• 沒有找到結果。



Academic year: 2021

Share "風格學與文學研究之相關性"


加載中.... (立即查看全文)



Yu-Fang Ho Stylistics andIts Relevance to the Study ofLiterature. 137 •

Stylistics and Its Relevance to the Study of

Literature: Edgar Allan Poe's "The Tell-Tale

Heart" as an Illustration

E VEa u a v且 ρLV L AU n

Fa kmv-b 吋叫 Er 且 auB 到 一-rm 戶 db ob 瓜、 w 蚓 、且 anul nuLUH mih--n 鬥門 LE 恥 ua -副心叫 冒-Anu-晶 KN UN-UELm n ρLV m M a ny



The primarypu中oseof this paper is to introduce a stylistic analytical approach to the study of literary texts. Stylistics is generally considered as the study of literary discourse from a linguistic

orientation(e.g. lexis,syntax,sound patterns,semantics,etc). Itexplores how readers interact with the language oftexts,i.e. how we understand and are affected by texts when we read them. As Wales (200 I: 373) states more precisely, stylistics is a discipline principally concerned with describing

the linguistic features of texts and thefunctional significance of these features in relation to our

inte中間的tionofthe text. Edgar AllanPoe'、s short s仗to叮

pe叮rfecωtmanifestation ofPo∞巳,冶s “"s討in培叫g斟Ie ef叮feet"theory - is used to exemplify and demonstrate how the sense of

terror" is conveyed through the language and how readers are affected accordingly.


The Tell-TaleHeart弋 EdgarAllan Poe,style and effect,stylistic analysis

Author: Yu-Fang Ho,E-mail: yufang716@mail.tcu.edu.tw


• 138 • Stylistics andIts Relevance to the Study of Literature

I.What is stylistics?


1 Introduction to stylistics

Yu-Fang Ho

Stylistics emerged in 196缸, and can be seen as an extension of moves within literary criticism in the early 20th century to concentrate on studying texts rather than authors. In Britain,this text-based approach is often called

Practical Criticism" promoted by I. A. Richards and his pupil William Empson,and it is matched by a similar critical movement called

New Criticism" in the USA,associated with Cleanth Brooks,Rene Wellek,Austin Warren and others.

Another important influence in the development of stylistics comes from the Russian Formalists in Moscow. The group also rejects excessive concentration on the author in literary criticism in favor of analyzing the language of text itself in relation to the consequent psychological effects. They develop

foregrounding theory," which suggests that some parts of texts are linguisticillly deviant or specially patterned in some w呵, thus making them psychologically salient (or

foregrounded") for readers. These textual elements therefore have more effect on readers than others in terms of interpretation. The Russian Formalists are basically the first stylisticians,and their

foregrounding theory" becomes a very influential aspect of textual study in later stylistics. Modem stylisticians pay more attention to the psychological aspects involved in a reader interacting with a work,trying to understand how readers respond to the foregrounded linguistic detail (for a more detailed history of stylistics and the concept of foregrounding,see Douthwaite 2000; Short 1996).

During the course of the development,stylistics is generally considered as the study of literary discourse from a linguistic orientation. Nonetheless,as Widdowson suggests, what distinguishes stylistics from literary criticism on the one hand and linguistic analysis on the other is that it is essentially

a means of linking the two (1975: 3)." The aim of stylistics is to relate features of linguistic description step by step to the functional significance of these features in relation to our critical interpretation of the text (Wales 2001: 373). The two activities of linguistic description and literary criticism should be viewed as "distinct, but complementary (Leech 1985: 42)." As stylisticians have demonstrated in various stylistic analyses (e.g. Leech and Short 2007; Short and Semino 2008; Stubbs 2005),detailed examination of the language of a literary text


Yu-Fang Ho Stylistics andIts Relevance to the Study ofLiterature+ 139 +

1.2 On style




meaning and effect

To understand better the discipline of stylistics,it is essential to clari句 themeaning of

style." As we know,the very concept of

style" in literature,though widely used and multifariously defined,

has proved notoriously slippery and hard to define precisely.Itis somewhat confused by the fact that different people mean different things by the label


Enkvist in

On Defining Style"(1964) has eminently reviewed and classified many definitions of style suggested by various scholars during the history of linguistic stylistics (for definitions of style,see also Chatman 1971; Mcrae and Clark 2008; Muller 2001; Short 1994; Verdonk 2002). One ofthe best known definitions regards style as an addition to a central core ofthought:“Style consists in adding to a given thought all the circumstances calculated to produce the whole effect that the

thought ought to produce (Enkvist 1964: 12,emphasis mine; see also Ullmann 1964: 25)." Similarly,

Riffaterre defines style as

an emphasis (expressive,affective or aesthetic) added to the information conveyed by the linguistic structure"(1967: 413).

Nevertheless,the scholars who support the definition of 時Ieas intended何辦ctare quite happy to talk aboutstyle as choice (e.g. Enkvist 1964; Hough 1972). These two definitions are actually interrelated. Theoretically, an author has a vast repertoire of linguistic devices at his disposal. For example,he may choose to give his thoughts an objective mode of expression,i.e. pure facts which

conform to reality as closely as possible. He may also choose to add various affective elements,i.e.

expressions coloured by interests, feelings, approval or disapproval and so on. Hence, linguistic forms can be conceived as a set of possibilities for the production of texts. The author must sift and choose among them to express himself.

However,can all choices the author makes result in a style?1 The answer seems to be negative,

as Enkvist (1964) suggests. For example, the choice between

it's drizzling" and

it ispouring"

should not be labeled as stylistic given that the choice is based on extralinguistic grounds of truth. If not all the choices the author makes result in a style,then what kind of choice can be counted as stylistic choice?

This is a question that stylisticians have been trying to explore. A short answer to this intricate question is to recognize the interconnected relation between style and effect. The sty

1How far a writer is aware of the choices that he makes,or aware of the stylistic devices which he employs is another issue. For a discussion ofthis issue,see Ullmann(1964).



140 • Stylistics and Its Relevance to the Study of Literature Yu-Fang Ho as certain linguistic elements are chosen by an author for certain effect, and that intended effect is recognized by readers, they become units of text style, i.e.

style markers" in Enkvist's terms

(1964: 34). What stylistics attempts to discover and explain is exactly the causal relation between that stylistic choice and that effect. In terms of identification of potential stylistic features in a text,

the theory of

foregrounding" and the notion of

markedness" help. Though the text is a weave of linguistic choices,some stylistic choices are prominent by virtue of being particularly arresting and noticeable in a text.



Stylistic analysis toolkit

How can we be made aware of the so-called particularly noticeable textual features? Stylistics is,in effect, a practice of facilitating readers to identify textual peculiarities and to explain the marked stylistic features more systematically. To achieve the goal of systematic analysis,many stylistic-based checklists have been developed by scholars (e.g. Leech 1969; Leech and Short 2007; McRae 1991; Short 1996; Simpson 1997,2004). These stylistic checklists generally highlight certain linguistic features that readers should be made aware of,such as lexis (words),syntax (how the words/phrases/clauses/sentences are put together),phonology (patterns of sound), graphology

(layout,typeface,punctuation,visual effects),semantics (areas of meaning and how the meaning is achieved); cohesion (the linking mechanisms within the text), dialect (usually spoken variants of standard English),register (tone),etc

Among these,Leech and Short (2007: 61-4) have developed by far the most heuristic

Checklist of Linguistic and Stylistic Categories" as a tool which can be applied to any text for systematic analysis. Their checklist gives a series of questions about the different elements of text readers can ask. Answering the questions helps us to specify the nature of each element,and we can then consider the effects of the element on our interpretation of the text. Their list covers four major categories: 2 1) Lexis; 2) Grammar; 3) Figures of speech; 4) Cohesion and Context. Below is a summarized version of the checklist!.


General - Is the vocabulary simple or complex? Is itdescriptive or evaluative? Is it general or specific? Does the writer make greatest use of referential or denotative meanings,or do we have

2Semantic categories are not listed separately,since it is easier to arrive at these through other categories. For example,we shall use our lexical categories to find out how choice of words involves various types of meaning. We should also be aware that categories will overlap,so that the same feature may well be noted under different headings,


Yu-Fang Ho Stylistics andIts Relevance to the Study ofLiteratureφ141φ

to think about connotations or other emotive senses of the words? Are there any unusual words or specialized vocabulary? Do the words fall into groups which form noticeable semantic fields?

Nouns - Are they abstract or concrete? If abstract,do they refer to similar kinds of element,e.g.

events,perceptions,processes,moral qualities,social qualities? Are there proper names or collective nouns?

Adjectives - Do they occur frequently? What kinds of attributes do they embody (physical,

emotional,visual,color,etc)?Do they occur singly or in groups?

Verbs -Do they occur frequently? Are they stative (referring to states) or dynamic (referring to actions,events)? Do they refer to physical movement,psychological states or activities,perception,


Adverbs - Do they occur frequently? What kinds of meaning do they have (i.e. do they

describe manner,place,direction,frequency,degree,etc)?

II. Grammar

General - Are any general types of grammatical construction used to special effect,e.g.

comparative or superlative constructions, parallelisms, listing, interjections or other speech-like phenomena?

Sentences - Are they statements, questions, commands,etc?Are they simple, compound or complex? How long are they? Are there striking contrasts in sentence length or structure at any point in the text?

Clauses - What types of clauses are noticeably favoured (e.g. relative,adverbial,noun clauses

etc)?Is there anything special about the clauses,e.g.a frequent and unusual placement of adverbials?

Phrases - Do phrases display any remarkable features?

Word Classes - Do the closed class words (i.e. prepositions, pronouns, conjunctions,

determiners, auxiliaries, interjections) play any significant role in the text? Is there frequent or striking use of the closed class words?

III. Figures of speech



Figures of speech can be divided up into types related to the language levels and language patterns (parallelism, deviation, foregrounding). They are of two major types: Schemes,which are constituted by

foregrounded repetitions of expression" and Tropes,or

foregrounded irregularities of content."

Grammatical and Lexical Schemes - Is there any formal or structural repetition (anaphora,

parallelism)? Ifso, do these schemes bring about effects of antithesis, reinforcement,climax,



142 • Stylistics andIts Relevance to the Study ofLiterature Yu-Fang Ho Phonological Schemes - Are there any patterns of sound (rhyme,alliteration,assonance) or rhythm? Are there noticeably frequent occurrences of the same or similar sound-clusters? Is there sound symbolism or are there musical devices which affect interpretation?

Tropes - Are there any obvious violations of the

normal" linguistic code? Are there neologisms or deviant lexical collocations? Ifthere are deviations on other language levels (semantic,

syntactic,phonological,graphological),do they lead us to interpret in terms of such figures of speech as metaphor or irony,etc?

IV. Cohesion and Context

COHESION is the name given to those language features which do the job of

holding together" a text,for example,by connecting sentences. They assist in the internal organization of the text,and can comprise a wide range of linguistic and stylistic devices. CONTEXT can be

internal" or

external". External context might include very broad cultural and historical informlltion about the author,the period of writing,etc. However,for stylisticpu中oses,external context will be mainly concerned with textual relations,3 i.e. with the apparent relationships between persons inside and

outside the text (e.g. the author and the reader,the author and the characters,one character and another,etc).

Cohesion 一 Does the text contain logical or other links between sentences (e.g. and, or, but,

and so,then,etc.) or does it rely on implicit connections (e.g. juxtaposition, sequence)? Is there a lot of cross-reference by means of pronouns or ellipsis? Or is there

elegantvariation" 國 the use of different ways of describing the same thing/person (so as to avoid repetition or to give us an idea of whose view of the thing/person we are getting)? Are meaning connections made by means of lexical repetition or bythe 企equentuse ofwords from the same semantic field?

Context - Does the writer address the reader directly,or through the words or thoughts of a fictional character? What language features are there which tell us who is

speaking" (e.g. first person or third person pronouns)? Can we sense the author's attitude to his subject? Is it revealed explicitly or can we infer it from the way he writes? If a character's words/thoughts are represented,

is this done by direct or indirect speech,or by some other means? Are there noticeable changes of style according to who is supposed to be speaking/thinking?

Since stylis

3This is not to say that the cultural or social contexts are to be ignored,but merely to recognize that these aspects form a secondary,rather than a primary,consideration in our analysis


Yu-Fang Ho Stylistics andIts Relevance to the Study of Literature. 143 •

be systematic in their identification and not miss important linguistic features and patterns. Italso provides us with a means to articulate in more clear terms some of our intuitive feelings about a literary text. While conducting a stylistic analysis,it is sensible to select which questions are most appropriate for any given text. Nonetheless,we should also be aware that not everything we systematically examine will tum out to be important interpretatively. Stylistic analysis of literary texts,just like any other scientific experiments,is a trial-and-error practice.

In the next section, for an illustration, Leech and Short's (2007) checklist will be applied to analyzing the style and effect of a tale ofterror 一“TheTell-Tale Heart" - by Edgar Allan Poe. In his discussions of literary principles,Poe insisted that a good short story accomplished its unity by achieving a single emotional effect on the reader and that each element of a story contributes to its total effect.As he states,

[a] skilful literary artist has constructed a tale. He has not fashioned his thoughts to accommodate his incidents, but having deliberately conceived a certainsingle 電flectto be wrought,he then invents such incidents,he then combines such events,and discusses them in such tone as may best serve him in establishing this preconceived effect (Poe 2003: 396).4

The Tell-Tale Heart" is a perfect demonstration of his

single effect" proposition. The following section investigates the stylistic choices Poe has employed, and how the sense of

terror" is constructed through the language of the text and how readers are affected accordingly.

2.Style and effect in

The Tell-Tale Heart"

The Tell-Tale Heart" was published by Poe in 1843. The story opens with an unnamed first-person narrator directly addressing the reader in a detailed and chillingly calm manner about how he has killed an old man simply due to his fear of the man's

vulture-like" eye. Every night for seven nights he sneaks into the old man's room,observes him sleeping,and waits for a chance to unlatch the lantern slightly to shine a single ray of light onto his eye. On the eighth night,the old man is stirred, sitting awake and frightened in darkness. The narrator claims that he understands how frightened the old man must be,as he has also experienced the lonely terrors of the night.After waiting for a long time in silence,the narrator decides to take action to unlatch the lantern. He then begins to hear a dull pounding,presumably his own terrified heartbeat that he mistakes as the old



144 • Stylistics andIts Relevance to the Study of Literature Yu-Fang Ho man's. Worried that it might be heard by his neighbors,he attacks and kills the old man,dismembers his body and hides it beneath the floorboard of the old man's room without leaving any evidence. Shortly after he commits the crime,three policemen arrive. He receives them calmly without acting suspiciously. He even brings them to the crime scene,sitting on the very place where the victim is buried. The I-narrator is content with his flawless crime until he starts to "hear" the low sound again, which grows louder and louder. In the end, his guilt manifests itself in the hallucination that the man's heart is still beating.

Upon examining the text by using Leech and Short's (2007) checklist,Iident“if布扯 five important stylistic fi良ea訓tu盯re臼s that altogether contribute to the ef宜fec叫tof“t臼er叮Tor" t由ha刮tPoe has wrought out in Tell-Tale Heart." They will be discussed respectively in the following subsections.

2.1 Low lexical density


syntactic simplicity and simple vocabulary

To begin with the analysis, I first make use of a software package, WordSmith Too缸,sfor

finding the general lexical pattern of the story. As shown in Table 1 below,the short story contains a total of 2,219 words in 132 sentences. The general statistics also indicate three distinctive features ofthe text: 1) low type/token ratio; 2) low average sentence length; 3) low average word length,all pointing to a text style that is simple and easy for readers to process.

First of all,“type/token ratio" is the ratio of distinct words (types) in the text to its total number of words (tokens). It is a measure of the range and diversity of vocabulary used by a writer in a text. In other words,this ratio tells us the lexical density of the chosen text.A high type-token ratio indicates that a writer uses a wider range of vocabulary,whereas a low ratio means that a writer draws on a more restricted set of vocabulary items.6Understandably,the longer a text is,the lower the type token ratio, because a writer is typically recycling words from the vocabulary introduced earlier in the text as he writes more. In

the type/九token ratio i臼s 29.07,which is quite low. The low ratio indicates Poe uses his words

economically and repetitively in the story.

Moreover,as we can also see in the table,the average sentence length in the story is an

5WordSmith Tools is lexical analysis software.Itis an integrated suite of programs for looking at how words

behave in texts. TheWordListtoollets us see a list of all the words or word-clusters in a text,set out in alphabetical or frequency order. The concordancer,Concord,allows us to see any searched word or phrase in context.WithKey Words

we can find the key words in a text as compared to other texts. The tools have been used by Oxford University Press for their own lexicographic work in preparing dictionaries,by language teachers and students,and by researchers investigating language patterns. See http.//www.lexically.net/downloads/version5/HTMLlindex.html.


Yu-Fang Ho Stylistics andIts Relevance to the Study of Literature. 145 •

Table 1 The general statistics of

The Tell-Tale Heart"

The Tell-Tale Heart 見 也可 ,-戶開 製 sta1istics R位F 翱翔

Tokens 2,219

Types 645

Type/Token Ratio 計 29.07

Sentences 132

Ave. Sent.length 13.31 Ave. Word Length 3.92

I-letter words 236 2-letter words 336 3-1etter words 546 4-letter words 410 5-letter words 231 6-letter words 167 7-letter words 138 8-letter words 71 9-1etter words 44 1O-letter words 22

Words above 10 letters 18

exceptionally short 13.31 words. With sentences as brief as this,there seems to be little room for

complexit夕 in sentence structure. The vocabulary is also short and concrete,w他 the average word

length 3.92 letters. Further computation shows that words with five letters or fewer account for 79 per cent ofthe text,helping to give a low-key air to the story.

Poe's economical language style in

The Tell-Tale Heart" makes his narrator relate his story simply and concisely in an easy-to-understand and straightforward manner.Itis arguable that the low lexical density,syntactic simplicity and simple vocabulary of the text are the first potential factors that contribute to the totaleffect,的 they presumably facilitate the reading process and help readers concentrate on the horrifying event described by the narrator.


An unnamed crazy narrator and the in medias res effect

The story is told in first-person point of view by an unreliable narrator who is addressing the reader directly. We can easily recognize this narrator type because it is distinguished by prominent use of first-person singular pronouns,as shown in the opening passage of the story:



146 • Stylistics andIts Relevance to the Study of Literature Yu-Fang Ho

TRUE! 一 nervous - very,ve可 dreadfully nervous I had been and am; but whywill you say

that I am mad? The disease had sharpened my senses - not destroyed - not dulled them. Above all was the sense of hearing acute. I heard all things in the heaven and in the earth. I heard many things in hell. How,then,am I mad? Hearken! and observe how healthily - how calmly I can tell you the whole story.

The kind of narrator speaks in the first person

I", and is generally a character in the story. This is usually a limited point of view. When there is an I-narrator,readers can only know what this I-narrator/character sees, hears, and thinks,and are unlikely to know what other characters in the story are thinking or doing unless they are within the sight or hearing ofthe I-narrator. The benefit of this type of point of view is that the narrator can increase suspense because he cannot tell the reader the inside view ofthe other characters (for example,the old man in the story).

The narrator in “The Tell-Tale Heart" is obviously deranged,even though he declares at the outset that he is sane. This can be perceived from the way he relates the apparently motiveless murder

Itis impossible to say howfirst 血豆且盟 enteredmy brain; but once conceived,it haunted me day and night. Object there was none. Passion there was none.I loved the old man. He had never wronged me. He had never given me insult. For his gold I had no desire. I think it was his eye! yes,it was this! He had the eye of a vulture - a pale blue eye,with a film over it.

Whenever it fell upon me,my blood ran cold; and so by degrees - ve可 gradually- L且週金 UDmv mind to take the life ofthe old man‘ and thus rid mvself of the eve forever.

Notice the narrator's obvious contradictory statements: he loves the old man,yet at the same time makes up his mind to kill him in order to rid himself of his

evil" eye. Notice also how we are drawn into the narrator's deviant mind by the definite references

the idea" and

the old man".

Linguists make a distinction between what they call

given" and

new" information,in terms of how information is

packaged" by speakers (see Short 1996: 266-8). If we want to refer to something which is not already known to our addressee,we will typically use indefinite reference, whereas if what we want to refer to is already known to our addressee,we will use definite reference. The use of defmite (“the") or indefinite (“的 articles is one of the given/new information indicators of vlewpomt.


“"IP" 血"Jo S:l ldw官X :l1I九:lJ elsnf punoJ pue正 II官 nuew lX :l l :l ql qi'l nOJqll由此 I "q: )J e :l s :l qlU! lno lj :l l :l le Sql:lAp 官leln i'l:l且qe 可1 :ll官此官 we 1 8

'11官:l H :l le .1 -IPi :l q .1" U!p :l sn i'l UIPU :l ,{/-ql!1I九 SplOl1九呵 1 lI e lO J q:)J官司 S I 'AP叫 S S!qluI "(IUTIU官w :l UnUO Ifl! ωSP .I切 f :l:l S)s!sAleUe p :lI! epp 10J (s )plO必 q:11e :lS :l qllnoqeUO!leuuoJU! 01SS :l:1:1 esn :l A! i'l pue法 elds!p :l:1 Uep lO:1 UO :1 elU :l S :l ldU :l ql II!II九 n令):l IY lX :l lU :l soq :1:l ql U!耳:l:l SII!必 plO:1 日0;) 中!qll 九‘p lOl1九 q:1 1e:l Se 勾!:1:lds 01p :l:l U :lll九‘ 1°°1 :l ql :l sn0 .1 "SlX:l l日 0:1 l! :l qlU! :lse 呵d 10 plOl1 九U :lA! i'l eJO s :l ldwex :l JOl :l Se ";:)"! ':l:1 Uep lO:1 UO :1 e S呵 ewq :1何必wm i'lOJd eS! P lO:1 UO;) L 6 8 L 9 c d F E

z - uod凡 ;}ql 'B!;} !Uqlq 'B lq I Slli也 Ul O ;)J Ullql

Alsno !l nll:)os 'qoAlsno !l nll:) Ul ;}l os可° Alsno !l nll:) Ul ;}lUlll;}ql p!pun Ul ;}lUlll;}ql p!punI ‘Ul OOl ;}qlU! lI;}i 也s Al;}A ‘紅;}A 正IM. 0IS l!P;}AO Ul IiU! l! l!P;}AO Ul I j U!l! lsruqlI AI'B I月 uun:) M. O M. oq;};}s 01p;}q 'B nlll;}Allq Plno M. no正‘ qO osqo l!p;}u;}do pUll lO OpS!q JOq:)lll 正l;}A S;};}l'B ;}P正 q ospUll :Pl0:)Ulll poo y 'lO OP;}ql 'B u!u;}doU! SnO!lnll:) Allunsn I (p;)耳閉口 s;}'B m呵 呵l lOJ) 正IsnOnnU :l S;}'B叩 I;}qllOJ) 正Isn0 !lnll:) 正IsnOnnU :l !l nll:)Alsno !l nll:)os 'qo 正IsnOnnU :l ;}qlqllilS!P lO ulq 'B!Ul Illlql os ‘ AI M. °IS ul Illlql os 法IM. 0ISAl ;}A‘正 l;}A 正I尬。 IS 0lsl! P;}AO Ul I j U!l! lsruqlI 正I~uluun :l ;}doUll ;}Pll Ul pllqI U;}q M.‘ U;}qlpuy iAnU;)~ 1 ;}:>J lll01 P閃閃/【叩 dn;}Pll 叩I AIIUnpu.I~ :S;}U!I ;}:)UllPlO呵 0:) (lX;}lUO:)U! P10 M. 必有);)1 此)I ;}qlU! P;}Alllds!ppUll 1°°1 sn由 0:);}ql 反qp 刮目;}U;} 'BSql;}AP 它l;}UU 它回JO S;}ld囚它 X;};}田 os;:l l它 ;:l l;}H 8 'lX;}l;}ql U! ;}:)Ull:)耳目前 s1 它UO!l 呵呵l! ;:lql ;:l;:l SpUll AI-x !JJ ns ;}qlql! M. PU;}lllql SP10 M. ;}ql IIll 10J 中泊的01 、lool ql叩 SplOA\ ;:l qlJO LP10:)UO;)JO ;}sn ;:l帶回I ‘UO!lll “;}sqo ;}A閃閃閃 S阿 1 JO Al!P!1 它A ;}ql ;}UI回它 X;} 0l 'lu!od ;}田os III AlOl S;}ql 01 ;}su;}dsnsJO lU;}田 ;}PU!ll l1泊的它;:ll:) 01 Sql ;:l Apll "l;:l UUll田" JO ;}sn;}A !l :)U !l S!P s ‘ ;}0ds! l:);}J];) Ill lO l ;}ql01 S;}lnq!月 UO:) lllql101:)llJ I它 !lU;}lOdl;}q lOu 它lllql ;}n 'B lll Plno M. I ‘ UO!lll “;:l sqo uod凡 'P;}囚 10J1;}d s! uo口。它 U它必 oq snIPl Sql;}AP它 J凹的叭" 'u0!l。它 10 lU;}A;} UllJO ;}:)它Id 10 ;}田!l';};}l 'B;:lP ‘l;}UU 它回;}ql lnoq它 u0!l它間 10JU!A;}AUO 。正II 別;}U;} 'BSql;}AP 它加OU 有;}M. sy SqJ;)APB



;)Sn;)A!pUnS!p -SIX;)']


';}smo:)Sl! llloq 'B nolql S;}lOldx;} Al 01S;}ql q:)!q M. UO!SU;}l呵 !OdM. ;}!A 'B U!lS ;:l l;}lU!Ull qS!凹的 S;} 01 'B U!UU! 'B ;}qU! I它 lU;}田 tulSU! snqlS! 1。可 p sa .l sv!pawu! ;}ql'p;}u;}ddllq S它 q lllq M. lno平 OM. 01 'B U! Al l 'lOlllll它U ;}qlql! M. ;}l ;:l qllq 'B !l ;:l lll ;}M. J! S它 S;}AI;}smo u0 !l !sod01 ;}A叫;}A\ 'Al 01S;}ql JO 'B U!UU! 'B ;}q Al M ;}qlllluo 'B U!O 'B S!lllq M. ql叫 P;:lAIOAU! 正I;}l 它回!lU! P;}J01 Sl;}P昀 1 sdpq n﹒(~~Z: : 100 Z: S;}I它且 ;};}S '"S 'B U!ql JO ;}IPP!田 ;}ql OlU!" 10J U !l ll 'l) "S ;:l l S它 !p;}田 U!" P;} lI ll:) U;}ljo S! '“此OU 有;}ql U!"正 p昀 11它 S它 Sl;:l P昀 1 'B U!u0 !l !sod ‘ ;}nb!uq:);}l S!ql﹒(有叩 lq'B!回;}M. l,,,U 它回Plo ;}ql" S! oq M. pu它l,,, ll;}P!,, lllq M.) lOU op ;:lM. q 'B noqlU;} A;}‘ 01 l;}];)l S;}S即可 d ;}S;}qllllq M. M.OU 可oq M. ;}Ido;}dJO UO!l!sod ;:l qluo ;:l司的01 sn S;:l :)lOJ“ ull田 Plo;}ql" pu它“它 ;}P! ;}ql" 10J呵呵抖它 ;}l!U!.PP ;}qlJO ;}sn;}ql ',,11 它;}H ;}llll-lI ;}l;}ql" JO ;}'B它SS 它d 'B UIu;}do ;}qlU! 'l;}A ;:lM. 0H ';:l:)U ;:ll句;:l l ;}l !ug:;:l pU!正它 Ids!p Plnoqs ;}:)U ;:l q pu它 Sl;}P昀 1 01 M. ;}U;}q Plnoqs Al 01S ;}ql UI 'BUI 可lAl ;}A;} 01 ;}:)U;}l句 ;}l;}A !lllll 它U lllql l:);}dx;}正 II它 l;}U;}'B ;:lM.‘'Al01S 它JO 'Bu 閃閃'B;:lq Al;:l A ;:l qllY 0H 'BUll



148 • Stylistics andIts Relevance to the Study of Literature Yu-Fang Ho 10 Yown powers ofmy sagacity. I could

11 g of the door,and I kept pushing it on 12 oor,and I kept pushing it on steadily,

13 When I had waited a long time,very 14 0 I opened it you cannot imagine how

15 t you cannot imagine how stealthily,

16 directed the ray as if by instinct,

17 yet Ir巴金ainedand kept still.I 18 eld the lantern motionless. I tried how 19 the body. The night waned,and I worked 20 antIings. I then replaced the boards so 21 her replaced the boards so cleverly,so

scarcely steadily


steadily. patiently




stealthily precisely scarcely steadily hastily






contain my feelings oftriumph. steadily. I had my head in,

I had my head in,and wad a without hearing him lie down,

stealthilyunt汀,at leng until,at length a single Upon the damned spot.And n Breathed. I held the lantern mo I could maintain the ray upon t But in silence. First of all I so cunningly,that no human ey that no human eye not even


The Tell-Tale Heart", the narrator's nightly visits to the old man's chamber take place precisely at midnight,in darkness and in silence. When he is describing how he creeps into the old man's room and what he does to him in detail,time seems to slow down and almost stand still. Every action seems to occur in extremely slow motion


as conveyed in the adverbs









steadily" and



etc. The use of

cunningly" and

cleverly" also indicates the narrator's perverse pride in his own sagacity and skillfulness.

If we observe the concordance examples in more detail,we can see another distinctive feature,

namely,repetition,in the use ofthe adverbs.

I moved it slowlv - verv. verv slowly" so that I might not disturb the old man's sleep.



I undid the lantern cautiously - oh. so cautiously - cautiously (for the hinges creaked) 一 I

undid it just somuch 也ata single thin ray fell upon the vulture eye.


I kept pushing it on steadily. steadily"

Itshould be obvious that the repetition of



cautiously" and



combined with some degree adverbs "very" and



creates a greater,more intensified and prolonged force than usual. At this point




as readers following the narrator's viewpoint


seem to be preoccupied with the narrator's murderous action.

2.4 Repetition and parallelism-creating slow and fast rhythms

The theme of the story is that the

heart" (conscience) reveals the tru曲, as implied in the title. The rhythm of heartbeat becomes an important symbol in the story. From time to time, Poe uses a succession of words


short phrases or sentences


mostly in repeated and parallel structure


to create


0l Al!A!l!SU~S p~U~lq~!~q S!H ·pU!山 S,lOlB 且BU 叫l U! UO!Snpp P~!ZU~lJ ~qlSIB~A~l (“i此立 N)I A~ql iP~p~dsns 心ql -iP1B~qA~ql" ·;ra) SlU~W~lBlSA1 0lBWBF' X~~ql pUB (“l,~UO~ ~qlO U反 ~ql PInoM 反qM" ,,'l, 0P IPIno:) lBqA仇" Xa) S~:)U;)lU~S~A !lB~Oll~lU! JO UO!ss~:):ms y ·punos ~可l JO ~wnIoA p~S自 ~l:)U!AI~ 閃閃~~S ~ql~lB :)!PU! IBl!dB:) U!“ ~3a凡 0'1" lSBI ~ql pUB "l~pnol"p lOlI九~ql JO U0!l!l ~d~l ~ql﹒閃閃 p~p~dsns pUBpunos ~qlp1 昀q oSIB ~ABq lsnw U~叩 ~:)!Iod叫 llBqllq~noql ~ql ql!M JI~SW!可 S~Z!UO~B pUB“ P~SB~l:)日!反 I!PB~lS ~S!OU~可 l"~u !lB~d~l 日o sd~~有 10lB且 BU﹒I ~ql‘ lU!odS! 可ny m芷 0日 0'1 j1~pnoI j1~pnoI i1~pnoI j司 1Bq -j U!B~B -MOUpUB j~!P10 山B~l:)S lsnwI lBqllPJ I jl;)~UOI ou S~I!凹 SIB 呵!l:)od 翔的Oql1B~q Plno:)I jU古罰 l~p S!qluBql ~lqB1~lol ~10叩 SBM .o U!qlAUYj AUO .o BS!ql U1~ql l~n;)q SBII九.o U!qlAUB lns:勻即 ql IS!ql pUB"lq .o noqlI S!可 1一 jlOllOq正由 JOA1~)F' 0凹 B~Ul有官叩 ~l~MA~ql 一i 必3 N)1Mql 一市哥哥富有吉 布可一iP1B;)q A~ql i OU ‘ OU一 ipoD辰 lq~!山 IY l, lOU p1B~q A ;:l ql ;:l N!ssodl! SB A\. ·P;)l!山 S pUB 法nUBSB ;:lld p~nBq:)U~W ~ql mlSPuy i1;)pnoI-l;)pnoI -l ;:l pnol M~l~ n ·p;:l SBaJ:) U!勾 IBnU!l UOJ pUBliB JaAOasoJB as!OUaql lnq

Sp1BOq ~ql uodnl! P;)lB1~ pUB '~U!l l!S U;);)qpBq Iq:)!qM uodn l!Bq:) ;)ql ~unMs I j;)lO疋 sy-p杏文訂 1-P;)WB 可1 l, 0PI Plno:)lBqM ipoDqO ·paSBaJJU! 正I!PBalS as!OUaql lnq-U;)W;)ql JOSU0 !l BAl;)SqO ;)ql后 qA1可 0l P;)l!:)X;)J! SB

S;)P!llSAAB;)q ql川 o.g pUBOllOO lJ ;)q印的 Bd I l,;:lUO~ ;)qlOU A;)ql PlnoM正q.M. ·paSBaJJU!正I! PBalS as!ouaql lnq ~SUO!l BIO:)!l S;)~ lU;)IO!Aql!M pUB泛;):>\ q~!可 BUJ

S;) lJ! lllnoqB p;:l n~lB pUB ;)SOlB I·paSBaJJU! 正I叩開 lS as!ouaql lnq ~反nU;)W;)q;)A ;)lOW -AI:>\:)!nb ;)lOW p叫 IBl 1 ·lO Ul! P1B;)q Sl;):)!lJ 0叫 1 l;)正 pUB -t [l B;)lq 10J P;)dSB~ I·UOnO:) U! P;)dOPAU;) U;)qA也 S叫它間可 :)lBM BSB punosB q:)ns q:)n囚一 punos有 :)mb‘!l np‘必 01 BSBM n l, 0PI PIno:) lBqA也 pUB -paSBaJJU!punos aqllax ·;:l :)!OA P;)U;)lq~!;)q Bql!M pUB汶口 u;)nlJ ;)lOW P;):>\I的 Ilnq -~;)IBd A1 ;)A M;)l~ MOUI lqnopoN :P;)JP P;)~lBq:)AI~l 月U;)lq~!lJ B S;) lB ;)l:) pUB PU!山 S,lOlBllBU ;)qlJO uo!snI;)p;)A!SS;)Sqo ;)ql SP;)日 ;)1S;)SB 呵d P;)l昀 d;)lJO 的!A;)P :)!lS!IAlS ;)ql‘心 0lS ;)qlJO ;)~BSSBd lS呵呵 l ul ;);)SUB:) ;)必Sy·;) 田11:) SI可凹的 ;)Juo:) pUB AI~U!叩 B;)l:)S p1BOq100 lJ ;)qllB SlU !od叫‘ AUO~B S!q ~U月 :)0山白宮 ;)ldo;)dlBql 昀p! ;)ql正 qpB 叩U;)A! 1p‘PU;) ;:l qlUI ·l;)pnOIpUB l ;:l pnol SMOl~ H·UBW PIO叫 1 JOlB;)qllB;)q ;)qlSB S;)司的 S!W ;)qq:)!qM punosMOl ;)ql "lB;)q" 0l S口的 S ;)qmun ;)囚!1:) SS;)IMBUS!q q羽絨 的昀lB S!;)H ·AIsno!:)!dsns ~u!l叩開 Oql!M ;)snoq;)ql q:)lB;)S0l Sl;):)叩° ;)ql sp昀 I lO lBllBU ;)ql ·XB山!F' Sl! q:)B;)l 0l SU!~;)q心 0lS ;)qlpUB ;)A!llB U;)W;):)!Iod ;);)Jqγp;)n! 山山0:) SI ;)山!1:) ;)ql l;)ljB AIlloqS 心0lS ;)qlJO ;)U ;:l :)S XB血!F' ;)qlU! SB

l;)PB;)l ;)qluo pBd由! IBu0 !l 0W;);)ql U~lq~!;)q pUB;):)Bd ;)ql dnp;);)ds 0l S;)叩!l l;)qlopUB ‘(ιZ U!;)IdwBX ;:l ;)qlU! UMOqSSB) ;:l su;)dsnsdn p l! nqOll;)PB ;:l l ;:l qlUMOp A也0IS 0lp;)Z! l! ln s;)w!l;)閱 OS S!;):)!MP ;)ql“ ·lB;)qμB;)q" ;)河!l W可 lAq1 lSBJ pUBMOIS An日 ;)ll!Ull;)lU! UB • 617 I • ;)1 0l B1;)l !'l JO正 POl S ;)ql0l ;):)ueA;)p~ Snpue s:) !l s !lAl S 0H ~ull.:l -nλ



150 • Stylistics andIts Relevance to the Study of Literature Yu-Fang Ho sound,connected with his guilt feelings,ultimately overcomes him. Through the linguistic devices (repetition,parallelism,heavy use of question and exclamation marks),we seem to be able to "see" and experience the narrator's anxiety and hysterical emotions at this point.


Figures of speech - repetitive sound patterns and the obsessive mind

Other striking linguistic features that contribute to the total effect of the story include simile,

anaphora and alliteration,all helping to reinforce the sound pattern of the heartbeat andintensi布 its

emotional impact on the reader.

Throughout the story,the central image of the heartbeat is associated with other rhythmic sound patterns:

- now,I say,there came to my ears a low, dull,quick sound, such as a watch makes when enveloped in cotton. I knew that sound well,too.Itwas the beating of the old man's heart.It

increased myfu可,的 thebeatinQ:of a drum stimulates the soldier into couraQ:e.

Notice the comparison of the heartbeat to the ticking of a watch and the beating of a drum. Both watch and drum could emit a repeated rhythmic sound which is often employed in horror movies for a certain creeping effect.

Anaphora is a popular figure of speech involving repetition of the same word at the beginning of successive clauses or sentences (Wales 200 I: 19). Here are some boldfaced examples from

The Tell-Tale Heart:"

I heard all things in the heaven and in the earth. I heard many things in hell.

Object there was none. Passion there was none. I loved the old man. He had never wronged me. He had never given me insult. For his gold I had no desire. I think it was his eye! Yes,it was this!

You should have seen me. You should have seen how wisely I proceeded - With what caution - with what foresight - with what dissimulation -I went to work [plot the murder]! There was nothing to wash out- no stain of any kind- no blood-spot whatever.

They heard!-they suspected!-they KNEW!一they were making a mockery of my horror! -this I thought,and this I think.


Yu-Fang Ho Stylistics andIts Relevance to the Study of Literature+ 151 +

Similarly,alliteration is used for the same purpose. Alliteration is the repetition of the initial consonant in two or more words (Wales 2001: 14). Here are some boldfaced examples from

The Tell-Tale Heart:"

Hearken! and observe how healthily,how~almly, Iεantell you the whole story. Meanwhile,the hellish tattoo of the heart increased.

Itgrew quicker and quicker,and louder and louder every instant.

They were making a mockery of my horror!

Itis the beating of his hideous heart!

As a deliberate phonological device,alliteration is associated mostly with literary,especially poetic,

language. As Wales (2001: 14) suggests,the foregrounding of the sounds is often used for emphasis and to aid memorability.

To sum up, from the narrator's protestation about his sanity in the opening lines to his confession in the last,eve可 carefully crafted nuance of the tale contributes to a frighteningly charged effect. Poe strips the story of excess detail as a way to foreground the narrator's (the murderer's) obsession with certain issues,i.e. his own plea of sanity, the old man's eye, and the heartbeat. His economical style,simple and concrete diction,uncomplicated syntax,repetition and parallelism at various linguistic levels,and other rhetorical devices,altogether contribute to the

single effect" that he has wrought out for

The Tell-Tale Heart."

3.Concluding remarks

The paper has illustrated a stylistic analysis of Poe's

The Tell-Tale Heart" in an aU臼emptto demonstrate how stylistics could be usen臼11 in deepening our unde叮rs削s叫tand副ing and a叩ppreciation of a literaryt紀ex玖t.By examining the stylistic devices in

of how the sense of“t臼er叮Tor" i臼sconveyed through the language and how readers interact with the text accordingly.

I would also like to suggest that stylistics could be of special value for the teaching of both language and literature,as many stylisticians have been trying to explore and demonstrate (e.g. Clark and Zyngier 2003; Hall 2005; Watson and Zyngier 2007; Widdowson 1975, 1992). The stylistic approach to the teaching of literature often requires the close reading of texts,with a focus on the specific linguistic choices made in a text and the effect/meaning of those choices. Through the detailed stylistic analysis,the merger of linguistic analysis and literary study,we can help students



152 • Stylistics andIts Relevance to the Study ofLiterature Yu-Fang Ho to be aware of language use within chosen literary texts,to improve their linguistic sensibility and literary appreciation at the same time (see Appendix for some students' responses to the short story,

for example).

At last, it should be noted that I do not intend to claim that stylistic analysis can replace literary criticism. I would simply like to argue that stylistic analysis can prepare the way for our interpretation to operate more effectively,as Leech and Short suggest,“to check and validate intuitions by detailed analysis (2007: 4)." Overall,stylistic analysis of a literary text is comparable to the study of a painting; the more we learn about how different colours,tones or textures can be produced,or about how we interact cognitively with perspective or with foregrounding,the more we appreciate an author/painter's artistic creation.


Yu-Fang Ho Stylistics andIts Relevance to the Study of Literature


153 •


Chatman,S,ed. Literary Style: A Symposium (London: Oxford University Press,1971).

Clark,B. and Zyngier,S.

Towards a Pedagogical Stylistics,"Language and Literature, 12.4(2003): 339-51.

Douthwaite,J. Towards a LinguisticTheoη ofForegrounding(Torino: Edizioni dell'Orso,2000).

Enkvi泣, N.E. “On Defining Style: An Essay on Applied Linguistics,"in Linguistics andS,秒I,ed. J.

Spencer (Oxford: Oxford University Press,1964),1-56.

Hall,G. Literature in Language Education(New York: Palgrave Macmillan,2005). Hough,G. Style and Stylistics (London: Routledge& Kegan Paul,1972).

Leech,G. A LinguisticGuide 的 EnglishPoetry(London: Longman,1969).


Stylistics," in Discourse and Literature: New Approaches to the Analysis of Literary

Genres,ed. T.A. v. Dijk (Amsterdam& Philadelphia: John Benjamins,1985),39-58.

Leech, G. and Short, M. Style in Fiction.A Linguistic Introduction to English Fictional Prose

(London: Longman,2007).

McRae,J. Literature with a Small 'L' (London: Macmillan,1991).

McR前, J. and Clark,U.

Stylistics,"in The Handbook ofApplied Linguistics,eds. A. Davies and C.

Elder (Oxford: Blackwell,2008),328-46.

Muller,W. G.

Style," in Encyclopedia of Rhetoric, ed. T. O. Sloane (Oxford: Oxford University Press,2001).

Poe,E.A. The Fall ofthe House of Usher and Other Writings (London: Penguin Classics,2003).


Criteria for Style Analysis(1959),"in Essays on the Language ofLiterature,eds. S. Chatman and S. R. Levin (Boston: Houghton Mifflin,1967),412-30.

Short, M.

Style: Definitions," in The Encyclopaedia of Language and Linguistics, ed. R. Asher (Oxford: Pergamon Press,1994),4375-8.

Sho肘, M.Exploring the Language ofPoems,Plays and Prose(Harlow: Longman,1996).

Short, M. and Semino, E.“Evaluation and Stylistic Analysis," in The Quality of Literature:

Linguistic Studies in Literary Evaluation,ed. W. v. Peer (Amsterdam: John Benjamins,2008),


Simpson,P. Language through Literature (London: Routledge,1997).

Simpson,P.S,秒listics: A Resource Bookfor Students(New York: Routledge,2004).


• 154 • Stylistics andIts Relevance to the Study of Literature Yu-Fang Ho

Literature,14.1 (2005): 5-24.

Ullmann,S.Language and Style (Oxford: BasilBlackwell,1964). Verdonk,P. Stylistics (Oxford: Oxford University Press,2002). Wales,K.A Dictionary ofStylistics (London: Longman,2001).

Watson, G. and Zy時間, S. eds. Literature and Stylistics for Language Learners: Theory and

Practice(New York: Palgrave MacMillan,2007).

Widdowson,H. G.Stylistics and the Teaching ofLiterature (London: Longman,1975). Widdowson,H. G.Practical Stylistics (Oxford: Oxford University Press,1992).


O H Ub n a FA U Y

Stylistics andIts Relevance to the Study of Literature


155 •


StudentA 發表於 2009 年的月 25 日週三, 01:57 下午


我還蠻喜歡倒數第二段的敘述,“ but the noise steadily increased"一直重複,“it grew louder

-louder - louder!"“louder! louder! louder! louder!" 真的是把整篇文章帶到了最高潮,閱讀的時 候,也讓我整個內心都隨著激昂了起來!


B 發表於 2009 年的月 18 日週三, 09:08 下午


型,強調 narrator 在意的事情, Allan Poe帶有寓意的小說 不做虧心事;很好奇也很佩服,作

者由人物的獨自刻畫出鮮明的角色特性,由兇手的行為模式看來他精神似乎異常,但他卻一 再強調他沒有發瘋,尤其是兇手與老人對峙時間長達一小時,也令我覺得作者將精神異常的 角色發揮的淋漓盡致。老人與兇手完全無嫌隙,卻因為眼睛而招來設機,此原因真的出乎意 料。大量短句、重複、排比的用法,令人不禁想趕緊將文章讀完。作者對於文章的標題在閱 讀玩文章後也令人心有同凰...。


C 發表於 2009 年的月 18 日週三, 12:25 下午

The Tell-Tale Heart雖和上篇出自同一作者之手,但卻帶給我很不同的戚覺,相較於前篇 的深謀遠慮、用盡心機,這篇瘋子的激動殺人更加吸引我的目光,因為是短篇小說的關係,

少了前面的鋪陳,在 The Cask ofAmontillado雖然作者有稍稍提到殺人動機,但太簡略的帶過

其實無法引起我的共鳴,而這篇將殺人動機直接用成一位瘋子對受害人眼睛的憤怒,反而讓 我能融入劇情。而作者用短句及重複句增加劇情緊張戚和節奏駝的方式也讓我十分喜歡,也 更能戚受劇情張力。


D 發表於 2009 年的月 15 日週日, 07:15 下午

對我而言, {The Tell-Tale Heart} 的敘事風格比較吸引我,雖然同樣都是殺人事件,不

過 {The Cask ofAmontillado} 在敘述時是以十分平稽的方式推展故事,四平八穩但少了一些

高潮起伏,而 {TheTell-Tale Heart} 在故事的鋪陳上,就設計了兩段高潮點,一是 'I J 殺人

的時候,另外一段設計在結尾,是 IIJ 自曝殺了老人,由於有兩段高潮,閱讀時比較緊張



156 • Stylistics andIts Relevance to the Study of Literature Yu-Fang Ho 有關瘋子的殺人計劃(姑且不論兇手到底是不是) .而且全篇只有三頁,算是相當緊湊,二 來,在字裡行間. ALLANPOE 又使用了許多重覆的句子(或單字)以及戚嘆詞,這兩者在文 章的進行中,又給我一種緩慢下來的錯覺,因此這樣時快時慢的文風,豐富了整篇文章的律 動戚。


E 發表於 2009 年的月 16 日週一 I 11:13 上午 「洩密的心」以文字的快慢表達出電影的效果,多了一分娛樂性。精采的地方在他所交 代殺人的過程與最後面警察來家搜查時,殺人過程從預先準備要謀殺這一件事上與上一篇很 相似,性格上的冷血與變態也令人印象深刻,像是他說了他愛這位老人但又因他的眼睛而要 殺了他和他殺人的手法以支解的形式採取。到了尾聲,又掀起了另一波的高潮,他與自己的 心在戰爭,作者運用不斷出現重複的文字,表達出內心的跳動,也透露出人性的一面。這篇 也告訴我們. ,-人就算多想要去掩飾自己,但終究還是逃不離自己的審判。」


F 發表於 2009 年的月 16 日週一 I 12:40 上午

在讀這篇“The Tell Tale Heart"時,我發現,比讀上一篇‘'TheCask ofAmontillado"更容易

上手且融入劇惰,也發現“TheTell Tale Heart"裡的句子,較少是長句,讓人嵐覺劇情安排很

緊湊,所以在讀“The Tell TaleHeart"峙,使我有種既緊張但又停不住想往下唸的慾望!而本

篇令我印象較深刻的地方是:講述者愛那個老人,但卻因為那老人像「禿鷹般的眼睛』而想 謀般那老人!講述者那趨近於變態的行為,令我匪夷所思及害↑白!而在故事結尾,講述者像 是做賊心虛般地,瘋狂、歇斯底旦地說出是他殺了那老人。這一番的所作所為,給了我們一 些歐發,就是: ,-平時不做虧心事,半夜不怕鬼敲門 J !


G 發表於 2009 年的月 14 日週六 109:34 下午 這一篇的單字量比較少,讓在深夜讀這篇文章的我覺得驚陳多了...因為讀得比較懂。 最令我戚到害怕的是主角和老人在黑暗中對峙,經過了一個小時之後開燈,赫然發現老人的 眼睛正對著自己,這一幕光用想的就很恐怖。而且這一整篇用了非常多的重複句法,讓不管 是音響效果或是視覺效果都覺得營造的很成功,老人的心跳、主角的心跳、甚至是牆上的掛 鐘都發出令人心神不安的聲音。 我覺得這篇的主角明顯的變態多了,他可以花很久很久的時間默默的窺探別人,在心裡 想著復仇的計畫然後嘴角揚出微笑,而且我覺得他的心裡應該是有病的,但是卻又不斷的提 醒讀者"你覺得一個這麼聰明的人會有病嗎?"這樣的概念,真是有點恐怖。


Yu-Fang Ho Stylistics andIts Relevance to the Study of Literatureφ157 •



何玉方 英美語文學系 慈濟大學 助理教授 摘要 廣義而言,風格學(或稱文體學)旨在從語言學的角度切入去研究文學作品,並探索 讀者與文本語言之間的互動,亦即,分析文學作品如何透過語言文字(如詞彙、句法、語 音、語義等)相互發揮作用並呈現意義 (meaning) ,進而對讀者產生影響 (effect) 。本文 旨在介紹文體學分析方法對文學研究的相關性,並以愛倫坡的短篇恐怖小說〈洩密之心〉 為示範'驗證作品文字如何營造恐怖氛圍,以及文體風格分析如何幫助讀者將主觀的嵐受

(subjective impression) 提出客觀的描述和解釋(objective description) ,從而提高對文學作 品的分析和鑑賞能力。


Table 1 The general statistics of “ The Tell-Tale Heart"



It is the author’s hope that the Zuting shiyuan may be effectively used as a supplement for understanding Chan texts, and its contributions be fully valued.. Furthermore, the

He frequently made a certain degree of communication between Buddhism doctrine and Yijing (《易 經》 ) ideas, and tried to explain that the way of Buddhism and the words said

運用 Zuvio IRS 與台日比較文化觀點於日本文化相關課程之教學研究 Applying Zuvio IRS and Perspective on Cultural comparison between Taiwan and Japan to Teaching

Regarding Flow Experiences as the effect of mediation, this study explores the effect of Perceived Organizational Support and Well-being on volunteer firemen, taking volunteer

The Relationship Health Promotion and Well-Being – The Mediator Effect of Health Assistance of Employee Assistance Programs3. 賴郁婷

Finally, with extending Nerlove and Arrow’s advertising model and considering the adjustment cost of advertising expenditures as well as learning effect accumulated by

Investigating the effect of learning method and motivation on learning performance in a business simulation system context: An experimental study. Four steps to

Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate the hospitality students’ entrepreneurial intentions based on theory of planned behavior and also determine the moderating