THE CAREER SUCCESS ORIENTATION OF GRADUATES OF TAIWANICDF HIGHER EDUCATION SCHOLARSHIP PROGRAM

全文

(1)CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION. The study examines career success orientations on graduates of TaiwanICDF (International Cooperation and Development Fund). There are six sections in this chapter. The first section provides the background of the study in term of the important reasons for acknowledging the career success orientations on graduates of TaiwanICDF. Subsequently, the problem of the study, the purpose of the study, and the research question will be detailed. Following section explains the delimitation and limitation of the study. In the end, definition of key terms is listed.. Background of the Study. Higher Education plays an important role for the economic development in every country, which is one of the core works in the TaiwanICDF. To help allied and friendly nations develop their human resources in order to spur social and economic progress, TaiwanICDF developed many kinds of human resource development programs based on Taiwan’s own developmental experiences. Since 1998, TaiwanICDF has stared a Higher Education Scholarship Program by providing scholarship for foreign students to pursue graduate studies in Taiwan. The agricultural science program at National Pingtung University of Science and Technology was the first program. Afterward TaiwanICDF expanded the program to the International MBA program at National Chengchi University in 2001. The Higher Education Scholarship Program of TaiwanICDF not only assists the developing countries to improve the national human resources but also enriches Taiwan higher education spiritually and in cultural diversity. In addiction, the program also provides people of developing nations who want to pursue the higher degree a better opportunity to meet their. 1.

(2) self-actualization (TaiwanICDF, 2007b). Career success is defined as the accumulated positive work and psychological outcomes resulting from one’s work experiences (Ng, Eby, Sorensen, & Feldman, 2005). However, to fast track career success, typically construed in terms of improved salary and hierarchical position, the popular strategy is getting higher degree (Hay & Hodgkinson, 2006). Learning is viewed as a crucial way to make career advancement (Powell, 1990). Theoretically, career success refers to acquisition of materialistic advancement, power, and satisfaction. Knowledge of career success orientation helps individuals develop appropriate strategies for career development. On the other hand, knowledge of career success orientation helps human resource managers design effective career systems and meet both needs between individuals and organizations. Research on career success orientations can provide critical implications for HRD because developing an employee’s career is a way for individuals to fulfill their needs for achievement and power, as well as a way for organizations to enhance organizational productivity (Kim, 2002). From the literatures, most studies focused on career success orientations of MBAs and employees in the United States and the British (e.g. Bozionelos, 2004; Burke & McKeen, 1994; Reitman & Schneer, 2003). Therefore, from a theoretical perspective, the study provides different perspective of career success orientations, and enlarges the research of career success. Many scholars have observed that careers in the 21st century have become increasingly boundaryless and protean (Arthur & Rousseau, 1996; Hall, 1996). This means that individuals’ work experiences now tend to span multiple employers, work arrangements, and types of competencies and individuals are increasingly responsible for managing the transitions in their own careers. Several authors have noted the need to develop a better understanding of the strategies and behaviors individuals use to actively promote their own career success (Bell & Staw, 1989; Judge & Bretz, 1994 ; Mirvis & Hall, 1996). Therefore, through discovering individuals’ career success orientation can obtain clearer picture on 2.

(3) individuals’ needs to help organization make more effective career programs for individuals. After reviewing the relevant literatures, there is no research to specific identify the career success orientation of the graduates from TaiwanICDF higher education scholarship program. Consequently, the study focuses on the graduates of TaiwanICDF higher education scholarship program to figure out their career success orientation. Knowledge of graduates’ career success orientation will give scholarship program managers some suggestions for programs that may meet students’ needs more and career counselors thoroughly some references.. Purpose of the Study. The demonstration of a plurality of career success may provide a potential advantage for TaiwanICDF to go through the program and make the program more suitable for students. The goal of study aims at investigating the career success orientation of TaiwanICDF graduates and figuring out the relationship between personality and career success orientation. Therefore, the main purposes of this study are listed as following. 1. To investigate the career success orientation of graduates of TaiwanICDF higher education scholarship program. 2. To figure out the relationship between personality and career success orientation of graduates of TaiwanICDF higher education scholarship program. 3. Based on the conclusion of the study, to bring up suggestions for relevant organizations.. Question of the Study. According to the purpose of the study, the research questions are as following: 1. What are the characteristics of career success orientations for TaiwanICDF graduates? 3.

(4) 2. Does TaiwanICDF graduates’ career success orientation differ by age? 3. Does TaiwanICDF graduates’ career success orientation differ by gender? 4. Does TaiwanICDF graduates’ career success orientation differ by marital status? 5. Does TaiwanICDF graduates’ career success orientation differ by personality? 6. Do TaiwanICDF graduates receive tangible or intangible benefit from the program?. Delimitation and Limitation. Delimitation. This study focuses on graduates of TaiwanICDF higher education scholarship program. The program includes three degrees of higher education: doctoral, graduate, and undergraduate. Since the undergraduate degree of program commenced from 2006, the target population of the study was the graduates of doctoral and master degrees graduates. The main purpose of the study was to investigate graduates’ career success orientation by means of questionnaire surveyed; as a result, the participants will be narrowed to graduates who graduated before Jun in 2008.. Limitation. While the graduates TaiwanICDF higher education scholarship program spread worldwide, this study faced the difficulty to contact with all graduates of TaiwanICDF higher education scholarship program. The researcher got help from TaiwanICDF to get in touch with all graduates’ contact way. The e-mail was the best solution for the difficulty. Moreover, the study collected the data by means of the questionnaire, and the participants might not respond to the questionnaire or responded in false manner due to being afraid of the improper 4.

(5) purpose. Consequently, the study used anonymous questionnaire and promised the outcome of the study only applied for academic use.. Definition of Terms. Key terms in this study are defined as follows: Career In this study, career is defined as a series of a person’s work experience over time (Arthur, Khapova, & Wilderom, 2005; Hernandez & Morales,1999 ; Schein,1990). Career success orientation Career success orientation refers to how people define their success at work. In the study provided five dimensions of career success orientation: getting ahead, getting free, getting secure, getting high, and getting balanced. Personality According to Merriam-Webster On-line dictionary, personality is defined as the totality. of an individual' s behavioral and emotional characteristic. Higher Education Scholarship Program Higher Education Scholarship Program in the study referred to that the entitlement sponsored by TaiwanICDF and including three degrees of higher education.. 5.

(6) CHAPTER II. LITERATURE REVIEW. There are five sections in this chapter including the importance of career development, perspectives of career success, the Big-Five Model of personality, overview of TaiwanICDF higher education scholarship program, and relevant studies. In the beginning, the importance of career development and two perspectives of career - external and internal - will be introduced. Afterwards, perspectives of career success orientation and the Big-Five Model will be discussed. The overview of TaiwanICDF higher education scholarship program will be described in the following section. Finally, the relevant studies will be presented.. Importance of Career Development. Career development is a field that is becoming increasingly relevant for both employees and employers (Frans van de Ven, 2007; Kuijpers, Schyns & Scheerens, 2006; Smith & Sheridan, 2006). Form the perspective of organization, as Frans van de Ven (2007) referred that the importance of career development is to make “the right person in the right position at the right time.” Career development is a significant issue for individuals and organizations (Frans van de Ven, 2007; Smith & Sheridan, 2006). In addition, as Hollmann and Gallan, (2006) mentioned that the successful career development needs to be a responsibility shared between organization and individual. The ultimate issue of career development is matching the needs of the individual with those of the organization (Schein, 1990). Therefore, it is a win-win situation for individual and organization to support both individual’s development objectives and the needs of organization. However, with the more and more changeable work opportunities and shifts in labor, the working environment becomes more and more unpredictable. A permanent job with one employer can no longer be considered the normal. 6.

(7) work pattern (Kuijpers, Schyns, & Scheerens, 2006). For perspective of individual, career development is unique to each individual and based on in the interaction of self, personality, genetic traits, and environmental variables (Hernandez & Morales, 1999). In concept of the protean career, career development is indeed self-directed. Individuals need to be self-correcting in response to changing demands from the environment, without waiting for formal training and development from the organization (Quingley & Tymon, 2006). By shifted to the concept of a changing career, career development has been largely guided by the individual him- or herself (Kuijpers, Schyns, & Scheerens, 2006). Therefore, individuals can no longer rely only on organizations for career development, individuals have to take responsibility.. Major Stages of the Career. Combining other researchers’ points of view, Schein (1990) developed the ten major stages of the career illustrated as figure 2.1. These ten stages are described in the following section. Stage 1: Growth, fantasy, and exploration This period is usually connected with childhood and early adolescence. In this period, career and occupation has little meaning for individuals. An individual at this level prepares to enter the necessary training or educational process for future occupation. Stage 2: Education and training During this period, an individual has to clarify or change occupational goals. In the period, an individual requires to achieve necessary education or training for the chosen occupation. Stage 3: Entry into the world of work For most individuals, this is time for them to make adjustment between what they have 7.

(8) learned and the realities of work. Major personal learning begins in this period, and an occupational self-concept begins to develop as testing his or her talents, motives, and values in the real work. Stage 4: Basic training and socialization The length and the depth of this period differ by occupation, organization, complexity of the work. Stage 5: Gaining of membership A meaningful self-image as a member of the occupation or organization begins to emerge in this period. Motives and values begin to be clarified through seeing one’s responses to different challenging situations. Individual begins to have a better sense of his or her own talents, strengths, and weaknesses. Stage 6: Gaining of tenure and permanent membership Most organizations make a tenure decision that tells the individual whether or not he or she can count on a long-term future in the organization. Stage 7: Midcareer crisis and reassessment Although it is not clear whether this is a crisis or even a stage, there is mounting evidence that most people go through some kind of reassessment of themselves when they are well into their careers, asking themselves questions about their initial choices. Such reassessment often leads to a rediscovery or re-affirmation of goals. Stage 8: Maintaining momentum, regaining it or leveling off The insights result from reassessment result in decisions. Each individual at this stage develops a personal solution that will guide next steps. Stage 9: Disengagement An individual slows down, becomes less involved, begins to think about retirement in this period.. 8.

(9) Stage 10: Retirement What happens to occupational self-image at this time varies greatly from individual to individual. These ten stages provide a kind of internal timetable for every person. Each stage can be long or short, can repeat themselves if the person moves from one occupation to another. However, these stages are not related in any necessary style to age.. Stage 10: Retirement Stage 9: Disengagement Stage 8: Maintaining momentum, regaining it , or leveling off Stage 7: Midcareer crisis, reassessment Stage 6: Gaining of tenure, permanent membership Stage 5: Gaining of membership Stage 4: Basic training, socialization Stage 3: Entry into the world of work Stage 2: Education and training Stage 1: Growth, fantasy, exploration Figure 2.1 Major stages of the career Source: Schein, 1990.. Schein’s Theory of Career Anchor. According to Schein (1990), internal career is an individual’s own subjective idea about work life and his or her role within it. For assessing career orientation, he identified the concept called “career anchor.” It is defined as occupational self-concept or self-knowledge the guide, constrains, stabilizes, and integrates the person’s career (Kim, 2002, & Schein, 1990). Based on his research, Schein (1990) identified eight types of career anchors as follows along with key values (Kim, 2002): 9.

(10) 1. General management competence: High status, income, and prestige 2. Autonomy/independence: Personal freedom 3. Security/stability: Long-run stability, good benefits, and job security 4. Technical or functional competence: Professional or technical/functional expertise 5. Entrepreneurial creativity: Creation of an organization or enterprise of ones own 6. Service/dedication to a cause: Dedication to a cause and contribution to improve the world 7. Pure challenge: Challenge for unsolvable problems and overcoming difficult obstacles 8. Life style: Balance between professional and personal life It is necessary for the individual to develop insight about his or her career anchor in order to make better career plans and choices (Schein, 1990). As people gain insights into their own careers, they can use these insights to better manage the career.. External Career and Internal Career. According to the literatures (Arthur, Khapova, & Wilderom, 2005; Hernandez & Morales, 1999; Schein, 1990), in this study, career is defined as a series of a person’s work experience over time. Career can be described in two fundamentally different ways: external or objective career and internal or subjective career (Arthur, Khapova & Wilderom, 2005; Hay & Hodgkinson, 2006; Schein, 1990). It is essential to distinguish internal career from external careers to understand an individual’s career. External career refers to occupational realities. It is constructed and interpreted through the external events and stimuli within the organizational and occupational context. One important element of the external career is individual work history, including positions or job tasks. It is refer to the actual steps that are required by an occupation or the progress in an organization (Schein, 1990). It includes the process of creating a set of actual job sequences 10.

(11) that specify a path through an occupation or organization. In addition, external career may be in term of objective career and reflect the more or less publicly observable positions, situations, and status (Arthur, Khapova, & Wilderom, 2005). In other words, external career is more tangible, it is a working progress of individual such as the ten major stages referred in previous section. Internal career has been defined as a person’s own subjective idea about work and life, and his or her role within it (Hay & Hodgkinson, 2006). The other term of internal career is subjective career. Subjective career reflect the individual’s own sense of his or her career and what it is becoming (Arthur, Khapova, & Wilderom, 2005). Everyone has some kind of picture of his or her work life and role in life. Self-image which individual develops around his or her work has positive as well as negative influence on career decision (Schein, 1990). The concepts of career anchors are more related to the internal picture.. Perspectives of Career Success Orientation. Career success means closely related to how people define career. Arthur et al. (2005) described career success as “the accomplishment of desirable work-related outcomes at any point in a person’s work experiences over time.” Besides, career success is also described as career outcome (Seibert, Kraimer, & Liden, 2001) and career satisfaction (Lee, 2002; Williamson; Pemberton, & Lounsbury, 2005). In this study, career success is viewed as the outcome of a person’s career experiences (Arthur et al., 2005; Ng et al., 2005; Seibert, Kraimer, & Liden, 2001). Sometimes people may confuse with career and job satisfaction. To distinguish between career and job satisfaction, Williamson et al. (2005) defined job satisfaction as satisfaction with the present job and career satisfaction as satisfaction with one’s career as a whole. Career satisfaction is a broader construct than job satisfaction because it encompasses all jobs that an individual has worked. 11.

(12) Career success orientation refers to how people define their success at work. Individual meanings of career success reflect personal values, attitudes, and motivation toward work and life since people tend to pursue what they value and believe in their work and life (Kim, 2002). One’s personal meaning of career success can be understood by identifying what the individual seeks for in his or her work and life. Measures of career success have multiple definitions. Two of most common definitions are objective or external career success and subjective or internal career success (Kim, 2002; Kuijpers, Schyns, & Scheerens, 2006). According to primary definition of career, there are two diverse perspectives of career success: objective (external) career success and subjective (internal) career success. Objective perspective of career success refers to objectively observable career accomplishments, such as salary and the number of promotions one has received. Subjective perspective of career success refers to the individual’s own subjective feelings of accomplishment and reflects satisfaction with the rate of progress one is making toward personal career goals and aspirations.. Objective Perspective of Career Success. Objective or external perspective of career success has dominated the field for a long time. Traditional career theory focused on success in terms of extrinsic outcomes (Arthur et al., 2005; Tu, et al., 2006). Objective perspective of career success has been interpreted as consisting of extrinsic or objective factors with visible metrics, such as salary, promotions, or status. Extrinsic factors are mostly related to objective paths of a person’s career as described by a reference group, meaning social values rather than personal perceptions (Arthur et al., 2005). The variables that measure objective career success include indicators of career success that can be seen and therefore evaluated objectively by others (Ng, et al., 2005). Objective career success is measured in terms of society’s evaluation of achievement with 12.

(13) reference to extrinsic measures, such as salary and hierarchical level in an organization (Afarian & Kleiner, 2003; Arthur et al., 2005; Hay & Hodgkinson, 2006; Kuijpers, Schyns, & Scheerens, 2006; Seibert, Kraimer, & Liden, 2001). From the literatures, objective perspective of career success is related to concreted and observable criteria. The common used criteria for objective career success are: income (salary), position (status), and promotions.. Subjective Perspective of Career Success. Subjective perspective of career success is based not so much upon objective criteria as upon what the individual perceives the criteria to be. Therefore, the meanings of career success can vary considerably given the diversity of the modern workforce and its work values (Arthur et al., 2005). Taking account an individual’s subjective feelings to their careers, subjective perspective of career success, is frequently defined psychologically in terms of self fulfillment, challenge and satisfaction and refers to an individual’s judgment of their own success (Hay & Hodgkinson, 2006). Different from objective perspective of career success, the subjective perspective of career success is defined by individual’s own values. Schein (1990) described that the subjective perspective of career success largely reflects one’s career anchor or internal career definition. The standards which an individual uses to measure his or her own success may be completely different from those used by others (Schein, 1990). In other words, each individual will have different explanations and criteria for his or her own career success. From an internal career perspective, success may be seen to include increased autonomy, increased challenge and excitement; balancing work and life commitments; growth in competence, affirmation from respected others and opportunities for new learning (Hay & Hodgkinson, 2006). A permanent job with one employer, preferably for the entire span of a person’s working life, can no longer be considered the normal work pattern. A 13.

(14) person’s own career choices and search for self-fulfillment are the unifying or integrative elements in their life. Success is not wholly determined by external objective measures (Quingley & Tymon, 2006).. Career Success Orientation. Schein (1990) proposed three dimensions for career success orientation: Growth in abilities and skills, up the ladder, and attaining influence and power.. Growth in abilities and skills This growth may result from individual’s efforts or specified training or development opportunities provided by the employer or profession. It may reflect the growing tendency for individuals to deal with jobs and to be certified in a number of different skills. This growth may go along with pay systems acknowledgement.. Up the ladder The hierarchy or system of ranks and titles in an organization may be used to judge individual’s progress. However, one’s own assessments may differ from others’.. Attaining influence and power The extent to which an individual feels he or she has penetrated the inner circle of an organization. Such penetration is often related with hierarchical movement, but it may be achieve independently. This dimension is invisible, so it is difficult to judge. To divide these three dimensions into the two perspectives of career success, growth in abilities and skills, and up the ladder are more related to objective perspective of career success since they are more tangible and easier to be measured. On the other hand, attaining 14.

(15) influence and power is more related to subjective perspective of career success.. Five Types of Career Success Orientation. Kim (2002) identified five types of career orientation according previous literatures:. Type 1: Pursuing status and wealth Advancement in status and increased responsibility, authority, and opportunities in organizations are attractive to people in this type. Personal life is subjective to professional life for this type.. Type 2: Pursuing excitement and expertise The characteristics of Type 2 are technical or functional expertise in one area and want to test one’s talents and skills. People in this type desire for continued growth and self-renewing experiences.. Type 3: Pursuing stability and security People in Type 3 value stability, predictability, or security at work. They desire guaranteed long-term job security and be loyal to their organizations and seriously commit themselves to the company.. Type 4: Pursuing independence and autonomy People in this type like to create their own service or product, enjoying a variety of different experiences. They avoid any restrictions and pursue personal freedom at work.. 15.

(16) Type 5: Pursuing a balance between work and family life This type of people enjoys working in an environment that respects personal and family life and pursues a balanced professional and personal life. Type 1 and Type 3 can be identified with objective perspective of career success. On the other hand, Type 2, Type 4, and Type 5 are categorized subjective of career success. In Kim’s research (2002), he adopted the career success map questionnaire originally developed by Derr (1986) to investigate the Korean employees’ career success orientation. The questionnaire was originally developed to identify career success orientation and includes five dimensions of commonly discussed career orientations: 1.. Getting Ahead: Pursues upward mobility, authority, and power. 2.. Getting Free: Pursues autonomy and independence. 3.. Getting Secure: Pursues security and stability. 4.. Getting High: Pursues excitement and expertise. 5.. Getting Balanced: Pursues a balance between personal and professional life. Comparing the five types and five dimensions of career success orientation, some of the definitions were same. Therefore, these two kinds of specification could be categorized together like Getting Ahead with Type1, Getting Free with Type4, Getting Secure with Type3, Getting High with Type2 and Getting Balanced with Type5. How individuals define their career success is based on the career orientation types, and this appears to be related to individuals’ age, length of work experience, employment level, gender, and type of job (Kim, 2002). Without knowing a person’s aspiration level, one cannot judge that person’s subjective feelings of success. Level of aspiration is influenced by how society defines success, resulting in some correlation between aspiration and external criteria. To understand an individual’s criteria for success, one must understand what that individual views as his or her reference group (Schein, 1990). To get clearer picture of individual’s career success orientation, more and more researchers have started focused on the 16.

(17) interdependent relationship between subjective and objective career success (Arthur, et al., 2005; Hay & Hodgkinson, 2006; Heslin, 2005; Ng, et al., 2005; Quigley & Tymon, 2006). Consequently, observing career success through either a purely objective perspective or a purely subjective perspective leads to a limited result. The career success construct can be better seen from looking through both perspectives at the same time (Arthur, et al., 2005). Because objective and subjective outcomes are each important but separate elements of career success, it is necessary to include both types of outcomes in exploration of individual’s career success orientation.. Personality. According to Merriam-Webster On-line dictionary, personality is defined as the. totality of an individual' s behavioral and emotional characteristic. Personality plays variety roles in occupational and organizational choice, number of career moves, and psychological adjustment to work, job performance, and objective and subjective career success. Therefore, to understand how personality plays these roles can increase to the extent that we can enrich and expand individuals’ personality, work, careers, and career success. Using Big-Five Inventory (Oliver, Laura & Christopher, 2008), the researchers identified five dimensions of personality: 1. Extraversion: Includes traits such as sociability, activity, assertiveness, and positive emotionality 2. Agreeableness: Includes traits such as altruism, tender-mindedness, trust, and modesty. 3. Conscientiousness: Includes traits such as thinking before acting, delaying gratification, following norms and rules, and planning, organizing, and prioritizing tasks. 17.

(18) 4. Neuroticism: Includes traits feeing anxious, nervous, sad, and tense. 5. Openness: Describes the breadth, depth, originality, and complexity of an individual’s mental and experiential life.. 18.

(19) Overview of TaiwanICDF Higher Education Scholarship Program. Brief introduction to TaiwanICDF. TaiwanICDF (international cooperation development fund) was established on July 1, 1996. The TaiwanICDF’s mission is to work for humanity, sustainable development and economic progress in partner nations around the world. This organization is active in sharing Taiwan’s advantages and core strengths through a wide range of international development and cooperation projects. The ultimate aim of the fund is to share “Taiwan Experience” of growth and opportunity and make the world a safer, more prosperous, and inclusive place to live. These four main operations and activities of TaiwanICDF are as followed: 1. International Humanitarian Assistance Emergency relief for natural disasters, reconstruction after disasters, basic medical relief, and poverty alleviation 2. Banking and Finance Operations Lending and investment for development projects, credit guarantees, and cooperation with international organizations 3. Technical Cooperation Strategic industry consultation, capacity building, specialized research projects, technical missions, the Taiwan overseas volunteers, and the Taiwan youth overseas service 4. International Human Resource Development International seminars and workshops, scholarship programs, and the TaiwanICDF Alumni Society.. 19.

(20) TaiwanICDF International Human Resource Development Program. The fundamental objective of TaiwanICDF International Human Resource Development Program is to help allied and friendly nations develop their human resources in order to spur social and economic progress through education and training efforts. TaiwanICDF International Human Resource Development programs include: Seminars and Workshops, The TaiwanICDF Alumni Society, Scholarship Programs, and Higher Education Scholarship Programs in Taiwan.. Seminars and Workshops The TaiwanICDF organize seminars and workshops on the basis of Taiwan' s own developmental experiences. It offers a wide variety of courses and holds a certain number of training programs each year. In addition, it modifies education and training curricula to meet the changing needs of the times. Presently, courses involve tourism development, international trade promotion, sustainable agriculture, agri-business, food processing, technology management, technology industry, policy development, community construction and other fields. Over 500 participants have attended these programs.. The TaiwanICDF Alumni Society In order to strengthen contact with individuals who have participated in TaiwanICDF seminars or workshops, The TaiwanICDF organized the TaiwanICDF Alumni Society. TaiwanICDF Alumni Society hosts various seminars, forums and other educational activities. Furthermore, Alumni Society members continue to report on their personal and professional development to their TaiwanICDF colleagues and professional educations in Taiwan and other nations, contributing to a rich flow of information exchange.. 20.

(21) Scholarship Programs The TaiwanICDF firmly insists on commitment to international human resource development through education and scholarships. The TaiwanICDF has provided financial assistance and scholarships to students from the elementary through the graduate and postgraduate levels, and to teachers pursuing advanced training, strengthening the human resources of the nations. The organization has offered scholarships since 1998, when a fund was set up for promising students from the Caribbean region. Since 2002, the TaiwanICDF bestowed US$300,000 in scholarships for students and educators in Eastern Caribbean nations and Mongolia every year.. Higher Education Scholarship Programs As an old adage said, “Give people a fish and they eat for a day, but teach them how to fish and they eat for a lifetime.” This wise proverb describes the ultimate aim of the TaiwanICDF Higher Education Scholarship Programs. The TaiwanICDF’s early human resources training programs consisted primarily of short-term training with specialized topics. These training focused on the most relevant and advantageous elements of Taiwan’s development, transmitting Taiwan’s successful experiences to government officials and professionals of Taiwan’s diplomatic allies. Since 1998, the TaiwanICDF started to sponsors scholarships to foreign students who attend undergraduate, graduate and post graduate institutions in Taiwan. The initiate intent of the program is to train agricultural professionals. Later on, it extended to other research fields to diversity the overall scholarship program. As of January 2007, the TaiwanICDF has been cooperating with 13 universities in 21 fields of study as Table 2.1 shows:. 21.

(22) Table 2.1 The list of TaiwanICDF higher education scholarship program Degree Ph.D.. Program name 1. Ph.D. Program in Tropical Agriculture (2001) in National Pingtung University of Science and Technology (NPUST) 2. International Ph.D. Program in Aquatic Sciences and Marine Resources Management (2005) in National Taiwan Ocean University (NTOU) 3. International Ph.D. Program in Public Health (2006) in National Yang-Ming University (NYMU). Master. 1. Master’s Program in Tropical Agriculture (1998) in NPUST 2. International Master’s in Business Administration (2001) in National Chengchi University (NCCU) 3. International Master’s Program in Public Health (2003) in National Yang-Ming University (NYMU) 4. Graduate Institute of International Workforce Education and Development (2003) in National Taiwan Normal University (NTNU) 5. International Master’s Program in Taiwan Studies (2003) in NCCU 6. International Master’s Program in Aquatic Sciences and Marine Resources Management (2003) in National Taiwan Ocean University (NTOU) 7. International MBA in Technology Management (2003) in National Tsing Hua University (NTHU) 8. International Master’s Program in Environment Sustainable. 22.

(23) Table 2.1 The list of TaiwanICDF higher education scholarship program (continued) Degree. Program name Development (2004) in National Central University (NCU) 9. International Master Program in Information Systems and Applications (2004) in NTHU 10. International Master Program in Plastic Injection and Precision Mold (2005) in Kun Shan University (KSU) 11. International Master of Electric Power Engineering (2006) in National Sun Yat-sen University (NSYSU) 12. International Master’s Program in Industrial Engineering and Management (2006) in Yuan Ze University (YZU) 13. International Nursing Master of Science Program (2007) in National Taipei College of Nursing (NTCN) 14. International Graduate Program in Agricultural Policy Development and Management (2007) in National Taiwan University (NTU) 15. International Graduate Program of Civil Engineering and Management (2007) in National Cheng Kung University (NCKU). Undergraduate. 1. Undergraduate Program in Tropical Agriculture for Central American Students (2006) in NPUST 2. International Undergraduate Program in Business Administration (2006) in NCCU 3. International Undergraduate Program in Mechanical Engineering (2006) in KSU. Source: TaiwanICDF, 2007b. In this program, there are 3 undergraduate, 15 master and 3 Ph.D. graduate projects developed in different field with 13 notable local universities. 23.

(24) Scope of Scholarship The total scholarship, including airfare(Round-trip), housing tuition, credit fees, insurance, textbooks costs and a monthly allowance will be provided by the TaiwanICDF to each student. Through the higher education scholarship programs, The TaiwanICDF expects to: 1. Strengthen diplomatic relations between Taiwan and allied/friendly nations. 2. Impart the most current professional knowledge to students, in order to enhance their skills and maximizing their contributions to their respective countries. 3. Raise the international profile of successful Taiwanese entrepreneurs and high-tech industries and other professional fields.. Taiwan International Cooperation Alliance (TICA). The Taiwan International Cooperation Alliance (TICA) was established by the TaiwanICDF with seven local universities in 2003. It includes National Pingtung University of Science and Technology (NPUST), National Chengchi University (NCCU), National Tsinghua University (NTHU), National Yang-Ming University (NYMU), National Taiwan Ocean University (NTOU), National Taiwan Normal University (NTNU) and National Central University (NCU) which joined in 2004. The mainly purpose of TICA is to consolidate the management of the TaiwanICDF Higher Education Scholarship Program. At the same time, TICA will enhance the development of internationalization for participating local universities. The short-term objective of TICA is to establish the management platform of the TaiwanICDF Higher Education Scholarship Program. This will help the TaiwanICDF and the participating universities to systemize and institutionalize the implementation of the programs. Through the operation of management platforms under TICA, the TaiwanICDF can continuously improve the management of the Higher Education Scholarship Program and 24.

(25) enlarge its resources pool and promote Taiwan’s participation in international cooperation affairs. The establishment of TICA can be viewed as a step towards a long-term contribution to Taiwan' s participation in international development.. 25.

(26) Relevant Study Review From the literature review, the studies related to career success were identified. Most researchers used quantitative methods to conduct their researches including Lau & Shaffer, (1999); Kuijpers, Schyns, & Scheerens, (2006) and Williamson, Pemberton & Lounsbury, (2005). Table 2.2 shows that the relevant studies’ research contents, method, and findings. Table 2.2. The list of relevant study Author(s) Research content. Research method. Findings. Lau & Shaffer (1999). To test the relationship between certain personality traits and career success. Quantitative. Job performance and person-environment fit were determinants of career success. I J Hetty van Emmerik (2004). To focus on the relationship between mentoring constellations and intrinsic career success. Quantitative. Mentoring constellations were found positively related to positive work outcomes such as intrinsic job satisfaction and career satisfaction. Armstrong-Sta ssen & Cameron (2005). examine the factors that Quantitative are important to the career satisfaction of older managerial and professional women. For managerial women, the predictors were perceived as organizational support, job content plateauing, and health status. For professional women, the predictors were perceived efforts by their organization to retain its older managerial and professional employees and job content plateauing. Williamson, Pemberton, & Lounsbury (2005). To investigate the relationship between personality traits and career satisfaction. Four types of personality traits were correlated with career satisfaction. Quantitative. 26.

(27) Table 2.2. (Continued) Author(s). Research content. Research method. Findings. Kuijpers, Schyns, & Scheerens, (2006). To investigate the relationship between career competencies and career success. Quantitative. Career control and networking were strongly associated with career success.. Hay & Hodgkinson (2006). To examine the meaning of career success in relation to the attainment of an MBA degree.. Qualitative. A diversity of meaning given to MBA career success, with success generally being expressed in much broader terms than conventional notions of fast track career advancement.. 27.

(28) 28.

(29) CHAPTER III. METHODOLOGY Chapter Overview This chapter contains the research framework, research procedures, and research methods. The chapter explains the approach taken in using Derr’s(1986) five career success dimensions as variables whereby the researcher provides definitions for each dimensions in relation of the purpose of the study. The chapter also explains the research procedures and the necessity for the researcher to follow this procedure to obtain the require data. The framework shows how variables are being tested and the research process explains the steps taken. Details of the method, procedure and instrumentation are given. Within the methods there are: participants, instrumentation, data collect, and data analysis for this study.. Research Framework. This research framework was developed to accord with the literature review. From the review, it was noticed that individuals have different work needs, want, and expectation in their career. This study identified the career success orientation of graduates of TaiwanICDF. The Career Success Orientation Variables are in relation to five dimensions: Getting High, Getting Ahead, Getting Balanced, Getting Free, and Getting Secure. Other variables are Demographic which includes Age, Gender, Martial Status, and Nationality by regions which include Asia, Europe, Central America, South America, Africa, and Oceania. Besides, the personality traits include five dimensions: Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism, and Openness.. 29.

(30) Career Success Orientation. Demographic Variables Age. Getting Ahead Getting Balanced Getting Free Getting High Getting Secure. Gender Martial Status Personality. Extraversion Agreeableness Conscientiousness Neuroticism Openness. Figure 3.1. Framework of Study. Research Procedures The procedure of the study is divided into eight steps as shown in Figure 3.2. In the beginning, based on research background and purpose, the researcher reviewed and organized relevant literature and then develop research framework of the study. Then, according to research structure, the researcher adapted instruments developed by accredited researchers to develop the questionnaire of the study. After developing the questionnaire of the study, the researcher proceeded formal data collection on subjects of the study, then analyzed data. Finally, according to the result of analysis, the researcher specified the finding of the study and its implication and provided recommendation for future study.. 30.

(31) Subject of the study identifying. Literature review. Develop the framework of the study. Developing the survey questionnaire. Apply the survey questionnaire to the subject. Data analysis and arrangement. Conclusion and suggestion. Write and finish the thesis Figure 3.2. The research process. Research Methods. Participants. According to the list of graduates provided by each assistant at school, the total number of graduates since 1998 is 156. All of them are invited to the study by e-mail questionnaire (TaiwanICDF, 2007a & 2008). 31.

(32) Instrumentation. Career success orientation questionnaire From the literature review, this study adopted Career Success Orientation Questionnaire of Kim’s version (2002). In Kim’s research (2002), he adopted the career success map questionnaire originally developed by Derr to investigate the Korean employees’ career success orientation. The questionnaire was originally developed to identify career success orientation and includes five dimensions of commonly discussed career orientations: 1.. Getting Ahead: Pursues upward mobility, authority, and power. 2.. Getting Free: Pursues autonomy and independence. 3.. Getting Secure: Pursues security and stability. 4.. Getting High: Pursues excitement and expertise. 5.. Getting Balanced: Pursues a balance between personal and professional life. Reliability of the instrument According to Kim(2002), the Cronbach’s alphas of the instrument were between .56 and .79 including Getting High (.78), Getting Secure (.72), Getting Balanced (.79), Getting Ahead (.59), and Getting Free (.56).. The personality questionnaire The researcher adapted Big-Five Inventory (Oliver, Donahue, and Kentle, 1991) to identify participants’ personality traits. The questionnaire includes five dimensions of personality: 1. Extraversion (QA5, QA10, QA15, QA20): Includes traits such as sociability, activity, assertiveness, and positive emotionality 32.

(33) 2. Agreeableness (QA4, QA9, QA14, QA19): Includes traits such as altruism, tender-mindedness, trust, and modesty. 3. Conscientiousness (QA3, QA8, QA13, QA18): Includes traits such as thinking before acting, delaying gratification, following norms and rules, and planning, organizing, and prioritizing tasks. 4. Neuroticism (QA2, QA7, QA12, QA17): Includes traits feeing anxious, nervous, sad, and tense. 5. Openness (QA1, QA6, QA11, QA16): Describes the breadth, depth, originality, and complexity of an individual’s mental and experiential life.. Data collection. The participants in this study were graduates who received TaiwanICDF scholarship. There are eleven schools which provide the course for students received scholarship. Until thirtieth, June, 2008, there are 156 students received scholarship graduate. A total of 156 graduates were invited to participate and used e-mail questionnaire for data collection since 21th, November, 2008. Until 15th, February, 2009, a total of 90 participants actually participated in the study (58 response rate). Among the returned questionnaires, two survives were discarded because all the questions were responded in the same answer (neural). The number of questionnaires that were suitable to use was 88.. Data analysis. The data for this research was analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS) PC 12.0 version. But, before analysis the data were coded 33.

(34) using number sequences. The 45 questions were coded using a 5-point Likert scale as previously mentioned. The demographic variable, present work situation, tangible and intangible benefit coding can be seen in Table 3.1 below.. Table 3.1. Coding system used in SPSS data analysis (n=88) Categories. Coding system. Age. 1=20-29 years old 2=30-39 years old 3=40 years old and above. Gender. 1=Male 2=Female. Marital Status. 1=Single 2=Married. Nationality. 1=Asia 2=Europe 3=North America 4=Central America 5=South America 6=Africa 7=Australia and Oceana. Present work situation. 1=Getting promotion 2=Non-getting promotion. Tangible benefit. 1=Getting tangible benefit 2=Non-getting tangible benefit. Intangible benefit. 1=Getting intangible benefit 2=Non-getting intangible benefit. The researcher used from the SPSS software, descriptive and inferential statistics to analyze and interpret the data collected. These statistical procedures allowed the researcher to present the relevance and importance of the study. The 34.

(35) descriptive statistics helped the researcher to arrange the data into a more interpretable form by calculating numerical indexes such as averages.. 35.

(36) 36.

(37) CHAPTER IV. FINDINGS AND DISCUSSIONS Chapter Overview. This chapter contains the statistical analysis results of the questionnaires to answer each of the research questions. In the beginning, respondents’ characteristics are introduced. The research questions are answered by several sections including the characteristics of career success orientation of participants, age groups and career success orientation, gender and career success orientation, martial status and career success orientation, personality and career success orientation, and benefit from TaiwanICDF higher education scholarship program.. Respondents’ Characteristics. The participants in this study were graduates who received the scholarship from TaiwanICDF and studied in Taiwan. A total of 156 participants were invited to participate. A total of 88 participants actually participated in the study (57% response rate). The frequency of the respondents’ characteristics is shown in Table 4.1. In this study, all participants were divided into three age groups (20-29years old, 30-39years old, and 40years old and above). More than half participants were 30-39years old (54.5%), and participants of 40years and above (17%) were the least. As to gender, there were 64 male participants (72.7%), and female participants were only 24 (27.3%). About participants’ martial status, more half participants were married (51, 58%). Finally, 62 participants come from Central and South America (70.4%).. 37.

(38) Table 4.1. Frequency and percentage of characteristics for each respondent (n=88) Frequency Age. gender. 20-29 years old. 25. 28.4. 30-39 years old. 48. 54.5. 40 years old and above. 15. 17.0. Male. 64. 72.7. Female. 24. 27.3. 37. 42.0. 51. 58.0. 1. 1.1. Central America. 59. 67.0. South America. 3. 3.4. Africa. 24. 27.3. Oceana. 1. 1.1. Martial status Single Married Nationality. Percentage (%). Asia. Characteristics of Participants’ Career Success Orientations. The characteristics of participants’ career success orientations were investigated in two ways. First, the researcher compared the mean scores and standard deviations for all items for each career success orientation, as shown in Table 4.2. The mean score of Getting Ahead was the highest. Next, the descending order of the mean scores was Getting High, Getting Balanced, Getting Free and last, Getting Secure. This result shows that the respondents primarily pursue higher positions and income in their areas of interests. Autonomy at work or obtaining job security were less important than higher positions or income.. 38.

(39) Table 4.2 Means and standard deviations of career success orientations of all respondents (n=88) GF. GA. GB. GS. GH. MEAN. 3.67. 4.26. 4.02. 3.47. 4.05. SD. .583. .497. .575. .713. .738. Note: GF=Getting Free, GA=Getting Ahead, GB=Getting Balanced, GS=Getting Secure, GH= Getting High. Second, the researcher identified the dominant career success orientation, as shown in Table 4.3. The highest mean score was assumed to be the dominant career success orientation. For instance, a respondent whose highest mean score was Getting Ahead was categorized as a Getting Ahead type. The dominant career success orientation was identifiable 80 of 88 respondents. 8 respondents had two or more peak scores, therefore no single dominant type was identified for them. Each respondent’s orientation type, the relative frequency, and the percentages of the five types were calculated. The most commonly held orientations were Getting Ahead (30.7%). The majority of respondents defined hierarchical success as their career success. The next common was Getting High (21.6%) and Getting Balanced (20.5%). Getting Secure was minimal, showing that few respondents defined long-term job stability as their career success. Table 4.3. Frequency and percentage of dominant career success orientations for each respondent (n=80) Frequency. Percentage (%). Getting Free. 10. 11.4. Getting Ahead. 27. 30.7. Getting Balanced. 18. 20.5. Getting Secure. 6. 6.8. Getting High. 19. 21.6. 39.

(40) Career Success Orientation on Age Groups. A series of ANOVAs was conducted to answer this research question. Age range was used as the independent variable to determine whether significant differences existed in the career success orientation across the respondents of different age ranges. The age range was divided into three items (1=20-20 years old; 2=30-39 years old; and 3=40 years old and above). Descriptive statistics of age groups on career success orientation was shown in Table 4.4. Comparing the total mean score of each career success orientation, Getting Ahead is the highest (4.26) one and Getting Balanced (4.02) and Getting High (4.05) were also more than 4. Getting Free (3.67) and Getting Secure (3.47) were the lowest. On the other side, except for 30-39years old of participants, the other two age groups had higher mean score in Getting Ahead.. 40.

(41) Table 4.4 Descriptive statistics of age groups on career success orientations N GF. GA. GB. GS. GH. M. SD. SE. 20-29yrs. 25. 3.77. .467. .093. 30-39yrs. 48. 3.63. .592. .086. 40yrs and above. 15. 3.65. .731. .189. total. 88. 3.67. .583. .062. 20-29yrs. 25. 4.34. .478. .096. 30-39yrs. 48. 4.20. .533. .077. 40yrs and above. 15. 4.33. .397. .103. total. 88. 4.26. .497. .053. 20-29yrs. 25. 3.84. .707. .141. 30-39yrs. 48. 4.03. .515. .074. 40yrs and above. 15. 4.27. .427. .110. total. 88. 4.02. .575. .061. 20-29yrs. 25. 3.38. .887. .177. 30-39yrs. 48. 3.40. .652. .094. 40yrs and above. 15. 3.85. .441. .114. total. 88. 3.47. .713. .076. 20-29yrs. 25. 3.91. .872. .174. 30-39yrs. 48. 4.06. .735. .106. 40yrs and above. 15. 4.23. .448. .116. total. 88. 4.05. .738. .079. Note: GF=Getting Free, GA=Getting Ahead, GB=Getting Balanced, GS=Getting Secure, GH= Getting High. 41.

(42) Cross tabulation for age groups and career success orientation was shown in Table 4.5. The participants in two age groups (20-29 and 30-39 years old) had same percentage in Getting Ahead (44.4%) and were higher than third age group (40years and above, 11.1%).. Table 4.5. Cross-tabulation for age group and career success orientation GF. GA. Age group. N. %. N. 20-29yrs. 2. 20. 30-39yrs. 7. 40yrs and above. 1. Total. %. GB. GS. GH. N. %. N. %. N. 12 44.4. 2. 11.1. 3. 50. 70. 12 44.4. 10. 55.6. 2. 10. 3. 11.1. 6. 33.3. 10 100 27. 100. 18. 100. %. Total N. %. 5. 26.3 24. 30. 33.3. 11. 57.9 42 52.5. 1. 16.7. 3. 15.8 14 17.5. 6. 100. 19. 100. 80. 100. Note: GF=Getting Free, GA=Getting Ahead, GB=Getting Balanced, GS=Getting Secure, GH= Getting High. The researcher conducted One-way ANOVA to examine the differences across age groups on career success orientation. As shown in Table 4.6, there were no significant differences across age groups on career success orientation.. 42.

(43) Table 4.6. One-way ANOVA: age group on career success orientation SS GF Between Groups. df. MS. .331. 2. .166. Within Groups. 29.214. 85. .344. Total. 29.545. 87. .426. 2. .213. Within Groups. 21.063. 85. .248. Total. 21.489. 87. 1.728. 2. .864. Within Groups. 26.996. 85. .318. Total. 28.724. 87. 2.597. 2. 1.298. Within Groups. 41.582. 85. .489. Total. 44.179. 87. .995. 2. .497. Within Groups. 46.448. 85. .546. Total. 47.443. 87. GA Between Groups. GB Between Groups. GS Between Groups. GH Between Groups. F .482. .619. .859. .427. 2.720. .072. 2.654. .076. .910. .406. Note: GF=Getting Free, GA=Getting Ahead, GB=Getting Balanced, GS=Getting Secure, GH= Getting High. 43. P.

(44) Career Success Orientation and Gender. Independent-Sample T-test was conducted to answer this research question. Gender was used as the independent variable to determine whether significant differences existed in the career success orientations across the respondents of different genders (1=male and 2=female). The descriptive statistics are displayed in Table 4.7. Comparing the mean scores of career success orientation, both male and female showed higher mean score on Getting Ahead (4.28 and 4.21).. Table 4.7. Descriptive statistics of gender on career success orientations. GF. GA. GB. GS. GH. Gender. N. M. SD. SE. Male. 64. 3.78. .485. .061. Female. 24. 3.39. .722. .147. Male. 64. 4.28. .507. .063. Female. 24. 4.21. .476. .097. Male. 64. 4.03. .581. .073. Female. 24. 3.99. .569. .116. Male. 64. 3.47. .757. .095. Female. 24. 3.47. .591. .121. Male. 64. 4.02. .745. .093. Female. 24. 4.13. .730. .149. Note: GF=Getting Free, GA=Getting Ahead, GB=Getting Balanced, GS=Getting Secure, GH= Getting High. As Table 4.8 showed, only one type of career success orientation (Getting Free at the .01 level) was significantly different according to gender. As to other types (Getting High, Getting Secure, Getting Ahead, and Getting Balanced), there were no. 44.

(45) significant difference. Table 4.8. Independent-Sample t Testgender on career success orientation Levene’s test. t-test. F. P. t. df. p. GF. Equal variance not assumed. 6.983. .010. 2.483. 86. .019*. GA. Equal variance assumed. .326. .569. .611. 86. .543. GB. Equal variance assumed. .000. .996. .273. 86. .785. GS. Equal variance assumed. 2.642. .108. .023. 86. .982. GH. Equal variance assumed. .000. .983. -.617. 86. .539. Note: GF=Getting Free, GA=Getting Ahead, GB=Getting Balanced, GS=Getting Secure, GH= Getting High *p<.05. Career Success Orientation and Marital Status. Independent-Sample T-test was conducted to answer this research question. Martial status was used as the independent variable to determine whether significant differences existed in the career success orientations across the respondents of different genders (1=single and 2=married). The descriptive statistics are displayed in Table 4.9. Comparing the mean scores of career success orientation, both martial status groups (single and married) showed higher mean score on Getting Ahead (4.32 and 4.22). As Table 4.10 showed that only one type of career success orientation (Getting Free at the .05 level) was significantly different according to martial status. As to other types (Getting High, Getting Secure, Getting Ahead, and Getting Balanced), there were no significant difference. Cross tabulation for martial status and career success orientation was shown in 45.

(46) Table 4.11. Single participants (55.6%) had higher percentage than married participants (44.4%) in Getting Ahead. Both single and married participants showed the same percentage in Getting Secure.. Table 4.9. Descriptive statistics of martial groups on career success orientations Martial status GF. GA. GB. GS. GH. N. M. SD. SE. Single. 37. 3.82. .510. .084. Married. 51. 3.56. .612. .086. Single. 37. 4.32. .519. .085. Married. 51. 4.22. .481. .067. Single. 37. 3.99. .551. .091. Married. 51. 4.03. .596. .083. Single. 37. 3.37. .776. .128. Married. 51. 3.54. .661. .093. Single. 37. 3.99. .801. .132. Married. 51. 4.09. .694. .097. Note: GF=Getting Free, GA=Getting Ahead, GB=Getting Balanced, GS=Getting Secure, GH= Getting High. 46.

(47) Table 4.10. Independent-sample t test: martial status on career success orientation Levene’s test F. t-test. p. t. Df. P. GF. Equal Variance assumed. 2.320. .131. 2.112. 86. .038*. GA. Equal Variance assumed. .780. .380. .903. 86. .369. GB. Equal Variance assumed. 1.322. .253. -.329. 86. .743. GS. Equal Variance assumed. 1.501. .224. -1.123. 86. .265. GH. Equal Variance assumed. .775. .381. -.636. 86. .527. Note: GF=Getting Free, GA=Getting Ahead, GB=Getting Balanced, GS=Getting Secure, GH= Getting High *p<.05. Table 4.11. Cross-tabulation for martial status and career success orientation GF. GA. Martial Status. N. %. N. Single. 4. 40. Married. 6. 60. Total. GS. GH. %. N. %. N. 15 55.6. 6. 33.3. 3. 50. 6. 31.6 34 42.5. 12 44.4. 12. 66.7. 3. 50. 13. 68.4 46 57.5. 18. 100. 6. 100. 19. 100. 100. %. Total. N. 10 100 27. %. GB. N. 80. %. 100. Note: GF=Getting Free, GA=Getting Ahead, GB=Getting Balanced, GS=Getting Secure, GH= Getting High. Career Success Orientation and Personality. A series of ANOVAs was conducted to answer this research question. Personality was used as the independent variable to determine whether significant differences existed in the career success orientation across the respondents of different personality (1= openness, 2=neuroticism, 3=conscientiousness,4= agreeableness, and 5= extraversion). A cross-tabulation for personality and career success orientation is presented in 47.

(48) Table 4.12. There was no significant association between personality and career success orientation.. Table 4.12. Cross-tabulation for personality and career success orientation GF. GA. GB. GS. GH. Personality. N. %. N. %. N. %. N. %. N. Openness. 3. 30. 2. 7.4. 3. 16.7. 1. 16.7. Conscientiousness. 1. 10. 3. 11.1. 6. 33.3. 4. Agreeableness. 4. 40. 15 55.6. 9. 50. Extraversion. 2. 20. 7. 25.9 NA 100. Total. 10 100 27. 18. %. N. %. 3. 15.8 12. 15. 66.7. 6. 31.6 20. 25. 1. 16.7. 8. 42.1 37 46.3. NA. NA. NA. 2. 10.5 11 13.8. 100. 6. 100. 19. 100. Note: GF=Getting Free, GA=Getting Ahead, GB=Getting Balanced, GS=Getting Secure, GH= Getting High. 48. Total. 80. 100.

(49) As shown in Table 4.13, the only one type of career success orientation (Getting Free at the .01 level) was significantly different according to personality. As to other types (Getting High, Getting Secure, Getting Ahead, and Getting Balanced), there were no significant difference.. Table 4.13 One-way ANOVA: personality on career success orientation SS GF Between Groups. df. MS. 3.834. 3. 1.278. Within Groups. 25.710. 84. .306. Total. 29.545. 87. 1.071. 3. .357. Within Groups. 20.418. 84. .243. Total. 21.489. 87. 1.694. 3. .565. Within Groups. 27.031. 84. .322. Total. 28.724. 87. 2.467. 3. .822. Within Groups. 41.712. 84. .497. Total. 44.179. 87. 3.808. 3. 1.269. Within Groups. 43.635. 84. .519. Total. 47.443. 87. GA Between Groups. GB Between Groups. GS Between Groups. GH Between Groups. F 4.176. .008**. 1.468. .229. 1.754. .162. 1.656. .183. 2.443. .070. Note: GF=Getting Free, GA=Getting Ahead, GB=Getting Balanced, GS=Getting Secure, GH= Getting High **p<.01. 49. P.

(50) Tangible or Intangible Benefit from the program. As Table 4.14. shown that 93.2 percentage of respondents and 61.4 percentage of respondents considered that they received tangible and intangible benefit. More than half participants agreed that they received tangible or intangible benefit from TaiwanICDF higher education program.. Table 4.14. Frequency and percentage of tangible and intangible benefit for each respondent (n=88) Frequency Tangible benefit. Percentage(%). 82. 93.2. 6. 6.8. Intangible benefit. 54. 61.4. No intangible benefit. 34. 38.6. No tangible benefit. The researcher used several open-ended questions to collect the participants’ tangible and intangible benefits. The respondents’ answer for tangible benefits could be divided into several categories: salary (better income), work chance (increase more work chance), promotion (higher position), knowledge, skills, and abilities (better professional). For intangible benefits could be coded as categories as follow: respect (more respect), experience (rich culture experience, and coping with diversity), more confident, and strong desire to improve oneself.. Summary. The participants in this study were graduates who received the scholarship from 50.

(51) TaiwanICDF and studied in Taiwan. 88 participants actually participated by the e-mail questionnaire and the response rate was 57%. More than half participants were 30-39years old (54.5%). As to gender, 64 participants (72.7%) were male. About participants’ martial status, more half participants were married (51, 58%). Besides, 62 participants come from Central and South America (70.4%). The five types of career success orientations (Getting High, Getting Secure, Getting Balanced, Getting Ahead, and Getting Free) were identified in the graduates of TaiwanICDF. When comparing the mean scores of all respondents, Getting Ahead showed the highest ranking. Next the descending order of the mean scores was Getting High, Getting Balanced, Getting Free, and Getting Secure. when comparing the frequency and percentage of the dominant career success orientations of each respondent, Getting Ahead still showed the highest ranking. The descending order of the remaining percentages was Getting High, Getting Balanced, Getting Free, and Getting Secure. Independent-Sample T-test was conducted to identify whether there is significant difference across age groups on career success orientation. Differences by age were not found in the five types of career success orientations. There were no significant differences across age groups on career success orientation. Independent-Sample T-test was conducted to determine the difference between gender and career success orientation. However, differences by gender were found in only Getting Free type of career success orientation. Males (3.78) showed a higher mean score on Getting Free than females (3.39). Independent-Sample T-test was conducted to examine whether significant differences between martial status and career success orientation. Differences by martial status were found in only Getting Free type of career success orientation. Single (3.82) respondents showed a higher mean score on Getting Free type of career 51.

(52) success orientation than married (3.56) respondents. One-way ANOVA was conducted to identify whether significant differences between personality and career success orientation. Differences by personality were found in only Getting Free type of career success orientation. When it comes to the scholarship program of TaiwanICDF, 93.2 percentages of respondents agreed that they received tangible benefit from the program and 61.4 percentage of respondents agreed that they got intangible benefit. The tangible benefit could be identified as salary, work chance, promotion, knowledge, skills, and abilities. On the other hand, the intangible benefit were respect, confident, desire to improve and experience.. 52.

(53) CHAPTER V. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Chapter Overview. This chapter presents a brief summary of the study, provides conclusions of research findings, and recommendations and limitations of this study. In the first section, a brief summary of this study was presented. Next the descending section provided the conclusions according to research findings. In the third section, recommendations. to. TaiwanICDF. higher. education. scholarship. program,. recommendations to educational institutions, and recommendations for future study. Finally, limitations of this study were provided in the last section.. Conclusions. The study examines career success orientations on graduates of TaiwanICDF. Each research question of the study was restated, followed a short conclusion.. Characteristics of Participants’ Career Success Orientations. Comparing the mean score and frequency of the five type career success orientation, the Getting Ahead was the highest rank. It showed that graduates of TaiwanICDF pay more attention to upward mobility, authority, and power important than other factors when considering to define their career success. Coming from the developing countries, they seek the better life. The graduates of TaiwanICDF aspire the higher working status, and more wealth to improve their life. After Getting Ahead,. 53.

(54) the descending type of career success orientation were Getting High and Getting Balanced. It showed that graduates of TaiwanICDF tend to pursue more work excitement and balance between personal and professional life than work independence and security.. Career Success Orientation by Age Groups. One-way ANOVA was conducted to examine the differences by three kinds of age groups on career success orientation. However, among three kinds of age groups, no significant differences on career success orientation were found in this study. it indicated that career success orientation of graduates of TaiwanICDF did not differ by age. Moreover, different age range of graduates of TaiwanICDF did not influence on career success orientation. From the cross tabulation for age groups and career success orientation, the participants in two age groups (20-29 and 30-39 years old) had same percentage in Getting Ahead and were higher than third age group (40years and above). The older graduates of TaiwanICDF showed less consideration for promotion and work authority than the other age range of graduates of TaiwanICDF. The twenties and thirties graduates of TawianICDF were more interested in working independence and status.. Career Success Orientation by Gender. Among five dimensions of career success orientation, only Getting Free was significantly different according to gender. As to other dimensions (Getting High, Getting Secure, Getting Ahead, and Getting Balanced), there were no significant difference. Comparing the mean score, male graduates of TaiwanICDF had a higher 54.

(55) score than female graduates of TaiwanICDF on Getting Free. Males of graduates of TaiwanICDF pay more attention to work independence and freedom than females. In addition, males seek self-determination and autonomy when talking about work. With regarding to other four dimensions of career success orientation, graduates of TaiwanICDF showed no significant difference by gender.. Career Success Orientation by Marital Status. Among five dimensions of career success orientation, only one type of career success orientation (Getting Free) was significantly different according to martial status. As to other types (Getting High, Getting Secure, Getting Ahead, and Getting Balanced), there were no significant difference. When talking about work independence and autonomy, single graduates of TaiwanICDF cared more than married graduates of TaiwanICDF. It shows that single gradates of TaiwanICDF tended to pursue self-determination and freedom when working. On the other side, from the Cross tabulation for martial status and career success orientation, single graduates of TaiwanICDF had higher percentage than married graduates of TaiwanICDF only in Getting Ahead. Expect for the working independence and autonomy, single graduates of TaiwanICDF look forward to getting promotion and work authority. However, married graduates of TaiwanICDF did not show this kind of expectation on promotion and work authority comparing with single graduates of TaiwanICDF.. Career Success Orientation by Personality. According to Table 4.12, almost half graduates of TaiwanICDF showed 55.

(56) Agreeableness personality. Graduates of TaiwanICDF whose personality tended to be agreeable had some special traits such as altruism, tender-mindedness, trust, and modesty. On the other hand, among five dimensions of career success orientation, only one type of career success orientation (Getting Free) was significantly different by personality of graduates of TaiwanICDF in this study. When talking about working independence and autonomy, participants showed difference by personality. From the cross-tabulation for personality and career success orientation, graduates who showed agreeable trait showed more percentage than other personality traits on Getting Free. Agreeable trait of graduates tended to pursue working independence than other traits of graduates. As to other types (Getting High, Getting Secure, Getting Ahead, and Getting Balanced), there were no significant difference on personality.. Tangible or Intangible Benefit from the program. All most graduates of TaiwanICDF considered that they received tangible benefit from TaiwanICDF higher education program. Besides, the tangible benefit could be identified as salary, work chance, promotion, knowledge, skills, and abilities. Graduates of TaiwanICDF pointed out that after they graduated and went back to their countries, they got more salary, more working chances, or. more promotion. opportunities. Except for the material advantages, graduates of TaiwanICDF indicated that they also gained more knowledge and enhanced their abilities and skills on work. With regard to intangible benefit, more than half graduates of TaiwanICDF agreed that they obtained intangible benefits from TaiwanICDF higher education program. Moreover, graduates of TaiwanICDF indicated that respect, confidence, desire to improve and experience were intangible benefits. Some graduates mentioned that after they finished their study and went back to their work, they received more 56.

(57) respect from others, and felt more confident. Some graduates thought that they had more desire to improve their selves and to learn more new things. Furthermore, graduates of TaiwanICDF viewed the program as precious experiences in their lives.. 57.

(58) Recommendations. Recommendation for Scholarship Organizations. The findings of this study may help TaiwanICDF understand the characteristics of the graduates and their career success orientation. There are three recommendations for TaiwanICDF higher education scholarship program according this study.. 1. To understand the individuals’ career success orientation when examining the application The individuals’ career success orientation could be investigated when they applying for the scholarship, and TaiwanICDF could base on the result to provide more suitable courses to enhance the effects of the scholarship program and to raise the individuals working ability after graduating.. 2. To provide career course and career counseling service to students receive TaiwanICDF scholarship When analyzing the graduates through the career success orientation framework, individuals has different wants, needs, and motives in their careers (Kim, 2002). For better work life, graduates of TaiwanICDF pursue higher education in Taiwan. TaiwanICDF could provide foreign students course related to career development to help them have more acknowledge about what they really wants in their careers. Besides, career counseling service should be provided, since they are foreign students in Taiwan, there may less resource for them to solve career problems. TaiwanICDF could provide career counseling service to help them solve problems and meet their career needs. 58.

(59) 3. To establish effect connection between graduates of TaiwanICDF When the researcher sending the e-mail to each graduates, the list of connection was not updated, therefore some graduates’ e-mail address were not used, and lost connection. It was one of the reasons why the response rate of the study was low. TaiwanICDF could help graduates update their connection, and trace their situation after graduating.. Recommendation for Education Institutions. The findings of this study may help education institutions understand the characteristics of the graduates of TaiwanICDF and their career success orientation. There are two recommendations for education institutions which provide course to students receive scholarship of TaiwanICDF according this study.. 1. To survey the foreign students’ career success orientation and provide practical course The education institutions could investigate the foreign students’ career success orientation to understand their desire and need for their careers. the education institutions provide suitable courses for the foreign students and help them meet their needs based on the research.. 2. To provide career development course and career counseling to foreign students According to the study, foreign students care their career much; therefore the education institutions could provide course related to career development for foreign students. The courses may help them know more about their careers and provide practice effects on their careers. 59.

數據

Updating...

參考文獻

Updating...