大學院校教學中心支援服務之需求評估調查研究:以藝術類大學師生的觀點

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˪㔁做埴㓧冯姽揹⬠↲˫ 2010 ⸜ 7 㚰炻䫔ḅ㛇炻枩 81-112

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σᏰ଱ਮఀᏰϛЖЛධ݈୛Ϟሯؑຟեġ

፡ࢥंـȈо᛺೚᜸σᏰৱҡޟᢎᘈġ

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⣏⬠慵䞼䨞庽㔁⬠䘬⽫ンⷠ䁢⚳Ṣ娔䕭炻䁢㓡┬㬌䎦尉ˣ㍸⋯⣏⬠㔁⬠⑩岒炻㔁做 悐忪枺妪ˬ䋶⊝⣏⬠㔁⬠⋻崲妰䔓˭炻㛇㛃德忶䋶⊝⇞⹎炻溻⊝⣏⬠慵夾㔁⬠ㆸ㓰ˤ 㛔㔯椾⃰㍊妶㔁⬠⑩岒冯㚱㓰㔁⬠䘬シ㵝炻℞㫉⍫惴⚳ℏ⢾⣏⬠㔁⬠ᷕ⽫䘬忳ἄ炻 ㍊妶㔁⬠ᷕ⽫㓗㎜㚵⊁䘬ℏ⭡炻㚨⼴婧㞍喅埻栆⣏⬠ ĵĶķ ỵⷓ䓇炻Ḯ妋㔁⬠ᷕ⽫㚵 ⊁暨㯪䘬⃒⃰枮⸷冯ⶖ䔘ね⼊炻ẍ 䁢喅埻栆⣏⬠昊㟉⺢伖㔁⬠ᷕ⽫冯㍸⋯㔁⬠⑩ 岒䘬⍫侫ˤ䞼䨞䘤䎦烉IJįⷓ䓇⛐㔁⬠䥹㈨冯⬠佺屯㸸㕡朊䘬暨㯪枿檀烊ijį㔁ⷓ⛐䞼䨞 忚ᾖ㕡朊䘬暨㯪檀㕤ᾳ⇍㔁⬠媖娊烊Ĵį⬠䓇⛐⋯⬠屯妲㕡朊䘬暨㯪檀㕤婚⼴庼⮶烊 ĵįᶵ⎴側㘗ⷓ䓇⛐悐↮㚵⊁暨㯪㕡朊㚱栗叿ⶖ䔘ˤ㚨⼴炻㛔㔯憅⮵⬠㟉埴㓧Ṣ⒉ㆾ 㔁⬠ᷕ⽫夷∫侭㍸↢⍫侫⺢嬘ˤġ ġ ġ 斄挝娆烉㔁⬠⑩岒ˣ㔁⬠⋻崲ˣ㔁⬠ᷕ⽫ˣ暨㯪姽Ộġ ____________________ 散冒⬱烉⚳䩳⎘⊿喅埻⣏⬠ⷓ屯➡做ᷕ⽫∗㔁㌰ 暣⫸悝ẞ烉Tayan10@yahoo.com.tw 㓞ẞ㖍㛇烉2010.03.30烊ᾖ㓡㖍㛇烉2010.05.21烊㍍⍿㖍㛇烉2010.06.30

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Journal of Educational Administration and Evaluation July, 2010, Vol. 9 pp. 81-112

A survey for the service needs of the Center

for Teaching and Learning (CTL) at Taipei

National University of the Arts

Tzu-An Yen

Abstract

Since the Ministry of Education initiated the ‘Teaching-Excellence Plan’ in 2005, many Presidents have promoted the Center for Teaching and Learning (CTL) in universities. The goals of CTL were to improve the teaching of teachers and learning of students in universities. This article describes the fundamental concepts of teaching quality and instructional effectiveness. Secondly, the operation and service of CTL in Taiwan, America, England, Canada, and Australia are explored. Finally, in order to realize the priority and variations of CTL service needs, 456 teachers and students of an art university in Taiwan were surveyed.The results of this survey revealed that (1) the teachers’ and students’ needs for teaching technology and learning resources are very high; (2)the teachers’ needs for research and in-service training are more than those for teaching consultation; (3)the students’ needs for obtaining information regarding enrollment are higher than those for counseling; (4)the needs of teachers and students with diverse backgrounds are substantially different. Feasible suggestions giving insight into the operation of CTL are proposed.

Keywords: teaching quality, teaching excellence, Center for Teaching and Learning (CTL), needs assessment

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Tzu-An Yen: Associate Professor/National Taipei University of the Arts E-mail: Tayan10@yahoo.com.tw

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൦ȃᆱ፣ġ

役⸜Ἦ檀䫱㔁做䓙㕤ˬ慵䞼䨞庽㔁⬠˭䘬⽫ン炻⮶农㔁⬠⑩岒Ỷ句侴⍿⇘䣦㚫 ⣏䛦䘬㈡姽ˤ䁢㬌炻㔁做悐ᷫ㕤ijııĶ⸜䶐↿IJı€⃫䴻屣㍐≽ˬ䋶⊝⣏⬠㔁⬠⋻崲妰 䔓˭炻䴻⇅⮑ˣ墯⮑䫱⮑㟠䦳⸷炻㑯⭂IJĴ㟉Ḱẍ䴻屣墄≑炷㔁做悐炻ijııĶŢˣijııĶţ炸烊 ijııķ⸜崟⡆≈䁢㭷⸜Ķı€⃫炻㒜⣏墄≑⮵尉军ijķ㇨⬠㟉炻ijıIJı⸜㬊ㆸ䩳ķᾳ⋨➇㔁⬠ 屯㸸ᷕ⽫炷⊿⋨ˣ㟫䪡剿ˣᷕ⋨ˣ暚▱⋿ˣ檀檀⯷ˣ㜙⋨炸炻㔜⎰忂嬀㔁做ˣ婆妨 傥≃屯㸸炻⺢䩳℔ℙ⸛⎘炻㒜⣏⍿䙲䭬⚵烊娚妰䔓㛇⼭啱㬌䪞䇕⿏䴻屣炻溻⊝⣏⬠ 昊㟉德忶ℐ朊⿏䘬㔁⬠⇞⹎㓡朑炻⼊⟹㔁⬠䘬㟠⽫₡ῤ炻⺢伖㔁⬠㓗㎜䲣䴙炻⋼≑ 㔁ⷓ㍸⋯㔁⬠⑩岒炷㔁做悐炻ijııķŢˣijııĸˣijıIJı炸ˤġ ⛐伶⚳炻⎚ᷡἃ⣏⬠㖑㕤IJĺĸĶ⸜ὧ⛐ ŅŢůŧŰųŵũ ➢慹㚫䘬岲≑ᶳㆸ䩳ˬ㔁⬠ᷕ⽫˭ 炷ŕũŦġńŦůŵŦųġŧŰųġŕŦŢŤũŪůŨġŢůťġōŦŢųůŪůŨļġńŕō炸炻农≃㕤㔁⬠⑩岒䘬㍸⋯炻ἧ㔁ⷓ傥㚱 ⋻崲䘬㔁⬠ㆸ㝄炻⬠䓇㚱‹↢䘬⬠佺堐䎦炷ŕũŦġńŦůŵŦųġŧŰųġŕŦŢŤũŪůŨġŢůťġōŦŢųůŪůŨĭġijııĶŢĭġ ijııĶţ炸ˤ⎴㗪炻⑰ἃ⣏⬠ḇ⛐ ŅŢůŧŰųŵũ ➢慹㚫䘬岲≑ᶳㆸ䩳ˬʼnŢųŷŢųťĮŅŢůŧŰųŵũ ᷕ⽫˭炻 IJĺĺIJ⸜䁢䲨⾝ ŅŦųŦŬġŃŰŬ 㟉攟⮵㍸⋯㔁⬠⑩岒䘬届䌣炻䈡㚜⎵䁢ˬŅŦųŦŬġŃŰŬ 㔁⬠ᷕ ⽫˭炻娚ᷕ⽫娵䁢㔁⬠䘬慵天⿏冯 ⤥䞼䨞ⶍἄ㗗䚠⎴䘬炻ᶵ⎗㚱㇨ῷ⺊炷ŅŦųŦŬġŃŰŬġ ńŦůŵŦųġŧŰųġŕŦŢŤũŪůŨġŢůťġōŦŢųůŪůŨĭġijııĶ炸ˤᷳ⼴炻℞Ṿ⣏⬠Ṏ䳃䳃ㆸ䩳䚠斄䘬㔁⬠ᷕ⽫炻 ㍸ὃ㔁⬠㓗㎜㚵⊁炻偑屈㍸⋯㔁⬠⑩岒䘬慵ả烊侴姙⣂ᷕ⽫昌Ḯ㚵⊁㟉ℏ䘬㔁ⷓˣ 㔁⬠≑䎮冯⬠䓇⢾炻㚜⮯㚵⊁⮵尉⺞Ỡ军℞Ṿ⣏⬠䣦佌炻嬻℞Ṿ姒⓷⬠侭ḇ傥啱䓙 䶂ᶲ㔯ẞˣ㚠䯵冯⼙ⷞ炻↮ṓ娚⣏⬠䘬䘤⯽䴻槿炻䓂军冱彎䲣↿䞼妶㚫㍊妶㚱㓰㔁 ⬠䘬㕡㱽ˤġ 㛔㔯椾⃰㍊妶㔁⬠⑩岒冯㚱㓰㔁⬠䘬➢㛔シ㵝炻℞㫉⍫惴⚳ℏ⢾⣏⬠㔁⬠ᷕ ⽫䘬㚵⊁ね㱩炻㍊妶⣏⬠昊㟉㔁⬠ᷕ⽫㓗㎜㚵⊁㇨ㅱ⊭⏓䘬ℏ⭡炻㚨⼴㟡㒂㇨⼁㔜 䘬㚵⊁ℏ⭡ 喅埻栆⣏⬠暨㯪姽Ộ婧㞍炻ẍὧḮ妋暨㯪⃒⃰枮⸷冯ⶖ䔘ね⼊炻 䁢 喅埻栆⣏⬠昊㟉㛒Ἦ⺢伖㔁⬠ᷕ⽫冯㍸⋯㔁⬠⑩岒䘬⍫侫ˤ

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㔁⬠㗗⣏⬠䘬ᷣ天ả⊁ᷳᶨ炻Ữ㗗⣏⬠䘬㔁⬠⑩岒㇨㊯䁢ỽ烎ẍ⍲⣏⬠⤪ỽ㚱

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㓰㍸⋯㔁⬠⑩岒烎䁢慸㶭㬌㤪⾝炻䈡⯙⑩岒䘬シ㵝ˣ㔁⬠⑩岒冯㚱㓰㔁⬠䘬ℏ㵝婒 㖶⤪ᶳ烉ġ 炷ᶨ炸⑩岒䘬シ㵝ġ 䈃㳍⫿℠墉ˬ⑩岒˭Ὢ㊯ᶨẞḳ䈑䘬⋻崲䦳⹎炷⺽冒 ōŰŷŦųŪťŨŦĭġ ijııij炸ˤŘįġ ņįġ ŅŦŮŪůŨ 娵䁢ˬ⑩岒˭ᷫ㗗ˬ⮯㬋䡢䘬ḳね ⮵˭炷ťŰŪůŨġŵũŦġųŪŨũŵġŵũŪůŨŴġųŪŨũŵ炸炷⺽冒 ŋŰũůŴġʼnŰűŬŪůŴġŖůŪŷŦųŴŪŵźĭġIJĺĺĹ炸ˤŎŰųŵŪŮŰųŦ炷IJĺĺij炸娵䁢ˬ⑩岒˭㗗ᶨ䧖檀㧁㸾䈡岒ˣ ῤ⼿䘬䦳⹎ˣ列⤥ㆾ⋻崲ḳ䈑䘬㍷徘ˤŌŢůūŪ ␴ ŚŶŪ炷IJĺĺĸ炸娵䁢ˬ⑩岒˭叿䛤㕤栏 ⭊䘬㛇㛃冯暨㯪䘬㺧嵛ˤ㬌⢾炻ʼnŢųŷŦź ␴ ňųŦŦů炷IJĺĺĴ炸娵䁢ˬ⑩岒˭㗗䚠⮵䘬炻⮵ ᶵ⎴㗪䨢䑘⠫䘬Ṣ侴妨㚫㚱ᶵ⎴䘬シ㵝ˤġ 憅⮵ˬ⑩岒˭㤪⾝炻ńũŢŭŬŭŦź炷IJĺĺĵ炸㊯↢ⷠ⺽䓐䘬シ㵝⊭㊔烉炷IJ炸䚖㧁ᶨ农 炷ŧŪŵůŦŴŴġŧŰųġűŶųűŰŴŦ炸烊炷ij炸㧁㸾忼ㆸ炷ŵũŦġŢŤũŪŦŷŦŮŦůŵġŰŧġŴŵŢůťŢųťŴ炸烊炷Ĵ炸剙屣ῤ ⼿炷ŷŢŭŶŦġŧŰųġŮŰůŦź炸烊炷ĵ炸㚱旬≈₡ῤ炷ŷŢŭŶŦġŢťťŦť炸烊炷Ķ炸栏⭊㺧シ炷ŤŶŴŵŰŮŦųġ ŴŢŵŪŴŧŢŤŵŪŰů炸ˤōŢŬũŢűŢŵŦ炷IJĺĺĸ炸⇯娵䁢ˬ⑩岒˭㗗ᾳ暋ẍ⭂佑䘬㉥尉㤪⾝炻ⷠ㗗ᶨ 䧖デ奢䘬嬘柴炻Ⱄ㕤㖪屜䘬ˣ厗渿䘬ˣ⋻崲䘬ˣ㚱₡ῤ䘬ˣ⎗月䘬ˣ侸ᷭ䘬ˣὧ㕤 ἧ䓐冯栏⭊㺧シ䘬炻℞ᷕ㚨䁢ṢᾹ㇨㍍⍿䘬⭂佑䁢ˬ暨㯪䫎⎰⹎˭ˤġ 劍⯙⑩岒䈡⿏侴妨炻昛㔯⒚ˣ㣲所岊炷IJĺĺĴ炸娵䁢ˬ姽Ộ䓊⑩ㆾ㚵⊁䘬⑩岒䈡 ⿏㗗⏎䫎⎰ἧ䓐侭䘬䚖䘬˭ᷫ䁢⑩岒䘬姣妋炻⑩岒䈡⿏⊭㊔ᶱ䧖天䳈炻↮⇍㗗IJį⏠ ⺽≃⑩岒天䳈炷ŢŵŵųŢŵŪŷŦġŲŶŢŭŪŵźġŦŭŦŮŦůŵ炸烉⃭嵛䓊⑩ㆾ㚵⊁䘬⏠⺽≃炻⎗ἧ㺧嵛デ⡆ ≈烊ijį╖朊⎹⑩岒天䳈炷ŰůŦĮťŪŮŦůŴŪŰůŢŭġŲŶŢŭŪŵźġŦŭŦŮŦůŵ炸烉ᷫ䵕㊩㺧嵛デ䘬ᶨ䧖⑩岒 天䳈炻⃭嵛ᷳ炻⇯䌚⼿㺧嵛烊Ĵį⽭天䘬⑩岒天䳈炷ŮŶŴŵĮţŦġ ŲŶŢŭŪŵźġ ŦŭŦŮŦůŵ炸烉ᷫ➢㛔 䘬⑩岒天䳈炻ᶵḰ⃭嵛ᷳ炻⇯㚫⺽崟ᶵ㺧ˤġ 䵄⎰侴妨炻⑩岒㗗ᶨ䧖朆慷⊾䘬䈡岒炻昌Ḯ⍇㚱䳽⮵冯⚢⭂䘬奨溆⢾炻⑩岒ḇ 㚱䚠⮵冯朆⚢⭂䘬奨溆炻Ṏ⌛⑩岒⻟婧忶䦳冯䳸㝄炻㛇㛃啱䓙㊩临崭崲冯ᶵ㕟㓡嬲 䘬㬟䦳炻㛅㙓㗪⿏ˣ䚠⮵䘬㚨Ἓ㧁䪧怩忚炻㇨媪ˬ䘦⯢䪧柕炻㚜忚ᶨ㬍炻㯠䃉㬊⠫˭ˤ ⑩岒昌Ḯ䈡㚱䘬檀㧁㸾䈡⿏⢾炻ḇ天傥㺧嵛斄ὪṢ炷⁷㗗景ᷣˣ栏⭊ˣɃ䫱炸䘬暨 㯪炻嬻斄ὪṢ奢⼿䚖㧁㖶䡢ˣ㧁㸾ᶨ农ˣ旬≈₡ῤ檀ˣㆸ㝄㓰䙲寸ˣẍ⍲㺧シ⹎檀ˤġ 炷Ḵ炸㔁⬠⑩岒冯㚱㓰㔁⬠䘬ℏ㵝ġ ⣏⬠㔁⬠䁢䫎⎰⑩岒䘬天㯪炻暨㩊夾⒒ṃⰌ朊烎⯙姽揹䘬䭬䔯侴妨炻喯㟤嗕檀 䫱㔁做➢慹㚫娵䁢烉ᶨ㇨⣏⬠䘬㔁⬠⑩岒ㅱ㵝味䘬䭬⚵⊭㊔炷IJ炸䚖㧁冯婚䦳烊炷ij炸 婚䦳姕妰冯㩊夾烊炷Ĵ炸㔁⬠䑘⠫烊炷ĵ炸㔁ⷓ屯㸸烊炷Ķ炸⬠佺屯㸸烊炷ķ炸婚䦳䳬 ䷼烊炷ĸ炸⬠䓇㓗㎜烊炷Ĺ炸姽揹冯䜋⮶烊炷ĺ炸⬠䓇ἄ㤕烊炷IJı炸䓊↢ㆸ㝄冯⑩岒㍏

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⇞䫱炷ŅŪŤŬŪůŴŰůġ ħġ őŰŭŭŰŤŬ炻IJĺĺĶ炸ˤ㬌⢾炻劙⚳檀䫱㔁做➢慹㚫ḇ⮯㔁⬠⑩岒䘬姽 揹㬠䲵䁢炷IJ炸㔁⬠䘬⺋㲃⿏炻炷ij炸⬠佺冯姽慷㳣≽烊炷Ĵ炸⬠䓇䘬ㆸ⯙烊炷ĵ炸婚 䦳烊炷Ķ炸⬠佺屯㸸䘬ㅱ䓐烊炷ķ炸⬠䓇㓗㎜冯庼⮶烊炷ĸ炸⮰㤕柀➇䘬⬠埻䭉䎮䫱炷őŢŵųŪŤŬġ ħġŔŵŢůŭŦźĭġIJĺĺĹ炸ˤġ ⯙⬠䓇姽揹㔁ⷓ冯ⷓ䓇Ḻ≽⑩岒侴妨炻ŕŢůŨ炷IJĺĺĵļġIJĺĺĸ炸娵䁢⼙枧㔁⬠⑩岒䘬 斄挝天䳈䁢㔁⬠傥≃冯㽨⊝㈨ⶏ炻枭䚖⊭㊔炷IJ炸䳬䷼冯堐忼㶭㘘烊炷ij炸ⷓ䓇斄Ὢ 冯Ḻ≽烊炷Ĵ炸㹅忂㈨ⶏ烊炷ĵ炸ἄ㤕慷冯婚䦳暋⹎烊炷Ķ炸㷔槿冯姽慷䘬℔⸛⿏烊炷ķ炸 ⬠䓇冒姽ㆸ䷦烊炷ĸ炸ℐ橼⬠䓇䘬姽↮ˤ⎚ᷡἃ⣏⬠㔁⬠ᷕ⽫⇯娵䁢‹↢䘬㔁⬠᷎朆 ⮰㤕䞍嬀冯㔁⬠㈨ⶏ䘬忋䳸炻侴ㅱ侫慷ⷓ䓇Ḻ≽冯⬠䓇ㆸ攟䘬㭷ᾳ䑘䭨ˤ⚈㬌炻⛐ 忚埴㔁⬠⇵炻ㅱ⿅侫䘬㔁⬠䚖㧁⊭㊔烉炷IJ炸㽨⊝⬠䓇烊炷ij炸䱦䅇⮰㤕柀➇烊炷Ĵ炸 ㆸ䁢⸜庽⬠⫸䘬列ⷓ䙲⍳烊炷ĵ炸⸓≑⬠䓇堐忼烊炷Ķ炸⸓≑⬠䓇㼬㶭冯⣱埴℞₡ῤ 奨炷ŕũŦġŃŰŢųťġŰŧġŕųŶŴŵŦŦŴġŰŧġŵũŦġōŦŭŢůťġŔŵŢůŧŰųťġŋŶůŪŰųġŖůŪŷŦųŴŪŵźĭġijııĵ炸ˤġ ⯙㚱㓰㔁⬠䘬䈡⽝侴妨炻≈ⶆ⣏⬠㝷⃳厲↮㟉䘬檀䫱㔁做䞼䨞䘤⯽ᷕ⽫⮯℞䈡 ⽝㬠䲵䁢炷IJ炸䳬䷼冯㶭㘘烉⇑䓐䭬ἳˣ栆㭼冯晙╣ἧ㔁㛸㖻㕤䎮妋烊炷ij炸↮㜸冯 㔜⎰⍾⎹烉㌴㎉㔜ᾳ⮰㤕柀➇炻ἧ⬠䓇⮵⮰㤕䘬崟㸸㚱㇨娵嬀烊炷Ĵ炸≽≃冯䅙⾙烉 䱦≃⃭㱃ˣ㦪㕤㔁⬠ˣ⃭㺧冒ᾉ烊炷ĵ炸冯⛀橼䘬Ḻ≽烉⺽⮶冯婧㔜䎕䳂䘬Ḻ≽炻溻 ⊝䌐䩳⿅侫冯㍍䲵㈡姽炻㓷㕤奨⮇⬠䓇䘬≽㨇烊炷Ķ炸冯ᾳ⇍⬠䓇䘬Ḻ≽烉㛇㛓姽慷 㕡㱽℔⸛炻冯⬠䓇Ḻ≽奒役炷ŕũŦġ ŃŰŢųťġ Űŧġ ŕųŶŴŵŦŦŴġ Űŧġ ŵũŦġ ōŦŭŢůťġ ŔŵŢůŧŰųťġ ŋŶůŪŰųġ ŖůŪŷŦųŴŪŵźĭġijııĵ炸ˤġ 䵄⎰侴妨炻⣏⬠㔁⬠⑩岒䘬㍸⋯⊭㊔㔁ⷓ㔁⬠冯⬠䓇⬠佺ℑᾳⰌ朊炻ẍ⍲忁ℑ ᾳⰌ朊䘬㔜⎰冯Ḻ≽炻䓊䓇㊩临崭崲冯ᶵ㕟㓡嬲䘬㬟䦳炻ẍὧ㯠䃉㬊⠫䘬∝㕘ˤ䁢 ㍸⋯㔁⬠⑩岒炻勚⮯ㅱ䔞斄㲐䘬Ⰼ朊㬠䲵⤪ᶳ烉ġ 1.㔁⬠䚖㧁㕡朊烉㔁⬠⇵炻㔁ⷓㅱ⿅侫䘬㔁⬠䚖㧁⊭㊔㽨⊝⬠䓇ˣ䱦䅇⮰㤕柀 ➇ˣㆸ䁢⸜庽⬠⫸䘬列ⷓ䙲⍳ˣ⸓≑⬠䓇堐忼ˣ⸓≑⬠䓇㼬㶭℞₡ῤ奨ˤġ 2.㔁⬠㓰傥㕡朊烉㔁ⷓㅱ㚱䘬㔁⬠傥≃炻⊭㊔䳬䷼⬴┬冯堐忼㶭㘘ˣ䱦≃⃭㱃 冯䅙ッ㔁⬠ˣ℟⁁↮㜸冯㔜⎰傥≃ˣℤ栏⛀橼冯ᾳ⇍⬠䓇䘬Ḻ≽冯㹅忂ˣἧ ⸜庽⬠⫸⃭㺧≽≃冯䅙⾙ˤġ 3.㔁⬠䑘⠫㕡朊烉⬠㟉ㅱ䆇忈䘬䑘⠫炻⊭㊔⻟⊾⎬㔁⭌䘬㔠ỵ⊾㔁⬠⨺橼冯姕 ⁁ˣ⸓≑㔁ⷓ冯⬠䓇⬠佺忳䓐屯妲䥹㈨ˣ⮯⎬䧖㔁⬠㨼㟰冯ἄ㤕ㆸ㝄Ḱẍ㔠 ỵ⏰䎦ˣ⻟⊾䵚晃䵚嶗䶂ᶲ㾷奥冯Ṍ㳩ᶳ庱䘬㨇㚫ˤġ 4.⬠佺ㆸ㝄㕡朊烉㔁ⷓㅱ⋼≑⬠䓇䘬悐↮炻⊭㊔㍸ὃ⬴┬䘬⬠佺㷔槿冯姽慷ˣ 憅⮵⬠䓇䘬⬠佺⓷柴䴎Ḱ媖娊庼⮶冯墄㓹ˣ㍸ὃ⎬䧖㚱⇑⬠佺䘬㓗㎜㚵⊁ 炷⁷㗗⮷侩ⷓ⇞⹎䫱炸ˣ䴎⬠䓇⏰䎦ἄ㤕ㆾ䘤堐ㆸ㝄䘬㨇㚫ˤ

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ΠȃఀᏰϛЖޟЛධ݈୛ᇄၼհ௑ݷġ

⚳ℏ⢾ᷣ天⣏⬠昊㟉䁢㍸⋯㔁⬠⑩岒炻忼ㆸ㚱㓰㔁⬠䚖㧁炻䳃䳃ㆸ䩳栆Ụ㔁⬠ ᷕ⽫䘬㨇㥳炻䧵㤝㈖㺼㓗㎜㔁ⷓ㔁⬠冯庼⮶⬠䓇⬠佺䘬奺刚ˤ勚⯙℞忳ἄ㤪㱩婒㖶 ⤪ᶳ烉ġ 炷ᶨ炸⚳⢾ᷣ天⣏⬠㔁⬠ᷕ⽫䘬忳ἄ㤪㱩ġ 忶⍣⣏⬠⎹ẍ枪⮾䞼䨞䁢天⊁炻夾⎬䧖䞼䨞䘬⼿䋶姀抬炷⯌℞媦居䇦䋶炸䁢℞ ㌺⎵䘬㊯㧁炻Ữḇ㚱䞍⎵⣏⬠⛐㟉ℏ⢾➢慹䘬岲≑ᶳㆸ䩳㓡┬㔁⬠䘬ᷕ⽫炻农≃㕤 ㍸⋯㔁⬠⑩岒ˤ勚⯙伶ˣ劙ˣ≈ˣ㽛䫱⚳ᷣ天⣏⬠昊㟉㔁⬠ᷕ⽫䘬䘤⯽㤪㱩ˣả⊁ 䚖㧁冯㚵⊁ℏ⭡婒㖶⤪ᶳ炷Australian National University, 2007; Brown University, 2007; Columbia University, 2007; Cornell University, 2007; Duke University, 2007; Harvard University, 2007; Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, 2007; New York University, 2007; Northwestern University, 2007; Oxford Brookes University, 2007; Princeton University, 2007; Stanford University, 2007; Univerisity of Cambridge, 2007; University of California-Berkeley, 2007; University of Chicago, 2007; University of Pennsylvania, 2007; University of Toronto, 2007; Washington University in St. Louis, 2007; Yale University, 2007炸烉 1.㔁⬠ᷕ⽫䘬㤪㱩冯ả⊁ 伶⚳ Danforth ➢慹㚫㖑㕤1975⸜ὧ岲≑⎚ᷡἃ冯⑰ἃ⣏⬠ㆸ䩳㔁⬠ᷕ⽫炻昌Ḯ 㚵⊁㟉ℏ㔁ⷓ冯㔁⬠≑䎮⢾炻怬ẍ㍸⋯旬役⣏⬠㔁⬠⑩岒䁢天⊁烊⼴Ἦ➢慹㚫 㬊 墄≑⼴炻⎚ᷡἃ⣏⬠ὧ䓙㟉ℏ➢慹Ἦ䵕㊩忳ἄˤ㍍叿炻伶⚳ˣ劙⚳ˣ㽛㳚ẍ⍲≈㊧ ⣏䫱℞Ṿ⣏⬠ḇ映临ㆸ䩳栆Ụ䘬㨇㥳烊忁ṃ⣏⬠䔞ᷕ炻ᶵ᷷⚳晃倚㛃冯䞼䨞㯜㸾⎵ ↿⇵劭䘬䞍⎵⣏⬠炻栗䣢䞼䨞✳⣏⬠昌慵夾䞼䨞⢾炻ḇ慵夾䞼䨞ㆸ㝄㕤㔁⬠ᶲ䘬句 ⮎ˤ 忁ṃ㔁⬠ᷕ⽫㘖念⭂ỵ䁢⬠㟉䚜Ⱄ䘬䞼䨞ᷕ⽫炻悐↮⇯晠Ⱄ㕤⚾㚠棐ˣṢ㔯⬠ 昊ㆾṢ≃屯㸸䘤⯽嗽烊ᷕ⽫ᷣả㘖念䓙⣏⬠㔁㌰ℤả炻ᶳ姕⣂⎵⮰ả䞼䨞≑䎮ㆾ䞼 䨞⒉ˤ勚⮯℞ᷣ天䘤⯽ả⊁婒㖶⤪ᶳ烉 (1)⺢䩳㬋䡢䘬㔁⬠奨⾝烉娵䁢㔁ⷓ昌Ḯ⁛怆⮰㤕䞍嬀ˣ➡梲⬠䓇⿅侫傥≃⢾炻 怬⽭枰㽨䘤⬠䓇䘬⬠佺䅙⾙炻ἧ㔁⭌ㆸ䁢ⷓ䓇䚠Ḻ㹅忂䘬⟜㇨ˤ (2)䝕妋⬠䓇䘬⬠佺⽫䎮烉䁢嬻⬠䓇⬠佺㚜㚱㓰炻剙⽫⿅䞼䨞⬠佺䘬⽫䎮冯䫾

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䔍炻姽Ộ⬠䓇⬠佺㓰㝄炻⻟⊾ⷓ䓇Ḻ≽炻䴎Ḱ嵛⣈䘬斄㆟冯Ḯ妋ˤ (3)䱦忚㔁ⷓ䘬㔁⬠㕡㱽烉ⷠ溻⊝㔁ⷓ㔁⬠∝㕘炻┬䓐㔠ỵ䥹㈨ˣ≈⻟⎰ἄ㔁⬠炻 德忶㈡⇌忶䦳㍸⋯㔁⬠㓰傥炻溻⊝㔁ⷓṌ㎃ᶵ⎴䘬シ夳冯゛㱽ˤ (4)㍸ὃᶵ⎴䘬㔁⬠屯㸸烉ⷠ㍸ὃ姙⣂㔁⬠ㇳℲˣ⚾㚠ˣ⨺橼ˣ姕⁁冯䵚嶗⬠佺 屯㸸炻⬱㌺ᾳ⇍媖娊ˣ䣦⋨⬠佺炻㍸ὃ㟉晃攻䘬橼槿ˣ⮎佺冯奨㐑ˤ (5)⻟⊾㔁⬠䞼䨞冯婚䦳姽揹烉ⷠ⋼≑㔁ⷓ忚埴㔁⬠䞼䨞冯⮎槿炻溻⊝䘤⯽⮰㤕 㳣≽炻⬱㌺婚䦳姽揹炻Ὣ忚⮰㤕ㆸ攟炻姕伖䋶⊝㕡㟰炻嬻㔁ⷓ䘬㔁⬠冯䞼䨞 ᷎楽滲槭炻⼊⟹寸⭴䘬⣏⬠㔯⊾ˤ ijį㔁⬠ᷕ⽫䘬㚵⊁ℏ⭡ ⎬⣏⬠昌Ḯ⋼≑㔁ⷓ㔁⬠冯⬠䓇⬠佺⢾炻ḇ⺢䩳崟冒⶙䘬䘤⯽䈡刚炻⁷㗗⎚ ᷡἃ冯⑰ἃ⣏⬠䘬ˬ㔁⬠≑䎮⇞⹎˭ˣ䲸䲬⣏⬠䘬ˬẍ䞼䨞䁢ᷣ䘬㔁⬠˭ˣ剅≈⒍ ⣏⬠䘬ˬ⮷✳㔁⬠⮎槿䋶≑˭ˣ㘖㜿㕗枻⣏⬠䘬ˬ㟉晃倗专婚䦳˭ˣ屻⢽㱽⯤Ṇ⣏ ⬠䘬ˬ㔁⬠≑䎮⮶凒婚䦳˭ˣ㜄⃳⣏⬠䘬ˬ㔁⬠䥹㈨⮎槿⭌˭䫱ˤ勚⮯ᷣ天⣏⬠㔁 ⬠ᷕ⽫䘬䚠斄㚵⊁ℏ⭡婒㖶⤪ᶳ烉 (1)㕘忚㔁ⷓ庼⮶㍒㕥烉䁢⸓≑㕘忚㔁ⷓḮ妋⬠䓇䈡岒冯怑ㅱ⬠㟉㔁⬠䑘⠫炻姙 ⣂㔁⬠ᷕ⽫悥㚫㍸ὃ⮰⭞媖娊ˣᾳ⇍庼⮶ˣ⋰梸㚫嬘ˣ㔁⬠䞼妶ˣⶍἄ⛲冯 䶂ᶲ⋼≑䫱㍒㕥ˤ (2)㔁⬠䞼妶冯ⶍἄ⛲烉䁢䌚⼿㚨㕘㔁⬠䎮婾冯↮ṓ㔁⬠䴻槿炻姙⣂㔁⬠ᷕ⽫悥 㚫⭂㛇冱彎ⶍἄ⛲ˣ䞼妶㚫ˣ嬨㚠㚫ˣ嫃⹏冯䞼佺䫱㳣≽炻⸓≑㔁ⷓˣ姒⓷ ⬠侭ㆾ㔁⬠≑㔁Ḯ妋⬠佺䘬㛔岒冯忶䦳ˣ㔁⬠㕡㱽冯㈨ⶏˤ (3)㔁⬠媖娊冯婚䦳姽揹烉䁢⁛㈧㔁⬠䴻槿冯䌚⼿㔁⬠⚆棳炻姙⣂㔁⬠ᷕ⽫㚫⬱ ㌺婚䦳姽揹ㆾ㔁⭌奨⮇炻倀婳屯㶙冯⮰䱦㔁ⷓ㍸ὃ媖娊炻⸓≑妋嬨姽揹䘬⚆ 棳妲〗ˤ⛐㔁⬠㕡朊⤪暨⋼≑炻ᷕ⽫ḇ㚫⬱㌺ᾳ⇍媖娊䘬㗪攻ˤ (4)㔁⭌抬⼙冯䥹㈨㓗㎜烉䁢⸓≑㔁ⷓ忳䓐㚨㕘䥹㈨冯⨺橼炻姙⣂㔁⬠ᷕ⽫㚫㍸ ὃ㔁⬠抬⼙㚵⊁炻⋼≑㔁ⷓ墥ἄ㔁⬠⨺橼炻⮯屯妲䥹㈨圵ℍ㔁⬠ᷕ炻䓂军⋼ ≑⺢伖㔁⬠䵚䪁冯夾倥姕⁁炻䆇忈⣂⨺橼㔠ỵ⬠佺䘬列⤥䑘⠫ˤ (5)㚠䯵⼙ⷞ冯㔯䪈ㇳℲ烉䁢⸓≑㔁ⷓ䌚⼿㚨㕘㔁⬠妲〗炻姙⣂㔁⬠ᷕ⽫㚫㍸ὃ 㔁⬠⼙ⷞˣ夾倥⨺橼ˣ㚠䯵ˣ⭋⁛ㇳℲˣ婾⡯忂妲ˣ㔯䪈䫱屯㕁䘬ῇ教ㆾ妪 教㚵⊁炻㍸ὃ䵚嶗ᶳ庱㚵⊁炻⸓≑㔁ⷓ䌚⼿㓡┬㔁⬠䘬屯妲ˤ (6)㔁⬠䞼䨞冯⮎槿烉䁢妋㰢㔁ⷓ䘬㔁⬠⓷柴炻悐↮㔁⬠ᷕ⽫㚫溻⊝㔁ⷓ⽆ḳ㔁 ⬠㓰傥䞼䨞冯⮎槿炻㑍⮷柵䋶≑慹ὃ㔁ⷓ䓛婳炻忚埴㕘婚䦳ˣ㕘㔁㱽冯㕘㔁 㛸⮎槿ˤ䓂军⸓≑䲣㇨㔁ⷓ勱㒔妰䔓炻䇕⍾㟉⢾䴻屣ˤ

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(7)㔁⬠≑䎮⇞⹎烉䁢嬻䡑⌂⢓䓇䢐䶜㔁⬠䴻槿炻姙⣂㔁⬠ᷕ⽫㚫嬻ṾᾹ㬟䶜➢ 䢶⬠䥹䘬㔁⬠炻昌⬱㌺ⶍἄ⛲ˣ妻䶜婚䦳ˣ䴻槿⁛㈧⢾炻Ṏ㚫⺢䩳㔁⬠≑䎮 姽揹冯娵嫱⇞⹎炻䴎Ḱ⃒䥨侭䋶⊝ˤ (8)⬠䓇⬠佺庼⮶烉䁢➡梲⬠䓇借⟜䪞䇕≃炻姙⣂㔁⬠ᷕ⽫㚫憅⮵➢䢶⬠䥹ㆾ婆 妨婚䦳⬱㌺≑䎮媖娊炻㊯⮶⬠䓇㗪攻䭉䎮ˣ㍸⋯嬨㚠㓰䌯ˣ⬠佺婾㔯⮓ἄˣ ↮ṓ⬠佺㈨ⶏ烊⬱㌺䣦⋨⬠佺炻⸓≑䣦⋨⻙⊊烊⬱㌺⯙㤕⇵㧉㒔朊婯炻≈⻟ ⎋婆堐忼㈨ⶏ烊㍸ὃ⮎⛘侫⮇ˣ䓇㵗媖娊ˣ借⟜⮎佺ˣ暣儎㈨傥妻䶜冯䋶⬠ 慹ˤ (9)㔁⬠䋶⊝㍒㕥烉䁢溻⊝⣏⬠㔁ⷓ⮯℞䞼䨞ㆸ㝄廱⊾䁢⋻崲䘬㔁⬠䷦㓰炻姙⣂ ⣏⬠姕㚱㔁⬠⋻崲䋶炻㭷⸜姽怠↢㶙⍿⎴ḳˣ⬠䓇Ᾱ偗⭂䘬㔁ⷓḰẍ䋶⊝炻 怨婳⼿䋶㔁ⷓ↮ṓ㔁⬠䴻槿ㆾ婳⼿䋶㔁ⷓ㑼ả㔁⬠媖娊栏⓷ˤ 炷Ḵ炸⎘䀋ᷣ天⣏⬠㔁⬠ᷕ⽫䘬忳ἄ㤪㱩ġ 冒ijııĶ⸜崟炻IJĴ㇨䌚ˬ㔁⬠⋻崲妰䔓˭䋶≑䘬⣏⬠炻䳃䳃⛐婚䦳夷∫ˣ⮰㤕ㆸ 攟Ƀ䫱㕡朊炻㍐≽⎬枭㓡朑㍒㕥炻᷎⮯䚠斄ㆸ㝄⺢伖䵚䪁ẍ⻟⊾䴻槿↮ṓ冯Ṍ㳩炷㔁 做悐炻ijııĶţ炻ijııķţ炸ˤ⎬㟉䘬妰䔓ᷕ炻昌Ḯ䘤⯽䈡刚婚䦳ˣ⺢伖⣂婆㔁⬠䑘⠫⢾炻 㘖念䘬ⶍἄὧ㗗ㆸ䩳㔁⬠ᷕ⽫炻㛇㛃德忶⮰屔╖ỵ䘬⋼≑炻⸓≑侩ⷓḮ妋⬠䓇⬠佺 ⽫䎮ˣ夷∫⬴┬婚䦳䳸㥳ˣ⬠佺㚨Ἓ㔁⬠㕡⺷冯忳䓐⨺橼䥹㈨炻㍸⋯⬠䓇⬠佺ㆸ㓰ˣ ⡆≈⬠䓇借⟜䪞䇕≃ˤġ 勚⮯⎘䀋ᷣ天⣏⬠㔁⬠ᷕ⽫䘬䳬䷼㤪㱩ˣả⊁冯㚵⊁ℏ⭡㬠䲵婒㖶⤪ᶳ炷䥩䩳 ⃫㘢⣏⬠炻ijııĸ烊䥩䩳㜙⏛⣏⬠炻ijııĸ烊䥩䩳攟⹂⣏⬠炻ijııĸ烊䥩䩳忊䓚⣏⬠炻ijııĸ烊 ⚳䩳ᷕⰙ⣏⬠炻ijııĸ烊⚳䩳⎘䀋⣏⬠炻ijııĸ烊⚳䩳Ṍ忂⣏⬠炻ijııĸ烊⚳䩳㓧㱣⣏⬠炻 ijııĸ烊⚳䩳檀晬ⷓ䭬⣏⬠炻ijııĸ烊⚳䩳㙐⋿⚳晃⣏⬠炻ijııĸ炸烉ġ 1.㔁⬠ᷕ⽫䘬㤪㱩冯ả⊁ ⎬⣏⬠昊㟉㔁⬠ᷕ⽫䘬䳬䷼⭂ỵ㤪㱩⣏䲬↮䁢ℑ栆炻ᶨ䁢晠Ⱄ㔁⊁嗽䘬Ḵ䳂 ╖ỵ炻⁷㗗⎘䀋⣏⬠ˣᷕⰙ⣏⬠Ƀ䫱烊ᶨ䁢晠Ⱄ⬠㟉䘬ᶨ䳂╖ỵ炻⁷㗗㓧㱣⣏⬠ˣ 檀晬ⷓ䭬⣏⬠Ƀ䫱烊℞ᷣ天ả⊁䚖㧁⊭㊔烉㍸⋯㔁ⷓ㔁⬠⑩岒ˣ⺢灅⬴┬㔁⬠≑瀲 ⇞灏ˣ⺢䩳⬠䓇⬠佺庼⮶䲣䴙ˣὫ忚⣏⬠㔁冯⬠䘬䞼䨞冯Ṍ瀘ˣ⻟⊾㔁⬠䑘⠫ˣ㍐ ≽㔁⬠ㆸ㓰㓡┬㨇⇞ˤ ijį㔁⬠ᷕ⽫䘬㚵⊁ℏ⭡ ⎬⣏⬠昊㟉㔁⬠ᷕ⽫䘬㚵⊁ℏ⭡ᷣ天⊭㊔烉炷IJ炸㔁ⷓ⮰㤕ㆸ攟烉⁷㗗㕘忚㔁ⷓ

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䞼佺ˣⶍἄ⛲ˣ⽫⼿↮ṓˣ㔁⬠奨㐑ˣ㔁⬠㕘䞍ㆾㇳℲˣ∝シ婚䦳ˣ媖娊㚵⊁ˣ⁛ 佺⇞⹎炷梃晩妰䔓炸冯昊䲣婚䦳䱦忚⮰㟰烊炷ij炸㔁⬠≑䎮⇞⹎烉⁷㗗➡妻㔁⬠≑䎮 ㆾ㔠ỵ㔁㛸≑䎮ˣ怠㉼⃒䥨≑㔁ㆾ≑䎮烊炷Ĵ炸⬠䓇⬠佺庼⮶烉⁷㗗㥖嬥⮷侩ⷓˣỜ ⬠庼⮶ˣ墄㔁㔁⬠ˣ柀⮶≃娵嫱ˣ⬠佺シ栀㍸⋯ˣ㚵⊁⬠佺婚䦳ˣ㴟⢾䞼䨞⮰㟰ˣ 嬨㚠⮷䳬妰䔓ˣ⬠佺屯㸸䯉ṳˣ攳㓦䨢攻ˣ䴙妰媖娊冯⬠佺䫾䔍ⶍἄ⛲烊炷ĵ炸㔁⬠ 䥹㈨䞼䘤烉⁷㗗㍐⺋㔠ỵ⬠佺ˣ⺢伖㔠ỵ婚䦳䭉䎮⸛⎘冯婚䦳抬⼙烊炷Ķ炸㔁⬠姽揹 䲣䴙烉⁷㗗㔁ⷓ姽揹ˣシ夳婧㞍冯㔁⬠⑩ᾅ⇞⹎ˤġ 䵄⎰侴妨炻伶⚳冯℞Ṿ⚳⭞䘬⣏⬠昊㟉㔁⬠ᷕ⽫䘤⯽㬟⎚庫⎘䀋ᷭ怈炻崟㬍㗪 䓙䥩Ṣ➢慹㚫岲≑侴徸㬍㍐⺋炻⎘䀋⇯䓙㔁做悐䋶⊝⣏⬠㔁⬠⋻崲妰䔓Ὣㆸ烊䓙㕤 ⚳⢾䴻槿䘬ῇ掉炻⎘䀋ᷣ天⣏⬠昊㟉㔁⬠ᷕ⽫䘬䳬䷼㝞㥳ˣ⭂ỵ冯ⶍἄả⊁冯⚳⢾ ⬠㟉⣏悐↮䚠Ụ炻⮹悐↮⇯䔍⽖ᶵ⎴炻℞ᷕ⚳⢾ᷣ天⣏⬠昊㟉⛐ˬ㔁⬠䞼䨞冯⮎槿˭ 㕡朊炷⁷㗗溻⊝㔁ⷓ⽆ḳ㔁⬠㓰傥䞼䨞冯⮎槿炻㑍⮷柵䋶≑慹ὃ㔁ⷓ䓛婳炸䘬䘤⯽ ⇯冯⚳ℏ⬠㟉庫䁢ᶵ⎴ˤ

୤ȃंـПݲȃώڎᇄᄂࢊġ

㟡㒂ᶲ徘↮㜸炻㛔䞼䨞憅⮵㝸喅埻栆⣏⬠ⷓ䓇忚埴ᾳ㟰暨㯪婧㞍姽Ộ炻ẍὧ Ḯ妋ⷓ䓇䘬㔁İ⬠暨㯪炻㍸↢㛒Ἦ⎗屯⍫侫䘬⺢嬘ˤ勚⮯䞼䨞㕡㱽ˣ㬍樇ˣ⮵尉ˣⶍ ℟ˣ屯㕁嗽䎮冯䴙妰㕡㱽婒㖶⤪ᶳ烉ġ

ΙȃंـПݲᇄ؏᡽ġ

㛔䞼䨞㍉䓐⓷⌟婧㞍㱽炻⃰↮㜸⚳ℏ⢾⣏⬠㔁⬠ᷕ⽫䘬屯㕁炻ℵ⼁㔜䚠斄㚵⊁ ℏ⭡炻䶐墥暨㯪婧㞍⓷⌟勱㟰烊⎔攳媖娊㚫嬘冯䘤㓦⮰⭞⓷⌟炻㟡㒂⮰⭞シ夳ᾖ㓡 冯䶐墥ㆸˬ⣏⬠昊㟉㔁⬠ᷕ⽫㓗㎜㚵⊁ᷳ暨㯪婧㞍˭㬋⺷⓷⌟ˤ㚨⼴炻怠⍾㧋㛔᷎ 䘤㓦冯⚆㓞⓷⌟炻忚埴⓷⌟䴙妰↮㜸冯暨㯪䳸㝄姽Ộ炻㍸↢䳸婾冯⺢嬘ˤġ

Πȃंـᄇຫᇄώڎġ

㛔䞼䨞Ὢẍ㝸喅埻栆⣏⬠ⷓ䓇ijijijķṢ炷⮰ℤả㔁ⷓijıĹṢˣ⬠䓇ijıIJĹṢ炸䁢婧㞍 姽Ộ⮵尉炻᷎ὅ⎬⬠昊炷枛㦪ˣ伶埻ˣ㇚∯ˣ准巰ˣ㔯⊾屯㸸ˣ忂嬀⥼⒉㚫炸䘬ⷓ 䓇㭼ἳ炻㍉↮Ⰼ晐㨇㉥㧋㕡⺷炻䘤↢⓷⌟妰ķĶĹấ炷㔁ⷓIJıĹấˣ⬠䓇ĶĶıấ炸炻⚆㓞 ⓷⌟妰ĵĸıấ炷㔁ⷓĵĶấˣ⬠䓇ĵijĶấ炸炻⚆㓞䌯䁢ĸIJ炴炻㚱㓰⓷⌟ĵĶķấ炷㔁ⷓĵıấˣ

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⬠䓇ĵIJķấ炸ˤġ ㇨䶐㑘ᷳˬ⣏⬠昊㟉㔁⬠ᷕ⽫㓗㎜㚵⊁ᷳ暨㯪婧㞍˭⮰⭞⓷⌟ℙĵij柴炷ⷓ䓇⎬ ijIJ柴炸炻怠枭⊭㊔ˬ⎰怑˭ˣˬᾖ㬋⼴⎰怑˭冯ˬᶵ⎰怑˭炻䴻ijijỵ⮰⭞⠓䫼冯↮ 㜸⼴炻↮㔠㍍役ˬᶵ怑⎰侭˭⇯⇒昌炻⎰妰⇒昌ķ柴炻ᾅ䔁Ĵķ柴䁢㬋⺷⓷⌟ˤġ 㬋⺷⓷⌟↮㔁ⷓ冯⬠䓇ℑ悐↮炷⍫夳旬ẞ炸炻㔁ⷓ悐↮IJĹ柴炷ńųŰůţŢŤũġȠ ᾉ⹎ ľįĹĸ炸炻ὪḮ妋㔁ⷓ㔁⬠㓗㎜㚵⊁䘬暨㯪炻ℏ⭡⊭㊔ˬ㔁⬠㓗㎜冯䘤⯽˭ˣˬ㔁⬠ 䥹㈨冯⨺橼˭ˣˬ㔁⬠⮎槿冯䞼䨞˭䫱⎹⹎烊⬠䓇悐↮IJĹ柴炷ńųŰůţŢŤũġȠ ᾉ⹎ľįĺı炸炻 ὪḮ妋⬠䓇⬠佺㓗㎜㚵⊁䘬暨㯪炻ℏ⭡⊭㊔ˬ⬠佺㓗㎜冯妻䶜˭ˣˬ⬠佺屯㸸冯Ṍ 㳩˭ˣˬ䴻槿↮ṓ冯䞼䨞˭䫱⎹⹎ˤ⠓䫼㕡⺷㍉䓐㛶⃳䈡⚃䫱慷堐炻IJ军ĵẋ堐ˬ⼰ ᶵ暨天˭军ˬ⼰暨天˭炻↮㔠グ檀ẋ堐暨㯪グ⣏ˤ

έȃၥਟ೎౩ᇄಛॎϷݙġ

㛔䞼䨞㍉䓐 ŔőŔŔġŧŰųġŘŪůťŰŸŴġIJķįı䇰㛔忚埴屯㕁䘣ℍˣ䮑怠冯↮㜸炻ἧ䓐ᷳ䴙妰 㕡㱽⊭㊔烉IJįᾉ⹎↮㜸烉妰䬿 ńųŰůţŢŤũġȠ ᾉ⹎Ὢ㔠炻↮㜸㬋⺷⓷⌟䘬ℏ悐ᶨ农⿏烊 ijį㓰⹎↮㜸烉妰䬿⮰⭞⓷⌟䘬⸛⛯㔠炻↮㜸⎬枭㓗㎜㚵⊁䘬ℏ⭡怑↯⿏烊Ĵį㍷徘䴙妰 ↮㜸烉妰䬿㭷柴⸛⛯㔠ˣ㧁㸾ⶖ冯㌺⸷烊ĵį╖⚈⫸⣂嬲慷嬲䔘㔠↮㜸烉ẍ側㘗嬲枭 䁢冒嬲枭ˣ㭷枭㓗㎜㚵⊁䁢ὅ嬲枭炻忚埴╖⚈⫸⣂嬲慷嬲䔘㔠↮㜸炻劍↮㜸䳸㝄栗 叿⇯ẍ ŔŤũŦŧŧŦȽ㱽忚埴ḳ⼴㭼庫ˤġ

ဓȃंـ๖ݎϷݙġ

䁢Ḯ妋㔁⬠ᷕ⽫⎬枭㓗㎜㚵⊁䘬暨㯪檀Ỷˣẍ⍲ᶵ⎴側㘗ⷓ䓇ᷳ攻䘬暨㯪ⶖ 䔘炻勚⮯㛔䞼䨞ᷳ暨㯪↮㜸冯ⶖ䔘↮㜸婒㖶⤪ᶳ烉ġ

ΙȃఀᏰϛЖӨ໶Лධ݈୛Ϟሯؑ௑לϷݙġ

㔁⬠ᷕ⽫䘬㓗㎜㚵⊁ℏ⭡↮䁢㔁ⷓ悐↮冯⬠䓇悐↮炻↮⇍䓙㔁ⷓ冯⬠䓇⠓䫼炻 ℞ᷣ天↮㜸䳸㝄⤪ᶳ㇨徘烉ġ 炷ᶨ炸㔁ⷓ悐↮ġ ⯙⎬⎹⹎侴妨炻䓙堐IJ⎗䞍烉ˬ㔁⬠䥹㈨冯⨺橼˭䘬暨㯪㚨檀炻℞㫉䁢ˬ㔁⬠⮎ 槿⯽㺼冯䋶⊝˭炻㚨⼴䁢ˬ㔁⬠㓗㎜冯䘤⯽˭炻⣏悐↮暨㯪ṳ㕤ˬ暨天˭冯ˬ⼰暨

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天˭炷ĴįIJĵ军ĴįĶĶ炸ᷳ攻ˤġ 堐IJġ ġ 㔁ⷓ悐↮⎬⎹⹎ᷳ⸛⛯㔠ˣ㧁㸾ⶖ冯㌺⸷ġ ⎹⹎ġ ⸛⛯㔠ġ 㧁㸾ⶖġ ㌺⸷ġ 㔁⬠㓗㎜冯䘤⯽ġ ĴįIJĵ įĺıķ Ĵġ 㔁⬠䥹㈨冯⨺橼ġ ĴįĶĶ įķĹķ IJġ 㔁⬠⮎槿⯽㺼冯䋶⊝ġ ĴįĵĶ įĸIJĺ ijġ 㔜橼⸛⛯ġ ĴįĴĹ įĸķIJ ġ 堐ijġ ġ 㔁ⷓ悐↮⎬柴䚖ᷳ⸛⛯㔠ˣ㧁㸾ⶖ冯㌺⸷ġ ⎹ ⹎ġ 柴嘇ġ 柴䚖ġ ⸛⛯㔠 㧁㸾ⶖġ ⎹⹎ġ ㌺⸷ġ ䷥㌺⸷ 㔁 ⬠ 㓗 ㎜ 冯 䘤 ⯽ġ IJġ ㆹ暨天ᷕ⽫㍸ὃᾳ⇍㔁⬠媖娊ˤġ ijįĵĹ IJįıĵġ ķġ IJĹ ijġ ㆹ暨天ᷕ⽫㍸ὃ嶐㟉倗专婚䦳炻㔁ⷓ⎗军℞Ṿ ⬠㟉忚埴㔁⬠冯⬠佺ˤġ ĴįijĴ IJįĴIJġ Ĵġ IJij Ĵġ ㆹ暨天ᷕ⽫姕伖㔁⬠≑䎮ĩŕłĪ炻⋼≑㔁ⷓ㔁⬠ˤġ ĴįĶĶ IJįĴĹġ IJġ ĸ ĵġ ㆹ暨天ᷕ⽫冱彎㕘忚㔁ⷓ䞼佺䆇ㆾⶍἄ⛲ˤ ĴįıĶ IJįĴĹġ Ķġ IJĶ Ķġ ㆹ暨天ᷕ⽫忚埴㔁ⷓ㔁⬠姽揹ˤġ ĴįIJı IJįĴijġ ĵġ IJĴ ķġ ㆹ暨天ᷕ⽫冱彎㔁⬠冯⬠佺嬘柴䘬Ṍ㳩㚫 嬘炻⸓≑㔁ⷓ㍸⋯㔁⬠㓰㝄ˤġ ĴįĵĴ IJįijijġ ijġ Ĺ 㔁 ⬠ 䥹 ㈨ 冯 ⨺ 橼ġ ĸġ ㆹ暨天ᷕ⽫⋼≑婚➪抬⼙炻䲨抬㔁⬠忶䦳ˤ ijįķĶ IJįıĶġ ķġ IJĸ Ĺġ ㆹ暨天ᷕ⽫㍸ὃ㔠ỵ婚䦳䭉䎮⸛冢炻⋼≑㔁ⷓ ⺢伖婚䦳䵚䪁炻忚埴䶂ᶲ㔁⬠冯⬠佺ˤġ Ĵįĵı IJįĵIJġ Ķġ ĺ ĺġ ㆹ暨天ᷕ⽫㍸ὃ㔁⬠㚠䯵冯⼙ⷞ䘬ῇ教ˤġ ĴįķĶ IJįIJĵġ ĵġ ķ IJıġ ㆹ暨天ᷕ⽫冱彎㔠ỵ⨺橼㔁㛸䘬墥ἄ䞼佺䆇 ㆾⶍἄ⛲ˤġ ĴįĺĶ IJįıIJġ IJġ ij IJIJġ ㆹ暨天ᷕ⽫姕伖ˬ⨺橼屯㕁⹓˭炻㓞抬䔞ẋ喅 埻⭞ἄ⑩炻㍸ὃⷓ䓇⍫侫ˤġ Ĵįĸij IJįijıġ Ĵġ Ķ IJijġ ㆹ暨天ᷕ⽫姕伖ˬ⨺橼䥹㈨㚵⊁╖ỵ˭炻⋼≑ 㔁ⷓ墥ἄ㔁⬠⨺橼ㆾ⇑䓐⨺橼䥹㈨庼≑㔁⬠ˤ Ĵįĺı IJįıĹġ ijġ Ĵ 炷临ᶳ堐炸

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堐 2炷临炸 ⎹ ⹎ġ 柴嘇ġ 柴䚖ġ ⸛⛯㔠 㧁㸾ⶖġ ⎹⹎ġ ㌺⸷ġ ䷥㌺⸷ 㔁 ⬠ ⮎ 槿 冯 䞼 䨞ġ IJĴġ ㆹ暨天ᷕ⽫姽怠⃒列㔁ⷓ炻㍸ὃ㔁⬠⋻崲䋶 ⊝炻᷎忚埴㔁⬠㬟䦳⼙䇯䲨抬ˤġ ĴįıĹ IJįijĸġ Ķġ IJĵ IJĵġ ㆹ暨天ᷕ⽫冱彎㔁⬠䎮婾冯⮎⊁䞼妶㚫ˤġ ĴįĴĸ IJįIJıġ ĵġ IJIJ IJĶġ ㆹ暨天ᷕ⽫冱彎㔁ⷓ忚埴㔁⬠⮎槿ˣ䞼䨞冯⯽ 㺼ˤġ Ĵįıı IJįıIJġ ķġ IJķ IJķġ ㆹ暨天ᷕ⽫冱彎㔁ⷓ㔁⬠䴻槿↮ṓ㳣≽ˤġ Ĵįĵĸ IJįıĺġ Ĵġ IJı IJĸġ ㆹ暨天ᷕ⽫⮎㕥㔁ⷓ⋼⎴䞼䨞ㆾ嶐柀➇⎰ἄˤ ĴįĸĹ ıįĺijġ ijġ ĵ IJĹġ ㆹ暨天ᷕ⽫㍸ὃ㔁ⷓ䞼䨞忚ᾖ䘬㨇㚫ㆾ䭉忻ˤ Ĵįĺĸ IJįıĸġ IJġ IJ ⯙⎬柴䚖侴妨炻䓙堐2⎗䞍烉暨㯪㚨檀䘬㗗䫔IJĹ柴ˬ暨天ᷕ⽫㍸ὃ㔁ⷓ䞼䨞忚 ᾖ䘬㨇㚫ㆾ䭉忻˭炻℞㫉䁢䫔IJı柴ˬ暨天ᷕ⽫冱彎㔠ỵ⨺橼㔁㛸䘬墥ἄ䞼佺䆇ㆾⶍ ἄ⛲˭ˣ䫔IJij柴ˬ暨天ᷕ⽫姕伖⨺橼䥹㈨㚵⊁╖ỵ炻⋼≑㔁ⷓ墥ἄ㔁⬠⨺橼ㆾ⇑䓐 ⨺橼䥹㈨庼≑㔁⬠˭烊侴暨㯪㚨Ỷ䘬㗗䫔IJ柴ˬ暨天ᷕ⽫㍸ὃᾳ⇍㔁⬠媖娊˭炻℞㫉 䫔ĸ柴ˬㆹ暨天ᷕ⽫⋼≑婚➪抬⼙炻䲨抬㔁⬠忶䦳˭ˤġ 䵄⎰侴妨炻㔁ⷓ暨天㔁⬠ᷕ⽫㓗㎜䘬㚵⊁㗗烉㍸ὃ㔁ⷓ䞼䨞忚ᾖ䘬㨇㚫ˣ冱彎 㔠ỵ⨺橼㔁㛸䘬墥ἄ䞼佺烊Ữ庫⮹暨天䘬㗗烉㍸ὃᾳ⇍㔁⬠媖娊ˣ⋼≑婚➪抬⼙冯 䲨抬㔁⬠忶䦳ˤ㍐䨞℞䶋䓙炻ᷫ⚈䞼䨞忚ᾖ㨇㚫ˣ㔠ỵ㔁㛸墥ἄ㗗㔁ⷓ㘖念斄㲐䘬 䃎溆炻侴⬱㌺婚➪抬⼙ˣ䲨抬㔁⬠忶䦳ˣ冯㍸ὃᾳ⇍㔁⬠媖娊⇯䈥㴱ᾳṢ㔁⬠晙䥩ˣ ᶼ忶⍣庫䃉㬌桐㯋炻㍍⍿⹎⯂ᶵ⎴㕤⚳⢾ˤġ 炷Ḵ炸⬠䓇悐↮ġ ⯙⎬⎹⹎侴妨炻䓙堐Ĵ⎗䞍烉ˬ⬠佺屯㸸冯Ṍ㳩˭䘬暨㯪㚨檀炻℞㫉䁢ˬ䴻槿↮ ṓ冯䞼䨞˭炻㚨⼴䁢ˬ⬠佺㓗㎜冯妻䶜˭炻⣏悐↮暨㯪㍍役㕤ˬ暨天˭炷2.86军3.16炸ˤġ

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堐Ĵġ ġ ⬠䓇悐↮⎬⎹⹎ᷳ⸛⛯㔠ˣ㧁㸾ⶖ冯㌺⸷ġ ⎹⹎ġ ⸛⛯㔠ġ 㧁㸾ⶖġ ㌺⸷ġ ⬠佺㓗㎜冯妻䶜ġ ijįĹķ įĵĸIJ Ĵġ ⬠佺屯㸸冯Ṍ㳩ġ ĴįIJķ įĵĺĺ IJġ 䴻槿↮ṓ冯䞼䨞ġ ijįĺķ įĶijĵ ijġ 㔜橼⸛⛯ġ ijįĺĺ įĵijĵ ġ ⯙⎬柴䚖侴妨炻䓙堐ĵ⎗䞍烉暨㯪㚨檀䘬㗗䫔ĸ柴ˬ暨天ᷕ⽫㍸ὃ⚳ℏ⢾⋯⬠屯 妲冯䴻槿↮ṓ嫃⹏˭炻℞㫉䁢䫔Ĺ柴ˬ暨天ᷕ⽫⺢伖喅埻⭞倗䴉䵚嶗炻冯喅埻⭞䳬䷼ ㆾᾳṢ䵚嶗悐句㟤ἄ忋䳸˭ˣ䫔IJij柴ˬ暨天ᷕ⽫䘤⯽⬴┬䘬⯙㤕⍲䓇㵗夷∫庼⮶㨇 ⇞˭烊侴暨㯪㚨Ỷ䘬㗗䫔ĵ柴ˬㆹ暨天ᷕ⽫㍸ὃ列⤥䘬婚⼴庼⮶㨇⇞炻庼⮶⬠䓇妋㰢 婚㤕ᶲ䘬⓷柴˭炻℞㫉䫔IJĵ柴ˬ暨天ᷕ⽫冱彎嬨㚠㚫˭ˤġ 䵄⎰侴妨炻⬠䓇暨天㔁⬠ᷕ⽫㓗㎜䘬㚵⊁㗗烉⚳ℏ⢾⋯⬠屯妲冯䴻槿↮ṓ嫃⹏ˣ ⺢伖喅埻⭞倗䴉䵚嶗ˣ䘤⯽⬴┬䘬⯙㤕⍲䓇㵗夷∫庼⮶㨇⇞烊Ữ庫⮹暨天䘬㗗烉㍸ ὃ列⤥䘬婚⼴庼⮶㨇⇞ˣ冱彎嬨㚠㚫ˤ㍐䨞℞䶋䓙炻ᷫ⚈⋯⬠屯妲ˣ⯙㤕冯䓇㵗夷 ∫㗗喅埻栆⬠䓇䔊㤕⼴朊冐䘬⌛㗪⓷柴炻暨天庫⣂䘬庼⮶冯⋼≑炻侴嬨㚠㚫冯婚⼴ 庼⮶⇯⎗傥⯂䃉従↯暨㯪ㆾ䃉㬌㯃⚵ˤ 堐ĵġ ġ ⬠䓇悐↮⎬柴䚖ᷳ⸛⛯㔠ˣ㧁㸾ⶖ冯㌺⸷ġ ⎹ ⹎ġ 柴嘇ġ 柴䚖ġ ⸛⛯㔠 㧁㸾ⶖġ ⎹⹎ġ ㌺⸷ġ ䷥㌺⸷ ⬠ 佺 㓗 ㎜ 冯 妻 䶜ġ IJġ ㆹ暨天ᷕ⽫冱彎ˬņ ⊾傥≃ⶍἄ⛲˭炻㍸ὃ⬠ 䓇暣儎屯妲䘬䚠斄㳣≽ˤġ ijįĹĹ įķĴġ Ĵġ IJĴ ijġ ㆹ暨天ᷕ⽫冱彎ˬ⬠佺䫾䔍ⶍἄ⛲˭炻㔁⮶⬠ 䓇⬠佺ㆾ教嬨䘬㈨ⶏˤġ ijįĸĹ įķķġ Ķġ IJķ Ĵġ ㆹ暨天ᷕ⽫姕伖ˬ䞼䨞䓇⬠佺䘤⯽ⶍἄ ⛲˭炻㍸ὃ䞼䨞䓇婾㔯䚠斄䘬㓗㎜冯⋼≑ˤġ ijįĺĸ įĸıġ ijġ IJIJ ĵġ ㆹ暨天ᷕ⽫㍸ὃ列⤥䘬ˬ婚⼴庼⮶㨇⇞˭炻庼 ⮶⬠䓇妋㰢婚㤕ᶲ䘬⓷柴ˤġ ijįĶĸ įĸĵġ ķġ IJĹ Ķġ ㆹ暨天ᷕ⽫⬱㌺㔁⬠≑䎮 ŕł炻ẍ㍸⋯ㆹᾹ䘬 ⬠佺㓰䙲ˤġ ijįĸĺ įķĸġ ĵġ IJĶ ķġ ㆹ暨天ᷕ⽫㍸ὃ⬠䓇㚱斄⯙㤕借傥䘬➡妻婚 䦳ˤġ ĴįIJĶ įĸĴġ IJġ Ķ 炷临ᶳ堐炸

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堐 4炷临炸 ⎹ ⹎ġ 柴嘇ġ 柴䚖ġ ⸛⛯㔠 㧁㸾ⶖġ ⎹⹎ġ ㌺⸷ġ ䷥㌺⸷ ⬠ 佺 屯 㸸 冯 Ṍ 㳩ġ ĸġ ㆹ暨天ᷕ⽫㍸ὃ⚳ℏ⢾⋯⬠屯妲冯䴻槿↮ṓ 嫃⹏ˤġ ĴįijĶ įķĺġ IJġ IJ Ĺġ ㆹ暨天ᷕ⽫⺢伖ˬ喅埻⭞倗䴉䵚嶗˭炻冯喅埻 ⭞䳬䷼ㆾᾳṢ䵚嶗悐句句㟤ἄ忋䳸炻ẍ㍸ὃ⬠ 䓇⬠佺㨇㚫ˤġ Ĵįijĵ įķķġ ijġ ij ĺġ ㆹ暨天ᷕ⽫⺢伖ˬ⬠㟉屯㸸屯㕁⹓˭炻ẍ㔜⎰ ⬠㟉⎗⇑䓐䘬庇䠔橼屯㸸ˤġ ĴįIJĶ įķĵġ Ķġ Ķ IJıġ ㆹ暨天ᷕ⽫䘤⯽ˬ䣦⋨⎰ἄ⬠佺妰䔓˭炻⤪䣦 ⋨⯽㺼ㆾ㚵⊁⬠佺ˤġ ijįĺĵ įķĺġ ķġ IJij IJIJġ ㆹ暨天ᷕ⽫㍐≽ˬ⺢㔁⎰ἄ妰䔓˭᷎⺢伖ˬ⮎ 佺屯㕁⹓˭炻⮯喅埻䚠斄柀➇䘬⮎佺㨇㚫㍸ὃ 䴎⬠䓇⍲㟉⍳ˤġ ĴįIJĸ įķĺġ ĵġ ĵ IJijġ ㆹ暨天ᷕ⽫䘤⯽⬴┬䘬⯙㤕⍲䓇㵗夷∫庼⮶ 㨇⇞ˤġ Ĵįijı įĸĴġ Ĵġ Ĵ 䴻 槿 ↮ ṓ 冯 䞼 䨞ġ IJĴġ ㆹ暨天ᷕ⽫冱彎ˬ䔊㤕墥ἄ䴻槿↮ṓ˭⹏婯炻 忚埴䔊㤕墥ἄ䴻槿⁛㈧ˤġ ĴįıIJ įĸĴġ ĵġ IJı IJĵġ ㆹ暨天ᷕ⽫冱彎ˬ嬨㚠㚫˭炻ẍ⡆≈⛀昲⬠佺 ⍲妶婾↮ṓ䘬䴻槿ˤġ ijįĸIJ įĸĴġ ķġ IJĸ IJĶġ ㆹ暨天ᷕ⽫冱彎⬠䓇⬠佺䴻槿Ṍ㳩⹏婯ˤġ ijįĹĴ įĸıġ Ķġ IJĵ IJķġ ㆹ暨天ᷕ⽫冱彎ˬⶍἄ䴻槿↮ṓ⹏婯˭炻怨婳 䔊㤕䓇⚆㟉↮ṓⶍἄ䴻槿ˤġ ĴįıĶ įķĶġ ijġ Ĺ IJĸġ ㆹ暨天ᷕ⽫⮎㕥ˬ䔊㤕䓇ⶍἄ傥≃暨㯪˭䞼 䨞炻嬻⬠䓇⛐忚ℍ借⟜⇵⶚℟⁁ⶍἄ➢㛔傥 ≃ˤġ ĴįIJĴ įĸIJġ IJġ ĸ IJĹġ ㆹ暨天ᷕ⽫⮎㕥ˬ䌐䩳䞼䨞妰䔓˭炻嬻⬠䓇⍫ 冯ᶨᾳ⬠㛇䘬䞼䨞ㆾ⯽㺼炻⬴ㆸ侭⌛⎗䌚⼿⬠ ↮ˤġ ĴįıĴ įĸıġ Ĵġ ĺ

ΠȃϚӣधශৱҡᄇఀᏰϛЖЛධ݈୛Ϟሯؑ৯౴Ϸݙġ

炷ᶨ炸㔁ⷓ悐↮ġ 䓙堐5⎗䞍烉⛐ˬ㚠䯵冯⼙ⷞῇ教˭㕡朊炻ℤả㔁ⷓ䘬暨㯪檀㕤⮰ả㔁ⷓ烊⸜ 屯10⸜ẍᶳ㔁ⷓ䘬暨㯪㚨檀炻20⸜ẍᶲ㔁ⷓ䘬暨㯪㚨Ỷˤ⛐ˬ姕伖⨺橼屯㕁⹓˭㕡 朊炻⸜屯10⸜ẍᶳ㔁ⷓ䘬暨㯪㚨檀炻20⸜ẍᶲ㔁ⷓ䘬暨㯪㚨Ỷˤ⛐ˬ冱彎㔁⬠䞼妶 㚫˭㕡朊炻≑䎮㔁㌰䘬暨㯪㚨檀炻㔁㌰䘬暨㯪㚨Ỷˤ

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⛐ˬ㔁⬠䴻槿↮ṓ˭㕡朊炻忂嬀㔁做⥼⒉㚫㔁ⷓ䘬暨㯪㚨檀炻㇚∯⬠昊㔁ⷓ䘬 暨㯪㚨Ỷˤ⛐ˬ㍸ὃ䞼䨞忚ᾖ㨇㚫˭㕡朊炻嫃ⷓ䘬暨㯪㚨檀炻㔁㌰䘬暨㯪㚨Ỷ烊⸜ 屯10⸜ẍᶳ㔁ⷓ䘬暨㯪㚨檀炻11军20⸜㔁ⷓ䘬暨㯪㚨Ỷˤ℞Ṿ枭䚖㕡朊炻ᶵ⎴側㘗 㔁ⷓ䘬暨㯪⇯㛒忼栗叿㯜㸾ˤ 堐Ķġ ġ ᶵ⎴側㘗䘬㔁ⷓ⮵⎬枭㚵⊁暨㯪䘬ⶖ䔘ね⼊ġ 柴䚖ġ 栆⇍ġ 枭䚖ġ ⸛⛯㔠 Ň ῤġ ő ῤġ ḳ⼴㭼庫ġ 㚠䯵 冯⼙ ⷞῇ 教ġ ⮰ℤảġ ĩIJĪ⮰ả㔁ⷓġ ijįĸĺ ĮijįĹĸ įııĸī ijĿIJġ ĩijĪℤả㔁ⷓġ Ĵįijĸ ⸜屯ġ ĩIJĪIJı ⸜ẍᶳġ ĴįIJķ ĵįĶij įıIJĹī IJĿijĭĴġ ijĿĴġ ĩijĪIJIJſijı ⸜ġ ijįĴķ ĩĴĪijı ⸜ẍᶲġ ijįıı 姕伖 ⨺橼 屯㕁 ⹓ġ ⸜屯ġ ĩIJĪIJı ⸜ẍᶳġ ĴįĴĸ ķįĸĹ įııĴī IJĿijĭĴġ ijĿĴġ ĩijĪIJIJſijı ⸜ġ ijįIJĹ ĩĴĪijı ⸜ẍᶲġ ijįIJı 冱彎 㔁⬠ 䞼妶 㚫ġ 借䳂ġ ĩIJĪ㔁㌰ġ IJįĸIJ Ĵįĸij įıijıī ĴĿijĭĵĭIJġ ijĿĵĭIJġ ĵĿIJġ ĩijĪ∗㔁㌰ġ ijįĹij ĩĴĪ≑䎮㔁㌰ġ ĴįĴĴ ĩĵĪ嫃ⷓġ ijįĶı 㔁⬠ 䴻槿 ↮ṓġ ⬠昊⇍ġ ĩIJĪ枛㦪⬠昊ġ ijįĸĶ ijįĹij įıĴIJī ķĿĵĭIJĭĶĭijĭĴġ ĵĿIJĭĶĭijĭĴġ IJĿĶĭijĭĴġ ĶĿijĭĴġ ijĿĴġ ĩijĪ伶埻⬠昊ġ ijįıı ĩĴĪ㇚∯⬠昊ġ IJįĸĹ ĩĵĪ准巰⬠昊ġ Ĵįijı ĩĶĪ㔯⊾屯㸸⬠昊ġ ijįijĺ ĩķĪ忂嬀㔁做⥼⒉㚫ġ Ĵįĵı 炷临ᶳ堐炸

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堐 5炷临炸 柴䚖ġ 栆⇍ġ 枭䚖ġ ⸛⛯㔠 Ň ῤġ ő ῤġ ḳ⼴㭼庫ġ ㍸ὃ 䞼䨞 忚ᾖ 㨇㚫ġ 借䳂ġ ĩIJĪ㔁㌰ġ ijįĵĴ ĴįıĴ įıĵijī ĵĿĴĭijĭIJġ ĴĿijĭIJġ ijĿIJġ ĩijĪ∗㔁㌰ġ ijįĺIJ ĩĴĪ≑䎮㔁㌰ġ ĴįĴĴ ĩĵĪ嫃ⷓġ ĴįĶĹ ⸜屯ġ ĩIJĪIJı ⸜ẍᶳġ Ĵįĵij ĴįĸIJ įıĴĵī IJĿĴĭijġ ĴĿijġ ĩijĪIJIJſijı ⸜ġ ijįĵĶ ĩĴĪijı ⸜ẍᶲġ ijįĸı 姣烉īű烋įıĶġ 炻㛒忼栗叿㯜㸾侭旸㕤䭯ⷭḰẍ䚩䔍ġ 䵄⎰侴妨炻ℤảˣ屯㶢ˣ嫃ⷓˣ≑䎮㔁㌰ˣ忂嬀䫱㔁ⷓ↮⇍⛐㚠䯵冯⼙ⷞῇ教ˣ ⨺橼屯㕁⹓姕伖ˣ䞼䨞忚ᾖ㨇㚫ˣ㔁⬠䴻槿↮ṓˣ㔁⬠䞼妶㚫䫱㕡朊䘬暨㯪檀㕤⮰ ảˣ屯㶙ˣ㔁㌰ˣ㇚∯⬠昊䫱㔁ⷓˤ㍐䨞℞䶋䓙炻ᷫ⚈ℤảˣ屯㶢ˣ嫃ⷓˣ≑䎮㔁 ㌰䫱㔁ⷓ庫仢᷷㔁⬠䴻槿ˣ屯㸸冯⋼≑炻ṇ暨㔁⬠ᷕ⽫䴎Ḱ庫⣂䘬斄㆟烊㔁⬠䴻槿 ↮ṓ㕡朊炻忂嬀㔁做⥼⒉㚫ˣ准巰⬠昊ˣ枛㦪⬠昊䫱㔁ⷓ䘬暨㯪庫檀炻℞側⼴⍇⚈ ⇯㚱⼭忚ᶨ㬍㍊䨞ˤġ 炷Ḵ炸⬠䓇悐↮ġ 䓙堐ķ⎗䞍烉⛐ˬ冱彎 ņ ⊾傥≃ⶍἄ⛲˭㕡朊炻准巰⬠昊⬠䓇䘬暨㯪㚨檀炻㇚ ∯⬠昊⬠䓇㚨Ỷˤ⛐ˬ冱彎⬠佺䫾䔍ⶍἄ⛲˭㕡朊炻⤛⬠䓇䘬暨㯪檀㕤䓟⬠䓇烊准 巰⬠昊⬠䓇䘬暨㯪㚨檀炻㔯⊾屯㸸⬠昊⬠䓇㚨Ỷˤ⛐ˬ冱彎䞼䨞䓇⬠佺䘤⯽ⶍἄ⛲˭ 㕡朊炻⤛⬠䓇䘬暨㯪檀㕤䓟⬠䓇烊㔯⊾屯㸸⬠昊⬠䓇䘬暨㯪㚨檀炻㇚∯⬠昊⬠䓇㚨 Ỷˤġ ⛐ˬ㍸ὃ婚⼴庼⮶㨇⇞˭㕡朊炻准巰⬠昊⬠䓇䘬暨㯪㚨檀炻㔯⊾屯㸸⬠昊⬠䓇 㚨Ỷˤ⛐ˬ㍸ὃ⯙㤕借傥➡妻婚䦳˭㕡朊炻⤛⬠䓇䘬暨㯪檀㕤䓟⬠䓇烊准巰⬠昊⬠ 䓇䘬暨㯪㚨檀炻㔯⊾屯㸸⬠昊⬠䓇㚨Ỷˤ⛐ˬ㍸ὃ⚳ℏ⢾⋯⬠屯妲˭㕡朊炻⤛⬠䓇 䘬暨㯪檀㕤䓟⬠䓇ˤ⛐ˬ⺢伖喅埻⭞倗䴉䵚嶗˭㕡朊炻⤛⬠䓇䘬暨㯪檀㕤䓟⬠䓇烊 伶埻⬠昊⬠䓇䘬暨㯪㚨檀炻㔯⊾屯㸸⬠昊⬠䓇㚨Ỷˤġ ⛐ˬ⺢伖⬠㟉屯㸸屯㕁⹓˭㕡朊炻⤛⬠䓇䘬暨㯪檀㕤䓟⬠䓇ˤ⛐ˬ㍐≽⺢㔁⎰ ἄ妰䔓˭㕡朊炻⤛⬠䓇䘬暨㯪檀㕤䓟⬠䓇ˤ⛐ˬ冱彎䔊㤕墥ἄ䴻槿↮ṓ⹏婯˭㕡朊炻

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枛㦪⬠昊⬠䓇䘬暨㯪㚨檀炻㔯⊾屯㸸⬠昊⬠䓇㚨Ỷˤ⛐ˬ冱彎⬠䓇⬠佺䴻槿Ṍ㳩⹏ 婯˭㕡朊炻伶埻⬠昊⬠䓇䘬暨㯪㚨檀炻㔯⊾屯㸸⬠昊⬠䓇㚨Ỷˤġ ⛐ˬ冱彎ⶍἄ䴻槿↮ṓ⹏婯˭㕡朊炻⤛⬠䓇䘬暨㯪檀㕤䓟⬠䓇烊枛㦪⬠昊⬠䓇 䘬暨㯪㚨檀炻㔯⊾屯㸸⬠昊⬠䓇㚨Ỷˤ⛐ˬ⮎㕥䔊㤕䓇ⶍἄ傥≃暨㯪䞼䨞˭㕡朊炻 ⤛⬠䓇䘬暨㯪檀㕤䓟⬠䓇烊枛㦪⬠昊⬠䓇䘬暨㯪㚨檀炻㔯⊾屯㸸⬠昊⬠䓇㚨Ỷˤġ 堐ķġ ġ ᶵ⎴側㘗䘬⬠䓇⮵⎬枭㚵⊁暨㯪䘬ⶖ䔘ね⼊ġ 柴䚖ġ 栆⇍ġ 枭䚖ġ ⸛⛯㔠 Ň ῤġ ő ῤġ ḳ⼴㭼庫ġ ņ ⊾ 傥≃ ⶍἄ ⛲ġ ⬠昊⇍ġ ĩIJĪ枛㦪⬠昊ġ ijįĺĹ ĴįĺĶ įııĵī ĵĿIJĭijĭĶĭĴġ IJĿijĭĶĭĴġ ijĿĶĭĴġ ĶĿĴġ ĩijĪ伶埻⬠昊ġ ijįĺij ĩĴĪ㇚∯⬠昊ġ ijįĸIJ ĩĵĪ准巰⬠昊ġ Ĵįıĸ ĩĶĪ㔯⊾屯㸸⬠昊ġ ijįĸĶ ⬠佺 䫾䔍 ⶍἄ ⛲ġ ⿏⇍ġ ĩIJĪ䓟⿏ġ ijįķĸ ĮijįıĶ įıĵIJī ijĿIJġ ĩijĪ⤛⿏ġ ijįĹij ⬠昊⇍ġ ĩIJĪ枛㦪⬠昊ġ ijįĺij ĵįĺij įııIJī ĵĿIJĭijĭĴĭĶġ IJĿijĭĴĭĶġ ijĿĴĭĶġ ĴĿĶġ ĩijĪ伶埻⬠昊ġ ijįĸĹ ĩĴĪ㇚∯⬠昊ġ ijįķĸ ĩĵĪ准巰⬠昊ġ Ĵįıij ĩĶĪ㔯⊾屯㸸⬠昊ġ ijįĶķ 䞼䨞 䓇⬠ 佺䘤 ⯽ⶍ ἄ⛲ġ ⿏⇍ġ ĩIJĪ䓟⿏ġ ijįĹĴ Įijįĵķ įıIJĵī ijĿIJġ ĩijĪ⤛⿏ġ Ĵįıij ⬠昊⇍ġ ĩIJĪ枛㦪⬠昊ġ ijįĺĹ ĵįķĴ įııIJī ĶĿĵĭijĭIJĭĴġ ĵĿijĭIJĭĴġ ijĿIJĭĴġ IJĿĴġ ĩijĪ伶埻⬠昊ġ ijįĺĺ ĩĴĪ㇚∯⬠昊ġ ijįĸIJ ĩĵĪ准巰⬠昊ġ Ĵįıĺ ĩĶĪ㔯⊾屯㸸⬠昊ġ ĴįIJķ ġ 炷临ᶳ堐炸

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堐 6炷临炸 柴䚖ġ 栆⇍ġ 枭䚖ġ ⸛⛯㔠 Ň ῤġ ő ῤġ ḳ⼴㭼庫ġ 婚⼴ 庼⮶ 㨇⇞ġ ⬠昊⇍ġ ĩIJĪ枛㦪⬠昊ġ ijįķĹ ĴįĴĴij įıIJIJī ĵĿIJĭijĭĴĭĶġ IJĿijĭĴĭĶġ ijĿĴĭĶġ ĴĿĶġ ĩijĪ伶埻⬠昊ġ ijįĶĺ ĩĴĪ㇚∯⬠昊ġ ijįĶij ĩĵĪ准巰⬠昊ġ ijįĸķ ĩĶĪ㔯⊾屯㸸⬠昊ġ ijįĴIJ ⯙㤕 借傥 ➡妻 婚䦳ġ ⿏⇍ġ ĩIJĪ䓟⿏ġ ĴįıĴ Įijįıĺĺ įıĴķī ijĿIJġ ĩijĪ⤛⿏ġ Ĵįijı ⬠昊⇍ġ ĩIJĪ枛㦪⬠昊ġ ĴįĴij ķįĴĺIJ įıııīī ĵĿIJĭijĭĴĭĶġ IJĿijĭĴĭĶġ ijĿĴĭĶġ ĴĿĶġ ĩijĪ伶埻⬠昊ġ ĴįIJĸ ĩĴĪ㇚∯⬠昊ġ ĴįIJı ĩĵĪ准巰⬠昊ġ ĴįĴķ ĩĶĪ㔯⊾屯㸸⬠昊ġ ijįĹı ⋯⬠ 屯妲ġ ⿏⇍ġ ĩIJĪ䓟⿏ġ ĴįıĹ ĮĴįIJıIJ įııijī ijĿIJġ ĩijĪ⤛⿏ġ ĴįĴij 喅埻 ⭞倗 䴉䵚 嶗ġ ⿏⇍ġ ĩIJĪ䓟⿏ġ ĴįıĴ ĮĴįĹĺĵ įıııīī ijĿIJġ ĩijĪ⤛⿏ġ ĴįĴIJ ⬠昊⇍ġ ĩIJĪ枛㦪⬠昊ġ Ĵįijij ĵįĹijķ įııIJī ijĿĵĭĴĭIJĭĶġ ĵĿIJĭĴĭĶġ IJĿĴĭĶġ ĴĿĶġ ĩijĪ伶埻⬠昊ġ ĴįĵIJ ĩĴĪ㇚∯⬠昊ġ ĴįijĹ ĩĵĪ准巰⬠昊ġ ĴįĴIJ ĩĶĪ㔯⊾屯㸸⬠昊ġ Ĵįıķ ⬠㟉 屯㸸 ⹓ġ ⿏⇍ġ ĩIJĪ䓟⿏ġ Ĵįıı ĮijįĹijĺ įııĶī ijĿIJġ ĩijĪ⤛⿏ġ Ĵįijı 炷临ᶳ堐炸

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堐 6炷临炸 柴䚖ġ 栆⇍ġ 枭䚖ġ ⸛⛯㔠 Ň ῤġ ő ῤġ ḳ⼴㭼庫ġ ⺢㔁 ⎰ἄ 妰䔓ġ ⿏⇍ġ ĩIJĪ䓟⿏ġ ĴįıĴ ĮijįĶıĴ įıIJĴī ijĿIJġ ĩijĪ⤛⿏ġ Ĵįijij 䔊㤕 墥ἄ 䴻槿 ↮ṓġ ⬠昊⇍ġ ĩIJĪ枛㦪⬠昊ġ ĴįIJĵ IJıįĶĵĶ įıııīī IJĿijĭĴĭĵĭĶġ ijĿĴĭĵĭĶġ ĴĿĵĭĶġ ĵĿĶġ ĩijĪ伶埻⬠昊ġ ĴįIJIJ ĩĴĪ㇚∯⬠昊ġ Ĵįıĸ ĩĵĪ准巰⬠昊ġ Ĵįıĸ ĩĶĪ㔯⊾屯㸸⬠昊ġ ijįĵĹ ⬠佺 䴻槿 Ṍ㳩ġ ⬠昊⇍ġ ĩIJĪ枛㦪⬠昊ġ ijįĺIJ ĵįĹĵĸ įııIJī ijĿĵĭIJĭĴĭĶġ ĵĿIJĭĴĭĶġ IJĿĴĭĶġ ĴĿĶġ ĩijĪ伶埻⬠昊ġ ijįĺķ ĩĴĪ㇚∯⬠昊ġ ijįĸı ĩĵĪ准巰⬠昊ġ ijįĺķ ĩĶĪ㔯⊾屯㸸⬠昊ġ ijįĶĹ ⶍἄ 䴻槿 ↮ṓġ ⿏⇍ġ ĩIJĪ䓟⿏ġ ijįĹĹ ĮĴįijķIJ įııIJ ijĿIJġ ĩijĪ⤛⿏ġ ĴįIJIJ ⬠昊⇍ġ ĩIJĪ枛㦪⬠昊ġ ĴįIJĺ ĴįĴĴĺ įıIJıī IJĿijĭĵĭĴĭĶġ ijĿĵĭĴĭĶġ ĵĿĴĭĶġ ĴĿĶġ ĩijĪ伶埻⬠昊ġ ĴįIJIJ ĩĴĪ㇚∯⬠昊ġ ijįĺij ĩĵĪ准巰⬠昊ġ Ĵįıĺ ĩĶĪ㔯⊾屯㸸⬠昊ġ ijįĹĺ 䔊㤕 䓇ⶍ ἄ傥 ≃暨 㯪䞼 䨞ġ ⿏⇍ġ ĩIJĪ䓟⿏ġ ijįĺĺ ĮijįĴĶķ įıIJĺī ijĿIJġ ĩijĪ⤛⿏ġ ĴįIJĹ ⬠昊⇍ġ ĩIJĪ枛㦪⬠昊ġ ĴįĴIJ ĵįijIJĵ įııijī IJĿĵĭijĭĴĭĶġ ĵĿijĭĴĭĶġ ijĿĴĭĶġ ĴĿĶġ ĩijĪ伶埻⬠昊ġ ĴįIJķ ĩĴĪ㇚∯⬠昊ġ Ĵįıķ ĩĵĪ准巰⬠昊ġ Ĵįijı ĩĶĪ㔯⊾屯㸸⬠昊ġ ijįĹķ 姣烉īű烋įıĶġ 炻㛒忼栗叿㯜㸾侭旸㕤䭯ⷭḰẍ䚩䔍ġ

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䵄⎰侴妨炻⤛⬠䓇⛐⬠佺䫾䔍ˣ⬠佺䘤⯽ˣ⯙㤕借傥➡妻ˣ⚳ℏ⢾⋯⬠屯妲ˣ 喅埻⭞倗䴉䵚ˣ⬠㟉屯㸸屯㕁⹓ˣ⺢㔁⎰ἄ妰䔓ˣⶍἄ䴻槿↮ṓˣ冯䔊㤕䓇ⶍἄ傥 ≃暨㯪䞼䨞䫱㕡朊䘬暨㯪檀㕤䓟⬠䓇炻枛㦪⬠昊⬠䓇⛐䔊㤕墥ἄ冯ⶍἄ䴻槿↮ṓˣ 䔊㤕䓇ⶍἄ傥≃暨㯪䞼䨞䫱㕡朊䘬暨㯪庫檀炻伶埻⬠昊⬠䓇⛐喅埻⭞倗䴉䵚冯⬠佺 䴻槿Ṍ㳩㕡朊䘬暨㯪庫檀炻准巰⬠昊⬠䓇⛐ ņ ⊾傥≃ˣ⬠佺䫾䔍ˣ婚⼴庼⮶㨇⇞冯 ⯙㤕借傥➡妻䫱㕡朊䘬暨㯪庫檀炻㔯⊾屯㸸⬠昊⬠䓇⛐䞼䨞䓇⬠佺䘤⯽㕡朊䘬暨㯪 庫檀ˤ㍊䨞℞䶋䓙炻ᷫ⚈喅埻栆⬠䓇℟㚱ᶵ⎴䘬⬠佺㕡⺷冯桐㟤炷ἳ⤪㔯屯⬠昊庫 ⣂䞼䨞䓇炻冒䃞叿⡐㕤䞼䨞䘤⯽炻枛㦪⬠昊叿慵㕤䔊㤕墥ἄ炻伶埻⬠昊慵夾喅埻⭞ 倗䴉䵚炻准巰⬠昊农≃㕤 ņ ⊾䘤⯽炸炻㔁⬠ᷕ⽫昌Ḯ斄㲐⎬⬠昊䘬ℙ⎴嬘柴冯暨㯪 ⢾炻怬⽭枰⚈ㇵ冯⚈⛘⇞⭄ˤġ

ӂȃ๖፣ᇄ࡚ដġ

⚳ℏ冒⽆㍸⋯⣏⬠㔁⬠⑩岒䘬嬘柴⍿⇘⎬䓴慵夾⼴炻姙⣂⬠㟉䳃䳃冱彎䞼妶 㚫㍊䨞ˬ⤪ỽㆸ≇忳ἄ㔁⬠ᷕ⽫怩⎹㔁⬠⋻崲˭炻㛔䞼䨞Ὢ⮯⣏⬠昊㟉㔁⬠ᷕ⽫㓗 ㎜㚵⊁ᷳ暨㯪姽Ộ夾䁢䘤⯽忳ἄ㨇⇞䘬崟溆炻㛇⼭啱䓙㬌ᾳ㟰姽Ộ傥㍸ὃ喅埻栆㔁 ⬠ᷕ⽫⍫侫ˤ勚⯙䞼䨞䳸婾冯⺢嬘婒㖶⤪ᶳ烉ġ

Ιȃ๖፣ġ

枪⮾䘬⣏⬠墉炻㔁⬠冯䞼䨞㗗⮳㯪䞍嬀䘬ℑ朊烊㔁⭌墉㍊䨞䞍嬀冯㘢ㄏ䘬ね㘗炻 ⎴㧋ḇ㚫⛐⚾㚠棐冯⮎槿⭌墉䘤䓇烊婚➪ᶲ㍊䨞䔞ẋ䘬䞼䨞℠䭬冯䇕婾嬘柴炻⎗ἧ 䞍嬀⛐岒䔹冯㈡⇌倚ᷕᶵ㕟ㆸ攟炻性⃵㍍⍿冲ḳ⮎侴仢᷷㕘奨溆ˤ⚈㬌炻⣏⬠㔁 做⑩岒䘬㍸⋯暨ℤ栏㔁⬠冯䞼䨞䘬⸛堉炻嬻⬴┬䘬㔁⬠㓗㎜䲣䴙➡做㛒Ἦ䘬䞼䨞Ṣ ㇵ炻枪⮾䘬䞼䨞ㆸ㝄⃭⮎婚➪䘬㔁⬠ℏ⭡炻ℑ侭䚠Ḻ⃭⮎冯⼤㬌Ḻ墄ˤ勚⯙ᷣ天䞼 䨞䘤䎦䯉天婒㖶⤪ᶳ烉ġ 炷ᶨ炸ⷓ䓇⮵㔁⬠ᷕ⽫㚵⊁䘬暨㯪枿檀炻℞ᷕ⯌ẍ㔁⬠䥹㈨冯⬠佺屯㸸䁢䓂ġ 㟡㒂㔯䌣↮㜸䘤䎦烉㔁㛸⨺橼ˣⷓ䓇Ḻ≽㗗⼙枧㔁⬠⑩岒䘬⚈䳈ᷳᶨ炻侴暨㯪 姽Ộ䳸㝄Ṏ⍵㗈喅埻栆ⷓ䓇⮵㔁⬠ᷕ⽫㓗㎜㚵⊁䘬暨㯪枿檀炷ṳ㕤暨天冯⼰暨天ᷳ 攻炸炻㔁⬠䥹㈨冯⨺橼忳䓐ˣ⋯⬠冯⯙㤕屯妲冯⬠佺屯㸸Ṍ㳩䫱㗗ⷓ䓇⃒⃰斄㲐䘬 枭䚖ˤ⚈㬌炻喅埻栆㔁⬠ᷕ⽫昌䘤㎖㖊㚱㚵⊁≇傥⢾炻⮵㕤㔁⬠䥹㈨ˣ⨺橼忳䓐ˣ ⬠佺屯㸸Ṍ㳩䫱㚵⊁怬暨⥍┬夷∫冯㍐≽ˤġ

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炷Ḵ炸㔁ⷓ⮵㕤ˬ㍸ὃ㔁ⷓ䞼䨞忚ᾖ㨇㚫ˣ冱彎㔠ỵ⨺橼㔁㛸墥ἄ䞼佺˭䘬暨㯪 檀㕤ˬ⋼≑婚➪抬⼙冯䲨抬㔁⬠忶䦳ˣ㍸ὃᾳ⇍㔁⬠媖娊˭ġ 㟡㒂姽Ộ䳸㝄䘤䎦烉㍸ὃ㔁ⷓ䞼䨞忚ᾖ㨇㚫ˣ冱彎㔠ỵ⨺橼㔁㛸墥ἄ䞼佺㗗喅 埻栆㔁ⷓ㇨慵夾䘬暨㯪炻侴⮵㕤⋼≑婚➪抬⼙冯䲨抬㔁⬠忶䦳ˣẍ⍲㍸ὃᾳ⇍㔁⬠ 媖娊䘬暨㯪⇯䚠⮵庫Ỷˤ⚈㬌炻➢㕤⚳ね䘬ᶵ⎴炻喅埻栆㔁⬠ᷕ⽫⎗ẍ䞼䨞忚ᾖ冯 㔠ỵ⨺橼㚵⊁䁢⃒⃰䫾䔍炻侴䲨抬婚➪㔁⬠忶䦳ㆾ㍸ὃᾳ⇍媖娊⇯暨夾ね㱩Ḱẍ婧 㔜ˤġ 炷ᶱ炸⬠䓇⮵㕤ˬ⚳ℏ⢾⋯⬠屯妲冯䴻槿↮ṓ嫃⹏ˣ⺢伖喅埻⭞倗䴉䵚嶗˭䘬 暨㯪檀㕤ˬ冱彎嬨㚠㚫ˣ㍸ὃ列⤥䘬婚⼴庼⮶㨇⇞˭ġ 㟡㒂姽Ộ䳸㝄䘤䎦烉⚳ℏ⢾⋯⬠屯妲冯䴻槿↮ṓ嫃⹏ˣ⺢伖喅埻⭞倗䴉䵚嶗㗗 喅埻栆⣏⬠䓇㇨慵夾䘬㚵⊁暨㯪炻侴⮵㕤冱彎嬨㚠㚫ˣẍ⍲㍸ὃ婚⼴庼⮶㨇⇞䘬暨 㯪⇯䚠⮵庫Ỷˤ⚈㬌炻喅埻栆㔁⬠ᷕ⽫⎗ẍ⋯⬠屯妲ˣ⯙㤕䓇㵗ˣ⬠佺屯㸸倗䴉䵚 嶗䁢⃒⃰䫾䔍炻侴嬨㚠㚫ˣ婚⼴庼⮶⇯夾暨天Ḱẍ婧㔜ˤġ 炷⚃炸ℤả㔁ⷓˣ屯㶢㔁ⷓˣ嫃ⷓˣ≑䎮㔁㌰冯忂嬀㔁做⥼⒉㚫䘬㔁ⷓ↮⇍⛐ ˬ㚠䯵冯⼙ⷞῇ教ˣ姕伖⨺橼屯㕁⹓ˣ冱彎㔁⬠䞼妶㚫ˣ㍸ὃ䞼䨞忚ᾖ 㨇㚫冯㔁⬠䴻槿↮ṓ˭䫱㕡朊㚱庫檀䘬暨㯪ġ 㟡㒂姽Ộ䳸㝄䘤䎦烉IJįℤả㔁ⷓ⛐㚠䯵冯⼙ⷞῇ教㕡朊䘬暨㯪檀㕤⮰ả㔁ⷓ烊 ijį⸜屯IJı⸜ẍᶳ㔁ⷓ⛐㚠䯵⼙ⷞῇ教ˣ姕伖⨺橼屯㕁⹓ˣ㍸ὃ䞼䨞忚ᾖ㨇㚫㕡朊䘬 暨㯪檀㕤℞Ṿ㔁ⷓ烊Ĵį≑䎮㔁㌰⛐冱彎㔁⬠䞼妶㚫㕡朊䘬暨㯪檀㕤℞Ṿ㔁ⷓ烊ĵį嫃ⷓ ⛐㍸ὃ䞼䨞忚ᾖ㨇㚫㕡朊䘬暨㯪檀㕤℞Ṿ㔁ⷓ烊Ķį忂嬀㔁做⥼⒉㚫㔁ⷓ⛐㔁⬠䴻槿 ↮ṓ㕡朊䘬暨㯪檀㕤℞Ṿ㔁ⷓˤ⚈㬌炻喅埻栆㔁⬠ᷕ⽫⛐㍐≽⎬枭㚵⊁㗪炻⎗㟡㒂 ℤảˣ屯㶢ˣ嫃ⷓˣ≑䎮㔁㌰Ƀ䫱ᶵ⎴側㘗㔁ⷓ㍸ὃ⌛㗪ᶼ↯⎰暨㯪䘬㓗㎜㚵⊁ˤġ 炷Ḽ炸⤛⬠䓇⛐ˬ⬠佺䫾䔍⛲ˣ䞼䨞䓇⬠佺䘤⯽⛲ˣ⯙㤕借傥➡妻ˣ⚳ℏ⢾⋯ ⬠屯妲ˣ喅埻⭞倗䴉䵚ˣ屯㸸屯㕁⹓ˣ⺢㔁⎰ἄˣⶍἄ䴻槿↮ṓˣ䔊㤕 䓇ⶍἄ傥≃˭䫱㕡朊㚱庫檀䘬暨㯪ġ 㟡㒂姽Ộ䳸㝄䘤䎦烉⤛⬠䓇⛐⬠佺䫾䔍⛲ˣ䞼䨞䓇⬠佺䘤⯽⛲ˣ⯙㤕借傥➡妻ˣ ⚳ℏ⢾⋯⬠屯妲ˣ喅埻⭞倗䴉䵚ˣ⬠㟉屯㸸屯㕁⹓ˣ⺢㔁⎰ἄ妰䔓ˣⶍἄ䴻槿↮ṓ 冯䔊㤕䓇ⶍἄ傥≃暨㯪䞼䨞䫱㕡朊䘬暨㯪䘮檀㕤䓟⬠䓇ˤ⚈㬌炻喅埻栆㔁⬠ᷕ⽫⛐ ㍐≽⎬枭㚵⊁㗪炻暨侫慷⿏⇍ᶲ䘬ⶖ䔘ˤġ

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炷ℕ炸枛㦪ˣ伶埻ˣ准巰ˣ㔯⊾屯㸸⬠昊⬠䓇↮⇍⛐ˬ䔊㤕墥ἄˣ喅埻⭞倗䴉 䵚ˣņ ⊾傥≃ˣ䞼䨞䓇⬠佺䘤⯽˭䫱㕡朊㚱庫檀䘬暨㯪ġ 㟡㒂姽Ộ䳸㝄䘤䎦烉IJį枛㦪⬠昊⬠䓇⛐䔊㤕墥ἄ䴻槿↮ṓˣⶍἄ䴻槿↮ṓ冯䔊 㤕䓇ⶍἄ傥≃暨㯪䞼䨞㕡朊䘬暨㯪檀㕤℞Ṿ⬠昊⬠䓇ˤijį伶埻⬠昊⬠䓇⛐喅埻⭞倗 䴉䵚冯⬠䓇⬠佺䴻槿Ṍ㳩㕡朊䘬暨㯪檀㕤℞Ṿ⬠昊⬠䓇ˤĴį准巰⬠昊⬠䓇⛐ ņ ⊾傥 ≃ⶍἄ⛲ˣ⬠佺䫾䔍ⶍἄ⛲ˣ婚⼴庼⮶㨇⇞ˣ⯙㤕借傥➡妻婚䦳䫱㕡朊䘬暨㯪檀㕤 ℞Ṿ⬠昊⬠䓇ˤĵį㔯⊾屯㸸⬠昊⬠䓇⛐䞼䨞䓇⬠佺䘤⯽ⶍἄ⛲㕡朊䘬暨㯪檀㕤℞Ṿ ⬠昊⬠䓇ˤ⚈㬌炻喅埻栆㔁⬠ᷕ⽫⛐㍐≽⎬枭㚵⊁㗪炻⎗㟡㒂ᶵ⎴⬠昊側㘗䘬⬠䓇 ㍸ὃᶵ⎴䘬㚵⊁ℏ⭡ˤ

Πȃ࡚ដġ

憅⮵ᶲ徘⓷⌟婧㞍䘬䞼䨞䘤䎦冯䳸婾炻㛔㔯㍸↢ẍᶳ⺢嬘ὃ⬠㟉埴㓧Ṣ⒉冯㔁 ⬠ᷕ⽫夷∫侭⍫侫烉ġ 炷ᶨ炸⺢伖㔁⬠ᷕ⽫⇵炻ㅱ↮㜸娚䳬䷼䘬䘤⯽䚖㧁冯奺刚≇傥ġ 䁢㍸⋯㔁ⷓ㔁⬠⑩岒侴⺢伖㔁⬠䘤⯽⮰屔╖ỵ⶚㗗ᶾ䓴枪⮾⣏⬠䘬ℙ⎴ἄ䁢炻 ⣏⬠䘬䘤⯽䚖㧁冯㕡⎹晾䃞㚱℞ℙ忂⿏炻Ữḇ㚱℞䈡㬲⿏炻ㆸ䩳⇵ㅱ⯙䳬䷼䘬暨㯪 ἄ姽Ộ冯↮㜸炻ẍὧ⚈ㅱᶵ⎴⮰㤕柀➇䘬暨㯪炻䘤⯽ᶵ⎴䘬㔁⬠⑩岒䫾䔍ˤġ 炷Ḵ炸喅埻栆㔁⬠ᷕ⽫⭄慵夾㔁ⷓ䘬䞼䨞忚ᾖ冯㔠ỵ⨺橼䞼佺ˣẍ⍲⬠䓇䘬⋯ ⬠屯妲冯喅埻⭞倗䴉䵚嶗䫱暨㯪ġ 㟡㒂䞼䨞䘤䎦烉㍸ὃ㔁ⷓ䞼䨞忚ᾖ㨇㚫ˣ冱彎㔠ỵ⨺橼㔁㛸墥ἄ䞼佺ˣẍ⍲㍸ ὃ⬠䓇⚳ℏ⢾⋯⬠屯妲ˣ⺢伖喅埻⭞倗䴉䵚嶗䫱暨㯪㗗⬠㟉ⷓ䓇㇨娵⎴䘬慵天暨 㯪炻军㕤㍸ὃ㔁ⷓᾳ⇍㔁⬠媖娊ˣẍ⍲⬠䓇婚⼴庼⮶㨇⇞䘬暨㯪⇯䚠⮵庫Ỷˤ⚈㬌炻 ⬠㟉㔁⬠ᷕ⽫⛐㍐≽ⶍἄ㗪炻ㅱ⽆慵天暨㯪叿ㇳ᷎⽒⸷㻠忚炻⤪㬌㕡傥ḳ⋲≇᾵ˤġ 炷ᶱ炸喅埻栆㔁⬠ᷕ⽫⭄斄⽫ℤả㔁ⷓˣ屯㶢㔁ⷓˣ嫃ⷓˣ≑䎮㔁㌰冯忂嬀㔁 做⥼⒉㚫䫱㔁ⷓ䘬暨㯪ġ 㟡㒂䞼䨞䘤䎦烉ℤả㔁ⷓˣ屯㶢㔁ⷓˣ嫃ⷓˣ≑䎮㔁㌰冯忂嬀㔁做⥼⒉㚫㔁ⷓ ⮵㔁⬠ᷕ⽫㇨㍸ὃ㓗㎜㚵⊁䘬暨㯪檀㕤℞Ṿ側㘗䘬㔁ⷓ炻侴ᶲ徘側㘗㔁ⷓ⛐⬠㟉墉 ⣏悐↮Ⱄ㕤暨天庫⣂斄⽫䘬㔁ⷓˤ⚈㬌炻㔁⬠ᷕ⽫⤪傥䴎ḰṾᾹ斄㆟冯⋼≑炻䚠ᾉ

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℞䳬䷼≇傥⽭㚱㇨䘤㎖ˤġ 炷⚃炸喅埻栆㔁⬠ᷕ⽫ㅱ斄⽫ᶵ⎴側㘗⬠䓇䘬暨㯪炻㍸ὃ暨天䘬㓗㎜冯㚵⊁ġ 㟡㒂䞼䨞䘤䎦烉⤛⬠䓇⛐⣂㕡朊䘬暨㯪檀㕤䓟⬠䓇炻枛㦪⬠昊⬠䓇⛐䔊㤕墥ἄ 䴻槿↮ṓˣⶍἄ䴻槿↮ṓ冯䔊㤕䓇ⶍἄ傥≃暨㯪䞼䨞烊伶埻⬠昊⬠䓇⛐喅埻⭞倗䴉 䵚冯⬠䓇⬠佺䴻槿Ṍ㳩烊准巰⬠昊⬠䓇⛐ ņ ⊾傥≃ˣ⬠佺䫾䔍ˣ婚⼴庼⮶ˣ借傥➡ 妻烊㔯⊾屯㸸⬠昊⬠䓇⛐䞼䨞䓇⬠佺䘤⯽ⶍἄ⛲䫱㕡朊䘬暨㯪檀㕤℞Ṿ⬠昊ˤ⚈㬌炻 㔁⬠ᷕ⽫⤪傥ẍ⬠昊䁢╖ỵ冱彎⬠佺㳣≽炻ㆾ斄⽫ᶵ⎴⬠昊冯⿏⇍䘬暨㯪炻⇯⬠䓇 㕡傥⛐㔁⬠ᷕ⽫䘬⣂⃫㓗㎜ᷕ㘖念䌚䙲ˤġ

୤ՃМᝦġ

䥩䩳ᷕ⍇⣏⬠炷2006炸ˤ䥩䩳ᷕ⍇⣏⬠㔁⬠⋻崲妰䔓ˤ2006 ⸜ 3 㚰 25 㖍炻⍾冒䵚䪁烉 http://tle.cycu.edu.tw/index.htmlˤ 䥩䩳⃫㘢⣏⬠炷2007炸ˤ㔁⬠⋻崲ᷕ⽫ˤ2007⸜11㚰18㖍炻⍾冒䵚䪁烉http://tec.yzu. edu.tw/index.phpˤ 䥩䩳ᶾ㕘⣏⬠炷2006炸ˤ䥩䩳ᶾ㕘⣏⬠㔁⬠⋻崲妰䔓ˤ2006 ⸜ 3 㚰 26 㖍炻⍾冒䵚䪁烉 http://distance.shu.edu.tw/spirit/ˤ 䥩䩳㜙⏛⣏⬠炷2007炸ˤ㔁⬠屯㸸ᷕ⽫ˤ2007⸜11㚰8㖍炻⍾冒䵚䪁烉http://ctl.scu. edu.tw/index.aspxˤ 䥩䩳攟⹂⣏⬠炷2007炸ˤ㔁⬠屯㸸ᷕ⽫ˤ2007⸜11㚰5㖍炻⍾冒䵚䪁烉http://www.cgu. edu.tw/cfir/chinese/index/chinese.htmˤ 䥩䩳忊䓚⣏⬠炷2007炸ˤ㔁ⷓ㔁⬠ㆸ攟ᷕ⽫ˤ2007⸜11㚰18㖍炻⍾冒䵚䪁烉http:// www.cfd.fcu.edu.tw/ˤ ⚳䩳ᷕⰙ⣏⬠炷2007炸ˤ㔁⬠䘤⯽冯屯㸸ᷕ⽫ˤ2007⸜11㚰15㖍炻⍾冒䵚䪁烉http:// ctdr.nsysu.edu.tw/ˤ ⚳䩳⎘䀋⣏⬠炷2007炸ˤ㔁⬠䘤⯽ᷕ⽫ˤ2007⸜10㚰20㖍炻⍾冒䵚䪁烉http:// ctld.ntu.edu.tw/ˤ ⚳䩳Ṍ忂⣏⬠炷2007炸ˤ㔁⬠䘤⯽ᷕ⽫ˤ2007⸜10㚰18㖍炻⍾冒䵚䪁烉http://ctld.nctu. edu.tw/ˤ ⚳䩳㓧㱣⣏⬠炷2006炸ˤ⚳䩳㓧㱣⣏⬠ḅ⋩⚃⸜⹎㔁做悐㔁⬠⋻崲妰䔓ˤ2006 ⸜ 3 㚰 20 㖍炻⍾冒䵚䪁烉http://www.e-upgrade.nccu.edu.tw/e-upgrade/ index.htmˤ ⚳䩳㓧㱣⣏⬠炷2007炸ˤ㔁⬠䘤⯽ᷕ⽫ˤ2007⸜10㚰25㖍炻⍾冒䵚䪁烉http://

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ctld.nccu.edu.tw/index.phpˤ ⚳䩳檀晬ⷓ䭬⣏⬠炷2007炸ˤ㔁⬠䘤⯽ᷕ⽫ˤ2007⸜11㚰10㖍炻⍾冒䵚䪁烉http:// cdtl.nknu.edu.tw/ˤ ⚳䩳㙐⋿⚳晃⣏⬠炷2006炸ˤ⚳䩳㙐⋿⚳晃⣏⬠㔁⬠⋻崲妰䔓ˤ2006 ⸜ 3 㚰 21 㖍炻 ⍾冒䵚䪁烉http://seep.ncnu.edu.tw/web/index1.htmˤ ⚳䩳㙐⋿⚳晃⣏⬠炷2007炸ˤ㔁ⷓ⮰㤕䘤⯽ᷕ⽫ˤ2007⸜10㚰15㖍炻⍾冒䵚䪁烉 http://seep.ncnu.edu.tw/web/plan_3/ITQ/news/main.aspx#inschoolˤ 㔁做悐炷2005a炸ˤ䋶⊝⣏⬠㔁⬠⋻崲妰䔓ˤ2005 ⸜ 10 㚰 15 㖍炻⍾冒㔁做悐䵚䪁烉 http://www.edu.tw/EDU_WEB/Web/HIGH/index.htm 㔁做悐炷2005b炸ˤ䋶⊝⣏⬠㔁⬠⋻崲妰䔓⮑㟠䳸㝄ˤ2006 ⸜ 3 㚰 20 㖍炻⍾冒㔁做 悐暣⫸⟙䵚䪁烉http://epaper.edu.tw/132/ 㔁做悐炷2006a炸ˤ95 ⸜⹎䋶⊝⣏⬠㔁⬠⋻崲妰䔓婒㖶㚫ˤ2006 ⸜ 3 㚰 20 㖍炻⍾冒 㔁做悐暣⫸⟙䵚䪁烉http://epaper.edu.tw/189/ 㔁做悐炷2006b炸ˤ㔁冯⬠悥⋻崲烉⣏⬠㔁⬠⋻崲妰䔓ㆸ㝄ˤ2006 ⸜ 3 㚰 20 㖍炻⍾ 冒㔁做悐暣⫸⟙䵚䪁烉http://epaper.edu.tw/194/main01.html 㔁做悐炷2007炸ˤ℔ⶫ 96 ⸜⹎䋶⊝⣏⬠㔁⬠⋻崲妰䔓⮑㟠䳸㝄ˤ2007 ⸜ 10 㚰 2 㖍炻 ⍾冒㔁做暣⫸⟙䵚䪁烉http://epaper.edu.tw/news/960824/960824c.htm 㔁做悐炷2010炸ˤ㔁做悐䋶⊝㔁⬠⋻崲妰䔓烉⋨➇㔁⬠屯㸸ᷕ⽫妰䔓ˤ2010 ⸜ 5 㚰 23 㖍炻⍾冒㔁做悐䵚䪁烉http://www.csal.fcu.edu.tw/Edu/resources_link.asp 昛㔯⒚ˣ㣲所岊炷1993炸ˤ⑩岒䭉䎮ˤ⎘⊿烉ᷕ冰䭉䎮栏⓷℔⎠ˤ

Australian National University (2007). Center for Educational Development and Academic Methods. Retrieved November 16, 2007, from Australian National University web site: http://online.anu.edu.au/CEDAM/

Brown University (2007). The Sheridan Center for Teaching and Learning. Retrieved November 14, 2007, from Brown University web site: http://www.brown.edu/ Administration/Sheridan_Center/

Chalkley, B. (1994). The quality era. Journal of Geography in Higher Education, 18(2), 163-167.

Columbia University (2007). Institute for Learning Technologies. Retrieved November 11, 2007, from Columbia University web site: http://www.ilt. columbia.edu/

Cornell University (2007). Center for learning and teaching. Retrieved November 13, 2007, from Cornell University web site: http://www.clt.cornell.edu

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October 30, 2005, from Harvard University web site: http:// bokcenter. harvard. edu/ index.html.

Dickinson, K. W., & Pollock, A. (1995). Perceptions of the value of quality assessment in Scottish higher education. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 20(1), 59-67.

Duke University (2007). Duke Center for Instructional Technology. Retrieved November 10, 2007, from Duke University web site: http://cit.duke.edu/home.do

Harvard University (2007). The Derek Bok Center. Retrieved October 30, 2005, from Harvard University web site: http:// bokcenter. harvard. edu/ index.html.

Harvey, L., & Green, D. (1993). Defining quality. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 18(1), 9-34.

Johns Hopkins University. (11, 1998). The importance of quality. Population Reports; 26(3), 3-7.

Kanji, G. K., & Yui, H. (1997). Total quality culture. Total Quality Management, 8(6), 417-428.

Loveridge, B. N. (2002). Benchmarking as a quality assessment tool. Emergency Nurse, 9(9), 24-29.

Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (2007). Teaching & learning laboratory. Retrieved November 14, 2007, from Massachusetts Inst. of Technology web site: http:// web.mit.edu/tll/index.html

Mortimore, P. (1992). Quality control in education and schools. British Journal of Educational Studies, 40(1), 23-37.

New York University (2007). Center for Teaching Excellence. Retrieved November 16, 2007, from New York University web site: http://www.nyu.edu/cte/

Northwestern University (2007). Searle Center for Teaching Excellence. Retrieved November 12, 2007, from Northwestern University web site: http://teach. northwestern.edu/index.htm

Oxford Brookes University (2007). Oxford Centre for Staff and Learning Development. Retrieved November 16, 2007, from Oxford Brookes University web site: http://www.brookes.ac.uk/services/ocsd/index.html

Patrick, W. J., & Stanley, E. C. (1998). Teaching and Research Quality Indicators and the Shaping of Higher Education. Research in Higher Education; 39(1), 19-41.

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Princeton University web site: http://web.princeton.edu/sites/mcgraw/ index. html/ Stanford University (2007). The Center for teaching and learning. Retrieved November

15, 2007, from Stanford University web site: http://ctl.stanford.edu/

Tang, T. Li-Ping (1994). Teaching evaluation in the college of business: Factors related to the overall teaching effectiveness. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED374716)

Tang, T. Li-Ping (1997). Teaching evaluation at a public institution of higher education: Factors related to the overall teaching effectiveness. Public Personnel Management, 26(3), 379-389.

The Board of Trustees of the Leland Stanford Junior University. (2004). An introductory handbook for faculty, academic staff, and teaching assistants. California: Author. The Center for Teaching and Learning. (2005a). CTL: A short history. Retrieved October

28, 2005, from Stanford University web site: http:// ctl. stanford. edu/ General/ history.html.

The Center for Teaching and Learning. (2005b). CTL General Information. Retrieved October 29, 2005, from Stanford University web site: http:// ctl. stanford. edu/ General/

Univerisity of Cambridge (2007). Academic Staff Development. Retrieved November 16, 2007, from Univerisity of Cambridge web site: http://www.admin.cam.ac.uk/ offices/personnel/staffdev/

University of California-Berkeley (2007). Office of Educational Development. Retrieved November 13, 2007, from University of California-Berkeley web site: http://teaching.berkeley.edu/index.html

University of Chicago (2007). Center for Teaching and Learning. Retrieved November 15, 2007, from University of Chicago web site: http://teaching. uchicago.edu/

University of Pennsylvania (2007). Center for Teaching and Learning. Retrieved November 11, 2007, from University of Pennsylvania web site: http://www.ctl. sas.upenn.edu/

University of Toronto (2007). Centre for Teacher Development. Retrieved November 16, 2007, from University of Toronto web site: http://www.oise.utoronto.ca/jctd/

Washington University in St. Louis (2007). The Teaching Center. Retrieved November 12, 2007, from Washington University in St. Louis web site: http:// ascc.artsci.wustl.edu/~teachcen/index.php

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Yale University (2007). Organizational Develpoment and Learning Center. Retrieved November 16, 2007, from Yale University web site: http://learn.caim.yale. edu/lcdb/default.htm

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ߣӇġ

ΙȃσᏰ଱ਮఀᏰϛЖЛධ݈୛Ϟሯؑ፡ࢥ୰ڢȞఀৱҢȟ

Ȫஅҏၥਟȫ!

Ȑ΋ȑᏢଣձǺ (1)ॣ኷Ꮲଣ

(2)ऍೌᏢଣ

(3)ᔍቃᏢଣ

(4)ᆸᗂᏢଣ

(5)ЎϯၗྍᏢଣ

(6)೯᛽௲ػہ

঩཮

ȐΒȑᙍ ભǺ (1)௲௤

(2)ୋ௲௤

(3)շ౛௲௤

(4)ᖱৣ

ȐΟȑ஑ঋҺǺ (1)஑Һ௲ৣ

(2)ঋҺ௲ৣ

ȐѤȑԃ ၗǺ (1)10 ԃаΠ

(2)11~20 ԃ

(3)20 ԃа΢

!

ȞΙȟఀᏰЛධᇄี৤!

1. ךሡाύЈගٮঁձ௲Ꮲᒌ၌ ... 4 3 2 1

2. ךሡाύЈගٮၠਠᖄᛠፐำǴ௲ৣёԿځдᏢਠ຾Չ௲

ᏢᆶᏢಞ ... 4 3 2 1

3. ךሡाύЈ೛࿼௲Ꮲշ౛(TA)Ǵڐշ௲ৣ௲Ꮲ ... 4 3 2 1

4. ךሡाύЈᖐᒤཥ຾௲ৣࣴಞᔼ܈πբ֝ ... 4 3 2 1

5. ךሡाύЈ຾Չ௲ৣ௲Ꮲຑ᠘ ... 4 3 2 1

6. ךሡाύЈᖐᒤ௲ᏢᆶᏢಞ᝼ᚒޑҬࢬ཮᝼Ǵᔅշ௲ৣග

ϲ௲Ꮲਏ݀ ... 4 3 2 1

ȞΠȟఀᏰऋ׬ᇄ൬ᡝ!

7. ךሡाύЈڐշፐ୸ᒵቹǴइᒵ௲Ꮲၸำ ... 4 3 2 1

8. ךሡाύЈගٮኧՏፐำᆅ౛ѳѠǴڐշ௲ৣࡌ࿼ፐำ

ᆛઠǴ຾Չጕ΢௲ᏢᆶᏢಞ ... 4 3 2 1

9. ךሡाύЈගٮ௲Ꮲਜᝤᆶቹ஥ޑॷ᎙ ... 4 3 2 1

10. ךሡाύЈᖐᒤኧՏ൞ᡏ௲׷ޑᇙբࣴಞᔼ܈πբ֝ ... 4 3 2 1

11. ךሡाύЈ೛࿼Ȩ൞ᡏၗ਑৤ȩǴԏᒵ྽ж᛬ೌৎբࠔǴ

ගٮৣғୖԵ ... 4 3 2 1

12. ךሡाύЈ೛࿼Ȩ൞ᡏࣽמ୍ܺൂՏȩǴڐշ௲ৣᇙբ

௲Ꮲ൞ᡏ܈ճҔ൞ᡏࣽמᇶշ௲Ꮲ ... 4 3 2 1

ߚ

ό

ό

ߚ

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ȞέȟఀᏰᄂᡛ৤ᅋᇄዩᓾ!

13. ךሡाύЈຑᒧᓬؼ௲ৣǴගٮ௲ᏢڑຫዛᓰǴ٠຾Չ௲Ꮲ

ᐕำቹТइᒵ ... 4 3 2 1

14. ךሡाύЈᖐᒤ௲Ꮲ౛ፕᆶჴ୍ࣴ૸཮ ... 4 3 2 1

15. ךሡाύЈᖐᒤ௲ৣ຾Չ௲Ꮲჴᡍǵࣴزᆶ৖ᄽ ... 4 3 2 1

16. ךሡाύЈᖐᒤ௲ৣ௲Ꮲ࿶ᡍϩ٦ࢲ୏ ... 4 3 2 1

17. ךሡाύЈჴࡼ௲ৣڐӕࣴز܈ၠሦୱӝբ ... 4 3 2 1

18. ךሡाύЈගٮ௲ৣࣴز຾অޑᐒ཮܈ᆅၰ ... 4 3 2 1

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ΠȃσᏰ଱ਮఀᏰϛЖЛධ݈୛Ϟሯؑ፡ࢥ୰ڢȞᏰҡҢȟ

Ȫஅҏၥਟȫ!

Ȑ΋ȑ܄! ձǺ (1)ت܄

(2)ζ܄

ȐΒȑᏢଣձǺ (1)ॣ኷Ꮲଣ

(2)ऍೌᏢଣ

(3)ᔍቃᏢଣ

(4)ᆸᗂᏢଣ

(5)ЎϯၗྍᏢଣ

ȞΙȟᏰಬЛධᇄଋጛ!

1. ךሡाύЈගٮᏢғԖᜢ൩཰ᙍૈޑ୻૽ፐำ ... 4 3 2 1

2. ךሡाύЈᖐᒤȨ౥ᇙቪբπբ֝ȩǴࡰᏤᏢғֹԋ౥཰

ᇙբ܈౥཰ፕЎ ... 4 3 2 1

3. ךሡाύЈᖐᒤȨᏢಞ฼ౣπբ֝ȩǴ௲ᏤᏢғᏢಞ܈᎙᠐

ޑמѯ ... 4 3 2 1

4. ךሡाύЈ೛࿼ȨࣴزғᏢಞว৖πբ֝ȩǴගٮࣴزғ

ፕЎ࣬ᜢޑЍජᆶڐշ ... 4 3 2 1

5. ךሡाύЈჴࡼȨ᛬ೌޗ୔უՔीฝȩǴගٮᓬذᏢғԿ

ޗ୔௲ᏢǴᕇள௲ᏢᆶᏢಞ࿶ᡍ ... 4 3 2 1

6. ჴࡼȨፐࡕᇶᏤ঩ڋࡋȩǴᇶᏤᏢғှ،ፐ཰΢ޑୢᚒ ... 4 3 2 1

ȞΠȟᏰಬၥྛᇄҺࢺ

7. ךሡाύЈ೛࿼௲Ꮲշ౛(TA)࿶ᡍҬࢬѳѠ ... 4 3 2 1

8. ךሡाύЈ೛࿼Ȩ໒ܫԄᏢಞޜ໔ȩǴගٮᏢғԖ΋ঁёа

຾Չ૸ፕᆶҬࢬޑ൑܌ ... 4 3 2 1

9. ךሡाύЈගٮȨѦᇟᏢಞၗྍȩǴӧፐᎩਔ໔ёԾҗൔӜ

ୖу ... 4 3 2 1

10. ךሡाύЈว৖Ȩޗ୔ӝբᏢಞीฝȩǴӵޗ୔৖ᄽ܈୍ܺ

Ꮲಞ ... 4 3 2 1

11. ךሡाύЈࡌ࿼Ȩ᛬ೌৎᖄ๎ᆛၡȩǴᆶ᛬ೌৎಔᙃ܈ঁΓ

ᆛၡ೽ပ਱଺ೱ่ǴаගٮᏢғᏢಞᐒ཮ ... 4 3 2 1

12. ךሡाύЈࡌ࿼Ȩჴಞၗ਑৤ȩǴஒ᛬ೌ࣬ᜢሦୱޑჴಞ

ᐒ཮ගٮ๏ᏢғϷਠ϶ ... 4 3 2 1

ߚ

ό

ό

ߚ

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ȞέȟငᡛϷٴᇄंـ!

13. ךሡाύЈᖐᒤȨ᠐ਜ཮ȩǴаቚуი໗ᏢಞϷ૸ፕϩ٦ޑ

࿶ᡍ ... 4 3 2 1

14. ךሡाύЈຑᒧണр௲Ꮲշ౛(TA)Ǵ٠ᖐᒤ௲Ꮲ࿶ᡍϩ٦ ... 4 3 2 1

15. ךሡाύЈᖐᒤᏢғᏢಞ࿶ᡍҬࢬ০ፋ ... 4 3 2 1

16. ךሡाύЈᖐᒤȨπբፋ၉ӣ㎸ȩǴᗎፎ౥཰ғӣਠϩ٦πբ

࿶ᡍ ... 4 3 2 1

17. ךሡाύЈ௢୏Ȩࡌ௲ӝբीฝȩǴගٮᏢғჴಞޑᐒ཮Ǵ

٬ځ׳ڀჴբᆶᑼ཮ೣ೯ޑૈΚ ... 4 3 2 1

18. ךሡाύЈჴࡼȨᐱҥࣴزीฝȩǴᡣᏢғୖᆶ΋ঁᏢයޑ

ࣴز܈৖ᄽǴֹԋޣջёᕇளᏢϩ ... 4 3 2 1

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數據

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參考文獻

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