET learning model. They represent four analytical perspectives, namely political, social, humanities and technological, which improve the effectiveness of classroom learning and build a clear and multi-dimensional picture of learning that students experience during the process of observation, questioning, discussion, analysis and thinking. Details of the four analytical perspectives are as follows:

- Political - Study the country’s decision-making and management system such as the formulation of state policy, policy implementation, law establishment and system operation.

- Social - Show concern for the development of people’s livelihood such as housing, education, medical care and welfare.

- Humanities - Appreciate cultural development originating from everyday life such as language and literature, ideology and religious beliefs, etiquette, traditional custom and traditional skills.

Promoting the learning of contemporary national situations with the CPET learning model

As for the National Domain, teachers can choose “Guangzhou-Shenzhen-Hong Kong Express Rail Link” as the focus and adopt the CPET learning model in the enquiry study.

Learning objective:

To understand the opportunities and challenges facing the country through raising concerns for its development and important development plans

Learning contents:

Exploring the opportunities and challenges facing the Guangzhou-Shenzhen-Hong Kong Express Rail Link

Suggested teaching procedures

 Teachers take character, place, time and event as the entry points of thinking and propose the four learning focuses of “Guangzhou-Shenzhen-Hong Kong Express Rail Link”, for instance:

Character – Potential users of and people living along the Guangzhou-Shenzhen-Hong Kong Express Rail Link

Place – The terminal locations of the Guangzhou-Shenzhen-Hong Kong Express Rail Link

Event – Construction of and discussion about the Guangzhou-Shenzhen-Hong Kong Express Rail Link

Time – 2005 (construction of the Guangzhou-Shenzhen section of the Guangzhou-Shenzhen-Hong Kong Express Rail Link commenced)

 Teachers guide students to conduct their enquiry from the four analytical perspectives, for instance:

Political – The alignment between the Guangzhou-Shenzhen-Hong Kong Express Rail Link and the country’s rail transport policies

Social – The considerations for and impact of site selection for the terminals of the Guangzhou-Shenzhen-Hong Kong Express Rail Link

Humanities – The impact of the Guangzhou-Shenzhen-Hong Kong Express Rail Link on people’s livelihood

Technological – The alignment between the Guangzhou-Shenzhen-Hong Kong Express Rail Link and scientific development, industrial manufacturing and urban planning

 Teachers may guide students to compare the Guangzhou-Shenzhen-Hong Kong Express Rail Link with the national high-speed rail network development, e.g. the operation of the Wuhan-Guangzhou Passenger Line and Zhengzhou-Xi'an High-speed Rail Link, which commenced in 2009 and 2010 respectively.

 Teachers may also guide students to explore the Medium- and Long-term Railway Network Plan of the Ministry of Railways, which proposes the construction of the four vertical and four horizontal high-speed rail networks. This helps students understand the country's long-term planning and the speed of development of high-speed railway, as well as the challenge ahead and the constraints involved.

 Students can compare the high-speed rail link development of the country with that in other countries or regions such as Japan, Korea, Turkey, France, Germany and the United States in terms of network planning, technology application, selection of location, considerations for site selection, and impact on the local economy and people’s livelihood during construction and after operation. This can help students further understand the characteristics of the railway development of the country and the areas for improvement.

(ii) A multi-perspectival learning approach

 A multi-perspectival learning approach is suggested for the learning and teaching of the National Domain in the MNE curriculum; i.e. initiate learning at the “cognitive level”, the

“affective level” and the “behavioural level” in order to achieve systematic learning of the national situations.

- Cognitive Level: It aims to develop students’ understanding of the national situations and to help them grasp the basic facts of the country. Apart from gaining an understanding of the current situations of the country, students should analyse the national situations through multi-perspectival thinking, with a global vision and an inquisitive attitude for knowledge and truth.

- Affective Level: It aims to develop students’ affection for the country and enable them to connect their personal emotions to the country’s development by learning the real situation of the country and show concerns on their compatriots. In this way, apart from being proud of the country’s rapid development, students will care about the challenges and adversities facing the country and be willing to take responsibilities in improving the future for the country.

- Behavioural Level: It aims to foster in students a spirit of commitment to the country and enable them to learn more about the national situations through action. To start

Affective Level

Take the learning of contemporary national situations as an example. Teachers may guide students to discuss the country’s development in areas such as diplomatic development, aerospace science and technology, infrastructure and economic development. Students can realise the tremendous efforts of the country in these developments and the way the country has dealt with the hardship and challenges as well as understand the spirit in support of all these developments, e.g. the spirit of perseverance, independence and the concern for humankind.

Cognitive Level

Take the learning of the country’s natural resources as an example. Teachers can guide students to discuss the relationship between population growth and the use of land resources. By taking into consideration the population growth and land use situations, students will learn that in spite of the country’s reputation for its vast expanse of land and rich resources, the continuous population growth as well as the limited availability of usable land still pose a challenge to the use of land resources. Such a challenge will stimulate students to think of appropriate ways to respond to the situation.

(c) Complementing classroom learning with visits, exchange programmes and learning activities

 Apart from achieving the learning objectives in the national domain of the MNE subject through classroom learning, teachers are also advised to organise related visits, exchange programmes and learning activities to improve the learning effectiveness.

 The learning objectives and learning contents in the National Domain can be deepened and strengthened through systematically organised visits and exchange programmes, which promote the understanding of the country’s development from multiple perspectives. When arranging exchange and learning programmes, teachers need to consider consolidating and extending learning before, during and after the programmes.

 Campus activities in line with classroom learning, visits and exchange programmes can also be promoted. For example, competitions, drama performances, lunch meetings and study day/week can help to build learning communities in the campus, and enable students from different classes to exchange their knowledge gained, thus expanding the reach of national education. These can all enhance the learning and teaching effectiveness.

Behavioural Level

Take the learning of the historical national situations as an example. Teachers can select historic figures from different fields as the basis for organising the contents for classroom learning. For example, teachers can guide students to explore the contributions made by the thinker Confucius. Apart from guiding students to learn about Confucius’ words and deeds, teachers can also encourage students to put the teaching of Confucius, including benevolence, virtue, loyalty, forgiveness, etiquette and righteousness, into practice as a means to pass on and promote Chinese culture.

(Appendix 7)

在文檔中 Moral and National Education (頁 159-165)