Chinese Culture Values Impact on Taiwan Nursing Leadership Styles: Comparing staff nurses’ assessment to head nurses’ self-assessment.

全文

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中國文化思想對台灣護理領導型態之影響-護理長自評及

護理人員評估結果之比較

Chinese Culture Values Impact on Taiwan Nursing

Leadership Styles: Comparing staff nurses’

assessment to head nurses’ self-assessment.

張元玫

Yuanmay Chang

摘要

本研究旨在探討中國文化對台灣護理領導管理行為的影響。此為描述性研究,透

過問卷調查法比較護理長自評與護理人員評估護理長在護理領導行為之中國文

化價值觀。以台灣 214 位護理長與 2,127 位護理人員為收案對象,且護理長與護

理人員至少須共事 1 年以上。共有六家醫院有意願接受問卷調查,包括北中南

三區各一所醫學中心與區域醫院。研究結果發現:護理長在文化價值觀與中國式

領導行為自評之平均得分均高於護理人員之評分。在文化價值觀部份,雙方評分

均以「仁」

「義」平均得分高於「禮」

「法」

。在領導行為部份,則有所不同,

護理人員感受護理長之領導行為以「作之親」平均得分高於「作之師」

「作之君」

護理長自評領導行為,則以「作之君」平均得分高於「作之親」

「作之師」

。護

理長與護理人員期待之護理長之領導行為,亦以「作之君」平均得分高於「作之

親」

「作之師」

,但無統計上之差異。文化價值觀與護理領導行為有正相關(r=.266

至 r=.334)

。文化價值觀解釋護理領導行為 10.6%。在北部地區醫院(β =.09)、一

般病房(β =.10)、離職意願(β =-.14)之護理人員及文化價值觀中的「仁」(β =.16)、

「義」(β =.16)在護理人員感受護理長之護理領導行為上有 14.6%解釋力。此研

究結果提供台灣護理領導管理者在工作環境中組織再造時文化價值觀運用之參

考。

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of Chinese culture on nursing leadership behavior in Taiwan nurses. A descriptive study compared staff nurses' assessment of Chinese value in the leadership behavior of their head nurses. Data analysis was made on a convenience sample in Taiwan of 214 head nurses and 2,127 staff nurses who had worked with their head nurse for at least one year. Six medical centers and regional hospitals in northern (Taipei), central (Taichung) and southern (Kaohsiung) Taiwan were recruited for this study. Instruments included the demographic questionnaire, Chinese Value Survey, and Kang's Chinese Leadership Behaviors Module Scale. Results indicated that head nurses

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scored significantly higher than staff nurses in terms of all cultural values and leadership behaviors. Both staff nurses and head nurses scored the highest mean scores in personal integrity (Yi) and human connectedness (Ren) and the lowest in moral discipline (Li). Staff nurse perceptions of leadership behavior indicated the role of parent to be higher than either the role of director or mentor. Head nurses perceptions of leadership behavior emphasized the role of the director more than either parent or mentor. There were no significant differences between the staff nurses and head nurses in terms of expectative leadership behavior, which gave the role of director higher mean scores than those of either the parent or mentor. Positive and significant associations (r=.266 to r=.334) were found between cultural values and

perceptions of leadership behavior. Cultural values predicted 10.6% of leadership behavior variance. The three demographic characteristics of location in northern Taiwan (β=.09), intention to leave (β=-.14), and general unit (β=.10) and the two cultural values of human connectedness (Ren) (β=.16) and personal integrity (Yi) (β=.16) together reported a cumulative R^2 of 14.6% to explain variance in leadership behavior perceptions. Results of this study identified the important cultural values "Ren" and "Yi". Managers and administrators could add the consideration of such cultural values into nursing leadership to enhance the organization in which Taiwan nurses work.

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