查德?利比亞和法國的三角關係

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(1)0. ~;::rrf-Hmt~. (tnnea eO. ~[B". J. J. 0. .. (uepnos). ~~~a}ll!lHffO)r;::l-. I ~~EI! ... ~lill~~~~m~1maRl. ... trntF~~R" (5i1~~B) ~-E-~!1lI:~~.~. 0. 0. *IIfr. o~<-.Jm:~I~.nrr~51~~~ • • ~"~~~~~~m:trn~. :::!a~.nrrjml-. (unoJewe~) Im~~)a:! (enb!lJeJlue~) 1II~)ft:!1lI:-E­. I ~~ ... I ~$liat ... mll~)ft:. ~+i:I1ID!}g~!ilfiifIJ>-EI!" f1mJ·>~~jJ!Ilf+llID!. .. ~;}jI~)$Ilm:a~. (e!l~~!N) trn~)a:!*)a:! (Je~!N) mi:JD~rnl. 0. !-r-tW~JIB+~:e~!-r-*aM:. .. :e~m:~5~~~~~~*o~N~~m:.~.nrr.m~;}jI~~~ .. ~~~~~~~~m~*trntF~~III~~~ .. ~~fft-$=~m:1matrn~~~1ma$~.~~~~o~~m:~~~~~~!1lI:m:~~~!-r-*aM:"~-Hm:trn~~~~~m:RaIlt .. ~;}jIm:~~ :e~5.~ [Il~.1i®lill • • ~·d}> .. (JenOZ) ~~m1mr~itlm.~Rrnl<-.J%lt~:m::m?lI~rmt .. (epe~) ~~li!lf~~IiB$m.~Rjml-m:» m.$~.~tF~<-.J%lt~~::m~-tff(~>;::l-I)*~~~"~~.~1ma • • ~ .. @~• • m:III*~III~~:e~~o~N.a • • ~~.~'jl}~~):.I .. ~W~~.m:llJ~~ (ueqpe)! IeuolO~ eI) ~!-r-)@li!lf~~HltrntF~ .. ~~\~nt~.~>'t~ ~~m:m.~~~ ~pt~ • • ~;}jIm:*~:e~5.1$t~1'ilt .. ~~m:;}jI~~·g:'.~fft-~mtrn~~~~*rcttDP. • • $~ (~JQeH eU~SS!H) ~~~.ahi'f. ~aIlt.I$t~Rt .. ~>f;:trntF~~~llJ Oeppeno !uno~noD) ~.~m:~R.I$t~:e .. *~m I +::m\l+-tff ()~>;::l- I). ... ~~IIIm:~~. ~aIlt. J. l;::l- I. !-r-~~. m:~-tffO. :7l~. J. (eJenD eO ~\llllf (weue)! eO ~iiib!rm:~-II-)a:! (no~IJoa eO A'I~. [B Opeuua.1 ep neelerd eO ~~Dff$i:JD)zfTm:~RjmI-" OlseQ!J. SluoW se'J) ~E~~tm:~m:~Rrnl <-.Jiit\LS" (J.aa eO jgD1~*)iJ];l\6iIH" (eJeqes eO i3i~~~~ri'Hi\~m:~Bl¥~iI~$$1folm:IIN~lll~ .. !-r-~H-m:~~fft- 0 tft-liI+~~ifulm:!-r-nll!I~!¥i~!-r-~. I N~ll\m:~~~~.

(2) ,. >. ~. Jitl~t'-r1$l!lll!~:l' (le bassin du Chari (le bassin du Logone) ~ 1. ~RI:fK~:l'. lliiE~ ~. ). ~~~~~~~~~o~~~~~:l'~~~.. ( Arabo-berbere ). -P<~~. ~1$l.~~~~~~~~~.~~~~~~*. ~~$:w:rel&-<. ~.~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~*~:l'. ••**~~G~~:l'.E~~-P<~~ ••~ o. ~.~1$l.~I~Km.~*~.~~~Nl. ~«~*~~~~~~~~~*~~~~. •••*~-1$l.~ •• ~~. ~~*:W:Wl&-< (les berberes) ~r<t:{Ii-. $ " ~'I'iit\~:Jli\111nm (IIH~1$' , !'K~~IrnIi-lEr'. l&~~~)~:l'. :Jli\~~~~~~~~.~:Jli\~ • • ~Eoe*. ~~$:re:rel&-<~~~~-<. (les Nilotiques. .~~.~~~1~~+.~~~~~+~~. ~~~~~~~~~~~~.~~~~~~-~-~~~~~~~ ).~~.~~~ • • ~Ii-.g~~~~~~. ~~lE*~:fKJiB::1il ~ ~~~~~-<Hi~ G1$l.~~~~~11 ~.~14~~~~-< (Soudano-Guineens) - .~~.~"~~+t1~ ~~o~~~~~*~.~~~~~~~~~~~~~-<~~~w~~~-P<~E¢~~~~~~~~~~G~~~~~~lE~~~ }j:g~~~:llIl11lliK ~ 1$l.-<~.1l~Hi:1li-W~:!ln:fi<JiB:~{~-Nt-'- ~ ~~~1$l.~.~~iBK 0 ~Ji[~.w~~.$1$l.K+~. - -W~~f! ~ ~Ji[~*.~. 1 ~1lI(~~~ ~ JiB:'I'~~I~t'-r*.~1¢t\P{m\i£:~$-<~~~,,;lij. -418, at p.412.. iWe E1ce et Hesse, "La France et 1a crise du Tchad d'aotlt 1983: un rendez-vous manque", Politique Etrangere, 2/85, 1985, pp. 411.

(3) -. .~.~~~~~.~~~~~~~~*&~B~~.~~~*~~~~~.~Q8m~~~~~~~~~~~~1~~~~m ~~~.~~~(~~~~~~~*m)~• • -J~.~~~§*~~ • • ~~~• • ~.~~~.~.~~~~~~*~. ~~~~~~~~e~~~."J~KO.<~-*.~.~~~wm~~~~~~~~• • ~.~~.~.~-~~~**. ~*". (Ie Parti Progressist Tchadien-P. P. T. ) .~~8Jlll( (Fran<;ois Tombalbaye ) :atl:i.~ " ~~~aJlll($lI~~~ ~~tr,~~~~~~~e~~~~*-~~~-~~~~- • • l.~~~~~~.~~.~.~-~~~~~~~~.~~~ Q 1 ~K~. - mllt~~~.~~~ - ~~W+m:::l1+~m - ~.tr~~~~:l$~Wl~~~ - ~~_~~~~iJ ;f¥. la?il'Lat~~ :;li~.~KI«¥iR~rK:i£at~~-Ntr". Q. ••. -. Q. Q. 0. .... 0. 0. <-\I. 1 ~K K.Km::: - Wfll~ , ~E~~f*~~~f*~Hm~~~~ - ~-l':~ 1 ~11~~~~~1~i-->~.llt:?~~1lt~!t~ (Ie Front de Liberation Nationale du Tchad-Fronlinat) ~i1iR~f!" 1 ~K<. - It?.'a~.~.tl:i*.riii'm~<<~~~~ (Abba Sid­ dick) !:Wf~ - ~~.~~i£ " W~f;~~ - ~aJllIl(~m~~~,*~~ - mllt~lEI~!lt!. 1 ~KO~I:I~nlt;~~~~[jg~~~i\1i - W 1 ~K<~ 1 ~~11.-N1!.~l$S~i-->11l1t-~~~t§1~.~~~~~. Q~Wt:~~m~;!!m~l$SU1\m~4-~*.rK:~ - J.E-e~ts. ~i!i-->~~:ffrlifo~ - [jg~~~~i-->~ • • ~:ffr~Ii~ ~Ij!!!\tl;:!ijij~ 1 ~~11~+;-~g4fl$ 1 trt1~ ::ll1~~ • • ~t§1-N<iI~~.~8J 1lIl(• • • • ~It-~~~~-~.~~~ rK:~ • • *~~.~~~.-.~ ~~*.~Q l*-*.E~ • •:ffr. ~ 1 ~~111. - ~8Jm( • • rx~:a~r.&~ r~~1IDS[jgJ ~ijij - ~1tnl.;!!m~~.lifo~::ll1~4Er~~-I<~Fort-Lamy~Fort-Arch­ ambault~~4rm~f$~~~*~ (N'Djamena) ~fIl!Iliit (Sahr) ~8Jm(~~~~:\nl!l.**~ Fran<;ois ~~ Ngarta-,-. -I<.~-N1)jDrj " DR~~.~~.~itH!~4fl~i~HI1!J[~~~4Er~iit(Mouvement national de la Revolution culturelle et sociale ) ".~~~~~~~tl;:!~:!Rl1E~~tli!l~*~~IUJH~-Yonda ll)1~:¥J:l~.n;Wli--> 1 ~~~$~~~~ " @ J.E-~ - ~8Jlll(.*~~ ­ *:!R~~:WH\jn~.~ - ffi!:~~iiK::ll1Ilt~~~i1iR:ffr~~ - ~e:g~~~I1l~.IIB!l1t~ • • (Georges Pompidou) "~'MJ.E-t\i~i1iR~ .mt~ - -I<tIHIIil2!IJ.,ijl~iit ~ ~~~~wlt- • •;!!m« - .gllo/illi~. (General Djigo) ~~~~. (General Malloum) - ~~W 1 ~~~.g[~+111m:ffr 1 ~• • ~.-&:.~ ~~i-->~\l:\+tR.:ffr~~ " ~~~ • • ~~~~. ~ 1 ~K<~ 1 ~~11.-N1! - mHm:ffr• • lt-m~~~~~.~~:ffr~i1iRjR~~IN+1~~" 1 ~~11. - ~~m~.~ (Les Toubous) 1!1.1.~ (Goukouni Oueddei) -~e~.l!!m$H~~.~-Nft. - at.gp~~ (Hissene Habre) ·-Jtm.tl:i~*8Jan(. ; ~~~~;l):IIII~I1I«~~. 4;!;ii§) Ibid., p. 413.. i;l;l.@ Jean Mathieux et Gerard Vincent, Aujourd'hui (depuis 1945), Masson, Paris, 1980, p. 380.. ~..

(4) (Epervier). 0. :BiBml-.t~jl. 0. Q. 0. «. ~~-H-ia![~<4~llIll( ~ l&E-<~$f r~~I!I:{~~~~~J ~ =M\liB:m-l:;:Ji-> Ill!! r*?.p:;;Bml-.\lE¥llIll(.J (Ie Canseil de commandement des forces armees du Nord ) ~ ~1~ll!!~~~.$I~.f;ti 1-F!-\lgrmz 1 -F!-\l-\l.ur-N~ ~ ~~i-> 1 ti~!M-<~!!ftl.~~W\~m: ( Frant;oise Claustre ) .. ;B;l~il\lli->~Ji[~~m::!tM .. lE4P~Ji[i!l!Hrrg~~J.E-11J Q *~ ~ ~~ti~~~~l&E-<i\~~~~:ti~~jffl • ..l.j~IilI<\*~~~~+Wii ( Bande d'Aouzou ) +jlil[l4-.p:;;<4EH!l:Bi-Hf(ltlll@~~~m1:Bi~!l:W..l.jI)jl@un::J.E-4IllE:l;jIl~~ Q~~~«~~ € • .p:;; .. ~.ti~M~emz~~m1:Bi~R~~".~ • • "~~Bml-R~~I-F!-\l<.url1~ • • i->~.~.o.i\~rn~~.:Bi*? R~Bml-iRR ~ 1$l~"~~~~ 1 -F!-\l-\l.urliB:~~IilI<\*~Ji[:ti~oo.~-f (Valery Giscard d' Estaing) rf-.~Bml-.~~ <> 1-F!-\l< .ur<~ .. ~~:ti~g.111~~jfflm~. ~ $41l~~ "111~~~$<W."Ml 1 -F!-\l-F!.url1~l&E-<1€t:l;jll~~ .. }tt1giH-f'{ ~ iR~~f\\~ ~.~ • .p:;;1$i.:tnn~~~*i!1 ~ ~41:f§lj~-<il(a:~$-<-N~~:Jnltl.~il(@!~li;HI!i-N~:Bi}tt1!¥!~~ .. ~!1$~\lIIllI Q~~:ti~~~ltr.N.url11~ ~.~~.~*41:f.~~~~~<>W~~~~ .. ~Ji[~*~J.E-~~~~"lE~~~~$~~giQ@~~W~~~~:Bi~*-N~ .. ptl,*i->~~~rE:+ 1ll!!~-l:;:J~.=M\JIg:a:;~~~-N~ ~~111f\\• • ~ ~~.f;ti 1 -F!-\l-F!.ur<~~mjqIi-> 1 ~~1$.'~ (Lagos) ~~ ~ 41:f-l:;:J r 4t1~Di!!?$41l~~J (Gouvernement d'union national de transition-GUNT) .. ::J:KJIg:~l!$-~~ti~+*lll\!l(Colonel Kamougue) 11-<~~ 1 -F!<O.ur1-R~" ~.ti{llm~.~."~ "l±l<W~W~_:tiMl <> W1~~~ .. ~.rE:~~*~$!m.~;~l&E -<}tt1&*."~~ • •:Bi• • o81-F!<O.ur+l1~~W.il(~.ti~.~."iR~~.urK~~.ti$I.~~m1~mjqIi->1~~~ 41l~~~lEemz~~m1:BiBml-.~~ .. ~W.~~lE~ii:I~~" I -F!< 11.urK~ ~ W$~g.:llIKJi[:Bi1P(~~ .. @ ~~.*:lnK • • ~l!$­ ~~ ~ ~~~.ti .. {llm~~."~ <> 1-F!<lll.url-R ' K~~" ~.ti*~:lnKl11~.~" W~~m14t1R1P(~~ilillE~l!$-~$.i->1$l .111~N 1 :lS~-H ~ .$Q~a:llII($ (Abeche) ~~~~1$.' (Faya-Largeau ) $'~~ <> \§~~~m1~~Iil:~~4t1R1P(~~.ti. ~:ifl~iR~ ~ ~Ji[~1tr.N.ur<~J!n(:\Ei-> 1 ~~~ nl~~J (Manta) :BiBml-.t~jt .. ~~D)l!111~~.~~~-W~.~~." 1-F!<I5I.ur 1 ' 11~~" ~Ji[IX~ili-> 1 ~Bml-• • mjqIiitt~~ .. ~mW~1$l • • *?+K.~~~ .. }tt1J.E-.t{f<;1 ~ l±:I~~~~~~~~t~~.llS1H~jl~ im'ilX~;lt1Ji[lnt\(\l~~llBI~~." 1-F!< K.ur'i l~~~ti.-G*!$J.E-i!!?~1§E.-WW~~~~~!t~~~~~ .. ~Ji[]i¢.~:\E I ~~~ r .. liB:i!!?~~~+K~~:Bi\lH!l1Iil1<\~ e 1 -F!<K.ur+ 1 ~ .. ruJt~ti~~~jffl"~'lE\itlt$1.~iR5:Bi~. ~~J. 4;ij@ Ibid.. 4;ij8 Le Figaro, Ie 18 dec. 1986, p. 2.. 4;ij@ Le Monde diplomatique. fevrier 1987, p. 13.. LB Monde. Ie 13 fev. 1986. p. 28.. iIii€l.

(5) .. <.>. ~l¥tt~~~*~iJI!!.~~• •. 0. 0. J. @. ... {JJl~I~~l.~*. <-F!. 0. ... ~.~~~.~.~~:&i~[fj{~~~ii!;tt. ~!'p:!~~lIl\!(~:i;::~~i;~\tlil.$i~:~~ .. ~la,,*:i!~"§~i;~l:Q.~*:!fl~~:!fl~\l?l 0. ~~~~~{us\~~~~. ~g:.lIl\1<~~~Ilm~~J.E:-~:&i~~~. -R.. ,~ ..j~""§(~ .. @)1lIlUI1~~~ijlHDli.w~~!il:l$lI~~IE~m11 (Tripoli) .. :!DK1i.@~-~lI!~-< (les Toubous) ~1+l" ~1II\~mt:..gp~~ ~~~4[I "1\~iC!~~~~~:tKem\-.~~~~.~*~):g:\~w.~~=R!~:&iBml-~ " tEl:!i..gp~~.~~+ 1 m::+l5[Ill~+l11Ili!!~~lDJ[ • • •1'Ji!- .. ~P-:l'h(-IKre::lt?~S~ (Fran<;;ois Mitterrand ) ~{l!g..gp~~mt (Jacques Chi rae) ~33>1\){~~~~~=R!-R~+1:&i ii!;ttli\ .. ~Eltl?;l},iIi[:&i~~:gjJ.E:-+~~~ " @ + 1In:::::+l111ll .. *~f€}1ii{~~=R!fifnll1+<\l!lIlltltf&l~I'->+<~~:&i~ ... HEmt-I<Ii[~:tK 1 It-~ 1-mjm[:Il\Klg:&itt!~~~ .. ~;l},imn:&i • • ~~~:J!{..gp~~~~Bml-~~.~fifn~~~.i:P~~ .. ~~~~ " tt!.~* ... ~~*~~:&i • • • ~ . . . . .*~Ii[~HE~.-<.~~+<l<lgo®m.~.~~ • • • R~~«.-<C:&i ~~ .. to~-NK+:&i~.~~IR%~~Bml--<" 1i[~~:lJm1;:$4tlmn~~:lJm1;<$l~:&i111~-Nll" 1 ~<~.4tI~S~:a~~~~~lE" tE~ ~~~r<.~ 11~~~J.E:-~ .. J.E:-m{<$I~~-m~mn~~ @~tEl::;l:i+ 1 n:::::rai\*~f€}1:&i~iR .. ~.~:&i-<[fj{Bml-fifn~ (Force armee Populaire-FAP) 11·I~nl!:;~-NR 1tJll1~*. 1 n:::::l~1 .. w.1<;l},iJ:~~~t'- .. h'-m..gp~~iln~~:&i~.~~Bml- (Les Forces Armees Nationales Tchadiennes-FANT) +<.~ ... ~~I'->~=R!:&i~~\l!lIlltl;l},i~~~~)gI=R!-R:&ilfil!-liI~~ " iC!~~fi~m~~ra~:&iOO ~l$l" 1 -R\§-m~ • • ~W:~~~~~4tI~ii$~Hm~I<~ .. *~JnMl~UgR~~~~):g:\:&iBml-R " l1-Rra-m~;l},imn~~~~~i:P:&i~~ .. J.E:-• • ~ • • • •+< .. ~tiW:*~f€}1:&i~ • •~,,~tEl::;l:i..gp~~~~J.E:-~.~~~~.~.)gI-R~Hm.I'->.~~):g:\:&i~~ .. ~ ~~.~~=R!-R~+1 .. ~ti~.~l ,,~~~~ .. r~~4tI~~:&i-<"~~~~':Il\K~1~~~.~~):g:\:&i~~ .. el$l.~~" 1 :g1l.*iii\~*~):g:\ .. g!l$l~\i?~:&i~~ " ~~):g:\\i?:lJm1;lIl\1<~~ .. tE~.mIllm~:&i{JJl~.H~J1(~~~~ "1m.<tH~ 11+ '**~~~. ~~-<@'(~lii.~. eJDl!lJ.E:-mt-:&iJDl!l ... q ,. ~~~~~w..~;l},i~_~~(leMoode)~~tl?~:a. , ~~mhri?;1J1I1m:fii'lll~E~. Figaro, Ie 18 dec. 1986, p. 2. Monde, Ie 14 nov. 1986, p. 6. Monde diplomatique, fevrier 1987, p. 12. MOllde, Selection hebdomadaire, du 11 dec. au 17 dec. 1986, p. S. Ibid.. Le Le Le Le. ~. ttI@ ttI@ ttI® ttI@ ttI@. 1tDl~.

(6) -FO. ... ~l.~~.*.~~. .~~~~=~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~.~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~*~~~~~~~~~~~~. ~~.~.~~~~.~~ • • ~~~~.~~R~.~.~~~~~.~.IE~ • • Q.~~~. +,;:J I'. 0. inlIJ*-LJ. <$l~i:tl? ~ lEE~~{m~.~:l#\{nEta$( 0. ifil-LJ. J:. CIa SanOllS­. ~ ~~~~~.--'Ri(~~~ ~. 11+$l~ ~ ~~~~~~~)gI~l+1iiI. ~ ~.~~~~~~j{iE~~~~~~~~~-H.{~t<~ ~ ~. I'. 0. ~~~.~~~~~~o@~~~~~~ • • ~~~~~~E~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~.N~~~e~~.~~~ .*~~~~~~.ti~M~.~ • • ~~~~m • • ~~~~o@. 0. im~~~~~~~.~I~m ~ ~.~lffi&!~=l*;%~~ ~ .1~-!H=l*;% • • ~~*~~ Ilm~~~f~~~tij-H.{~~. siya) ~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~iBiI~illilffi:\~.tr I' ~.~~. " ® .~~.~~. ~ ~ill\\lR". 1~. 1~+l~ ~ B:?1. ~-l:::l1 $!~~~. r~.~~4t1~~~~~~4t1I$(~llIlq~~~ ~ ~~~~+l.~~.~+l.~~. ~~.-!Hi( r~l11*'tm.J .~~d ~ M1S.~:l#\~~~~lIllj(~~~~t<~~~~flm:~~ ~ B:?1:t!.1~~~~. .*-!H~~~*~W~.~.~~~~~~~~~~~~~.~~~~~o@I~~~~~~.~~~~.~~~~~~~o~. 1~ ~4[lFili. 1~,;:Jl1~+11m::. ~ ~.flU~~8JIIl1(~~. .~.~~~~~~~~.il-LJI$(~1~~oJ@~11~~1~,;:JO~~*~-!H~~~~~~$~~~¢~M.~~)gI~~Ilm~ ~ ~:t!l-E:-~~~.~M.~)gI~~~ 11lm~ ~ ~M~~~~~:l#\~-l:::l:£iu@:!a ,,@ ~\1i ~. ~~~~~~l~.~·~.~~~~~~~~.~.~~~-!H~~.~,,~~.~~~.:t!l.~~.m$~~~~.~.S. Q. Q. -!H~~-LJ~~~~. 0. • 1EI:t!~JIIru.~n<m::l~i~'I{~ti~6It~m~ (Liberation). ~~. • ~i:tl?~~(ilig~I~~~.*Ml ® ~gr. 1 ~,;:J~~~*. ~JIIru.~+><~~*~.1W~~*Ml~~4[lti~~-4t1~ii!!i:tl?$4[l 1~<111~~.~~~~~#~~ii.· 7,J.!~~~. $~la1l!~~~~~ ~JIIru.~R~~~.~ .lI[.!$:~j{iE~. ~~ (GUNT). Q. ~~~~.~B.~~~~.~.~l.-~JIIru.~.~~~~~ • • *~~~~~. M~~.~lI! ~ ~~im-!H:i!IK;lJftP{~~~#~~~. .im*• • •~~~~4t1l-E:-~:£i_mo~l. 1Iitl.@ Ibid. 1Iitl.@ Ibid. 1Iitl.@ Alain Gresh, "Les visees et les craintes du regime libyen", Ie Monde diplomatique, fevrier 1987, p. 12. 1Iitl.® Oye Ogunbadejo, "Qaddafi and Africa's international relations", The lournal of Modern Africa Studies, 24, 1(1986). pp. 32-68, at p.35. il@ Elce et Hesse, "La France et la crise du Tchad d'aoiit 1983: un rendez-vous manque", Politique Etrangere 2/85, 1985. pp.411-418. at p.414. ltti@ Alain Gresh. "Les risees et les craintes du regime libyen", Ie Monde diplomatique, fevrier. 1987, p.12. ltl® Ibid..

(7) ·UU£ !;. :)1. ®J!I!I!. ·P!qI @m ·P!qI I3J!I!I! 'P!qI @m. '&lpij. 'UO!ITJ.l~qn. J. 0. rm:;rt:DP.J. th]!~~~~~~~~~~~~)!=Il~~*1R'>IT;::l-. ;::l- I. 0. I ~~rn.. 0. ~~EJ!~~~~. • ~~lIt~~~~~~.rua~~~*~m .. .. ~.~~ ... I ~~~~~~~~~~§I·ll\~@. 0. ~~~~~.~>I~li1~nillm:;rt:'aI!~~~. ;til ... C~Nn9) ~>WDp..~H§~W~~tt:~~~+II<--.J~~~<fR~~.Jr!}~~*~. .• I .~"Rf~.~tt~~. 0. 0. ll~ 6> DlIII~.~. I f\Hl~~~m~~~lt~lHlW~~~~~nrr~~ wa-~~~ilf*~>$.~ilijJn;.w~~~$~~.~~Htfi[IQ~ ·B~. .. )mn>:;rt:DP.ar~~*. ~>.~~l.~o~ ••• ~~$~~tt~*~.·.>.~~.~.*~.*.~~~~~>.~~lm<--.J.~~~~~~. iIijJ~fmf.$~Dp..~H~~~IDJ. m~I~.~o<--.J~~~~*~~.8~~·~~~~~ •• I~~~8~~~~~·~.~~~$~~~~~~~~·~NlItfJi!.. N~_~·.~I~~>~~~~>~~o>~tt~*~.ID~8·~~$~*~~~o>~ffi~.~8*~·~N.~~~~. 5*~.~~~*®ro#.~_~~~~$.*~.~.$~~·~~$$~*.*~71~~~o~N* •• »71·~.~~. ~~tt~.~71~~*~~·~~~~1R'~h-~~~·~~~~ml~I*71~~~~~~·~~~~~~~*71~*~~••. .~~~~~~~.~~@o~~~nml~~~~~~I~~.$**~·<--.J~~~>~~~~~~~~~~·~~°1R'~l~. o~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ffi~·~~~. (. ~.:;rt:* •• ~.~~~.~~o •• ~.~ •• ~.~~~~.*~~>~*~·.=~~ •• ~g~~~~N.~I~.~~ ~~ . ~.~~~r$~~~~~~~~~*.>W~~~~)ff f:l1~~* . *~<OO~ an ne9 ap sapeq:)) .ElDf.~· h-*ftM:. I. I>. ~~~mffi.M~~.~~~. )It;iii'!f~)$~nm~<--.J~~~~~.~~~~~I!lMh-~~~;;tli:@1R'. I ~;::l-)~;::l-. • ~11+1R'II>;::l- I ~~f:l11R' I >;::l- I *)$~nm I ~. @~Ht. 0. .... ~.~~Dlll~· )<!m~:;rt:DP.~(lO:) alla!d-uea[);;tli:,*~~~Jr$~~J>I-. •• ~~~•• ~~~~*~~•• ~.~~.~·~#. 0. ~fJi!.rm.~J ~~.~~Dlllf+t.~~~E1J· r~~g~~J ~1J})Ij!B.~~fJi!. r~~::t~J.~~71· ~*h­. ~·.~~.~.~~~~~~~. ctaffi!!:~@. ~~~~~~~~tt>l-~::ff*~*}E~~;;tli:,*. •• ~~~.rn~B~·~.OO.*~~.~~~~.~>~~o*.~~~~.~>~~~~~*~ .• *~~~* .•••. ·ZI·d 'LS61. ~1I!~IIIm:JljJ*~!rntf~.

(8) ~J l+-l(~. ~-j(~. (Pascal Chaigneau) ~~mt:~ ~. li[lflatlti:~. ~.~#l.lii$!iiil. ~~ ~ ~~!\I!!\~-H-=lli\:fK~~~.~;'it. 0. ~J. 1. P~~~~~~~~=lli\~~~)iI'ZH~mjl(~~~~~{jn( @ -h\1:Mt::~~,gl~ r-<.~~ ••~~.~o~Mmjl(.~~~$~~~=lli\~. (Mobutu Sese Seko). ~B~ ~ llR~. ~~-m ~ J!{~.*mK~~-¥-~.~~ffilH~~=lli\~IIm.g~~. ~ m~~mKtI,$~.~W-~. J1~~ rmHlljn-<_J. (David Dacko). 0. J~~~~M~~E.~~o lmjl(~~~~~m~~~.~.#l_~~~.~~~. 0. 1Im.~tR:~,~-<.mKnt{+H~.w~iR-Rr+r~1P<:$f: ~~!;. ~lImitil.{•• ~~~_ (Lionel Jospin) ~~!\I!!\~*ilS~~~~~.~* (Omar Bongo) ~ elm-mK11S1J.w~~~~~.g~. &~:fK~~.~~~.o.~~~~~~~l~&-m~.~:fK~M~~*~ l~~l~<l~~~~mllmitil•• ~*mK=~ •• •• ~M~!\I!!\~~~¢~.~~llRl~&~mjl(~l~<l~~=itil•• *.~~=lli\~~.~ •• ~.~~.e~~. ~.~=lli\~IIm. ~~~IIm~=lli\~-<nt{~~~~~~~~~~~~.~~elmjl(~~.~~.~~-<~~~#l~M~~~~~~~~~M~~*~~. 0. ® ~~. ~~~~-¥-~~.liitR:~~5i;~-K~fiil!¢(llI.. (Jean. Fran~ois-Poncet) ~J~ ~ ~~~IIm~=lli\~~.IX@I~. •• ~.~-Y. 0. ®. mK=lli\~~IIm~~~.~~ •• ~~~~~.~.~o®.w~~~~~.~=lli\~~.~$.¢m~.~~~~ •• ~~{jn(~~~~ ~~.~~.~l~.~o~~~.~«~*l~~~~.~~~~~~•• ~~~~*~~.o~$,.~.*~.tR:~.~« 1~<11~+11m:: ~ 4II~fiil!¢(-llI{':Mt::~.~ ~ ~~~=lli\~~.~.~~IX@I~~~~ 0. gjg~gg ~ .~~~~*~~.~~~*. ~~~. ~l~<l~~*~~IIm~~~~.~*mjl(.~~~w~.~~~~~:Mt::~~.~l~<K~~~~e~~~~~~.wl~. 0. 0. -\JK~l11m::Km.gr~~~~~~~~mK~~~:ttiHf~.mjqr~ 1~~~ ~ :JnK-H-.gr~~~ ~ .w.lii~~~~ ~ ~~.~~~.w~~~ tR:~!\I!!\~~ •• ~fi~:JnK~~B.~~~' •• ~~~~fi~M~.~~*~~~~~~~.)iI'~.mjl(~~~.o®~~.gg~ ~~~.~tR:~E~~.~.¥~~W-.~~•• ~_~~~~mjl( •• IIm~~.~m~~~.~.¥~mjl(~W-.~~~_~~~ :llm.r+r~~. ~ 1El~~IIm~~.~ 1•• ~Mmjl(-~.~~1~ , g-HN~~~I!iH~. 1 ® B$l~~ 1~< 1~ta~~~.~~~ 1~<lJl~~~ ~ mllmmK~.~.~)iI'~.~~~~ ~ 1~<11~~W-~mjl(~*~~$~~~iE?~~~~~.¥~~ ~~ 1~. ~@ Pascal Chaigneau, "Afrique: de l'affecitf au rationnel", in Franc;ous Joyaux et Patrick Wajsman, Pour une nouvelle politique etrangere, Pluriel, Paris, 1986, pp.340-369, at p.342. ~® Ibid., p.343. 4;tI® Ibid.. lIitI® Jean Franc;ois-Poncet, "Quatre ans de politique etrangere socialiste", Politique Etrangere, 2/85, 1985, pp.437-447, at p.442. ttI® Franc;ois Mitterrand, Ri/lesion sur la politique esterieure de la France, Fayard, Paris, 1986, p.I:!I. tilS Ibi4., p.121..

(9) '~ap. LI. ~1. '0.10111:1 87. 'uanb!ljV,1. ~:ME ~nbuEUl snoA-z~pU~l. un :£861 l'OOE,p. pEq~~. np. as!l~. El l<l. ~~UEltl. E1 ... @m. em. '~SS~H l~ ~~m:. 'Hl'd .• 'P!q/. 'LIt'd lE 'Slt-Ht 'dd '~861. @m @m. ,. 11~~nt)JIDI>~)¢,.. @"Faiil~. I ,. at~ I ~]';ffi o.Dutt. I +)7j:~-\!iaffi:~*. 0. ~.-!mS~~. I ~~~~tf~~~*. ,.. ~.-fl-f18:ffi: (PIS!;;)J)l OJnJg) SM:~~~.~~»t~~~. ,.. r>+~~J;1ii\. I ~EEAAilim.§g'#m'" a--fl-::m>~lll>~ IM)7j:me. ~~~~.iW~$- ".*q)IRft1fu1!tHit~~~~~~imt~. .. ~)<:Itm:~tf~~;aRt:,. ~~-{illl~i!\f:_¥tJlf*.jD}tHt~.~,. ::mIT~IlI>. o~~~~~.~m~tl~"IlI~Dm~.ffi:~~.~tf~~~,..~~~.~.g-~~.~~~.~~~~,.&.*~*~at.. il!iffi:~.$~-!mSH'i}~g- ~ ~~IiI~-{illl~fWli~" ~q) (BlUB~\J:). ~~~~g-j1~*SM:~*(ijm1DJ~~f*~~*~&.~~m.~~~m~~.at~~~o$*nm:~ffi:~tf~~~~~~~l\t~~~,.~. 1~=.~.~ffi:~B,.~.~3.Yt~~)ailt~+~~~.~]';ffi"R~~~ffi:~~~Jt~-j1~~~"~~•• Faiil~.M•••tl>ffi:. "~~ffi:s!!~~. rn~+::m~~E>~1 o~5~l$t~~*~~~~~~~~.~*,.~~)7j:~~~-!mS.~~~~~-j1Rt:m.m#m"~••. 1-$?l~ID~::m. ffi:.~~~~*~~.\Iffi:m.m#@~ •• \l!BI\~~.~~ffi:.iIiIIf~o~m.~M$"~.~~-j1~~-!mSffi:~tf~§{~,.~~.~. ~ ~~::ta! "'~-j1 •• ~~~.iIiIIf~ffi:~tf~-mtt~~)$.~fit(~~ffi:~~>~~~~.m#m~~~Rn$$. ~»(ijm~~-j1Rt:~.I~.m.S#@§{~e·~Nr~~~>*~.J~.>~*~"».~.~*~~~ •• ffi:.iIiIIf~~~. ~~~~I~»$.~*"-fI-~~.-!mSffi:::mEFIi+M~~"ffi:~~(ijm~~r>+~J~~~~~~"tl$§{~~~(ijm~m~~~,.. Hit~.~.at~~ast,. ~Faiil~~)~+~)ailtFli+- r~F!tJ 1Eli&t=lH!,*~~I-!fl1DJ" jlrI}.-!mS~i:~j)~*.iIiIIf~~~. 0. ,. ~*SM: " ~N-jlrI}-j1~Il~ffiiIl~llff,*~IlI •• ffi:~~i!!§*~~?fi~JHil1ii'titi 'f.~ffi:~>$~tf~~i!!~IUI_ ;J!f*3§tEHJmlE1!l~l$t~~ ~ -!mS~ffi:~f*~~M~tf~~l\tD~~~~~.at~~~\l!BI\ ,. ~~~)I-)1I1HliIIf~Jt~~~~~'Jil' ,. a--fl-::m 11+1ll'*. fit J M.h1§*l§~!:lJ. -fI-~m$a{"R~~~~tf~~~~-j1~>~~~~~">+~~.ffi:~~~-!mS~~~~.~~~~~.m#@"~~ffi:r~~~. ~~I~lDH!\:~mQm ~ i$l~~ID.~ ~ ~::ml !+~\iffit @" 3.Yt~~~)~+1Eli&t~-!mSffi:~tf~~?t-j1iJl$!l.\l::ta!. I(ijm)oa{ ,. &.~.-!mS~AAili~ .at~$~F:~'*~Rt:mQ* ~ ~N-~~~~Wt~$~~f*~~.nm:.>+~tf~ ,. a--fl-::mll+a{~ " J1!~ffi:~?l~I+~:#~~ I m~~~ *m~~.at~&. •• ~I~m.s#@,.~ ••• ~~mM"IDE+::mI+~*~~~~~" •• ffi:~-j1~.>~m •• ~ •• ~. '~s/z: 'l1.l~l1uo.lIZll1nb!1!loJ. '9861. 'tZI 'd '9861 'SPEd 'PlEAEtl 'I1:JUO.li/ 91 lip 8.1nl1!.I?flCa I1nTJmz04 01 .Ins uorxl1lfnJ 'puEll~n!J,\[ S!O!'JUEltl.

(10) ~~~I:t~. ~ll+K~. ~1(l!ii. ... ~151. $!-K.~amt.~.~"§~.o~~I1.~~H£!I~ 1~:R1~jR ~ -l:::l~~~~~ ~ ~.e.t~~r~~W9amt~:R1~~ ~ ~~*J1:!-!gO:C::I~~ ~~.~ ••~.~m~-K•• ~.~·~.~.B~~.r~l~ o. 0. 0. 0. /j;gil~ ~. 0. .~~W.~~.~~o:c::.:R1.~~~.r.~amt:R1.~~~~~·~~~.U •• ~.~.~~~:R1 •• ~~.~~.~ lfti .J;l;l.lgo:c::+~m:R1/j;g~• . LJ • ~~I1~mJf$.. rllll~~:R1amt.~g$mV<~~-lQ!!~:R1· ~g;::R1Illl.~!;~ ~ ~g;:~.~~-I(nI.~-lQ!!:R1:tK ~oJ~~~W~.~~~ ••• ~~U~&.:R1~~.~o.e.tmV<~~.J;l;l.~.*.m_:R1.~.a~~~w •• :R1~.~.¥& ~.I[:R1amt.~"§~~.~ 1lll~~~III.J;l;l.+K~~~~:R1-¥t*:ifk.: (Kalait) ~-lQ!! 1 .~amt.~$k;~ ~ .i:C~m{p.;{ait ' PlIE, ~~~ mi1*H£llgijP~r>r* •• ~amt'*~.¥lfti* 11o:c::<m ~ ~lmiX~*.~lmtr~:j:j(&lm~Ji; J \t-~~.** •• ~~~~~~ ~~:R1~~jRo®~~~~~amt.~~-I(nI •• ~amt.-K•• ~~.~~·~~mV<~~~ ••~~-K.:R1amt~~· ~~~:R1~.~ •• ~*..LJ. ~~~~lm~~~.-K.~~~• •~.~~~~Eamt:R1~ ••• o~~~Illl~~.~ • • • :R1.g$*.~~lm~~.~~~~r>r."§·~.~~ ••• ~~~.J;l;l.~.~~~.*~~*~~.:R1* •• :R1«~·. • -I(nI ••~amtlgo:c::.:R1.~ • ~~~.~lfflI!i(Prlm<~~\llll11:R11. 0. i11amtt::n~.~~-I(nI~:R1~~~l;:!.· 1 ~11-<lll:{~~. i@:i!!?m~~~.~ I .ffii.~.**_~~~~twH-:R100~. ~:tnKmV<~ffll:l.~mV<~~~~ • .J;l;l.-I(nI.~ 1'~}§~~~. .~~.~~.~~.I[~ ••• mV<~lm~~.~~:R1o®.~~mV<~~.~.~~.~S.:R1.~~l .~~lgH~~. 0. • mi!!?~~~ • •:R1~~·· ~~}§~~ID1:R11. lftiilil~:R1E~amt.~${l-N 1 -llR 1 ~mV<~~~1$' BIIIH~:R1,g::fii~.w~~~ ••:R1.~ .$${l~o. ~.~~~.~~~ •• o®~~..LJ.~~.*.·~.*~~~.·~.~-K.~.-~~.e.~*~~.§-.~.~:tnK. Lib~ration.. Ie 19 jail. 1987, p.14.. .f(..LJ • i$l• • • ntjnJ[~* ~ ~.I[~~~~~~.~~P-R:R1~~ ~ 1:{~:ll.lil~~~~::EIIliiS~~~ " ]gm:::g(m ~ ~~~-FHamt~ _. lttl® Le Monde. Ie 8-9 fev. 1987. p.l. 1tIi1® Newsweek. 22 August. 1983. IW.® LeMonds. selection hebdomadaire. du IS jan. au 21 jan. 1987. p. S..

(11) I. •LId 'L861 'Ullr II lG 01 GI 'UOnD.A,qn. " ~N-5It~ffi:.~~iM}~Et'-iE\~;]l~mBm. @m. '81 'd 'L86I 'MJlO Gl 'UOUD.A,qn. aI) 0. I illlllrt.:lflAAili (. ~q:llunO)l. !uAaS. Iel~u (~ru~~w. I. !itt~*~RI~::ta~~~~~.~~m. I. ~.~Jiifiti::Jt}dl~. 0. .~~m~~mt:~tF~J!~~~'tfJ~lll>*~. - Hlrf:tm.sIt~~~~?ltllll{:~l1t (!w!qelqI. qale~. pawqv). *~~~~~>*~. $~~a. -lilHJ;\l~$tIlIlflBlUl<-.J~HI- .*~)~. (wnoa-!peno). ~~~~ffi:.. ••••~~5~~·~~~~~§.-m~~~".E~I~.-.~~1i*(BpruV)a.~~.a~.~~~+~. im.::rf:• • ~~lm~~FH~\H;!·~~ ~ ~N-~~t~~ () %Dt~~~~. ~~~.~"~Hffi:jg.~~~~-~~~ffi:~tF~~~~Wt~~~.~~S*::m?\loslt~ffi:~.~~~~al~~sIt~1ffi:~.. ~~e. tF~~~~~~-~~o~ffill~m5\f!itt~~~.~~~~~~al~~~~~~m:~*~::mllo.~ffi:~ffi~*~~~~~~fI~. -!Ue810) • •~Hii~*,~i:lD ~·jg.ffi:)iHT1i::Jtml}~t1i*~tF~~~m:(~i~. • • ~~.~.*~~ffi: • • mtill~~~o.~• •*.~~~.~.ffi:~~~~~.-~~~.ffi:r5lt!1llJ~~J • ., ~~ffi:BIl!!ffill5\f~~~~l+V~:t~~~EE51lJllll~~~ll8=.~1m ~ ~~~~ffi: m.i\!B~<-.J~mrSl~~~~~m:~. IS> a Mijj$~lm~>-.m~lll ~ .~~~~~~ll ~ ~~film I - )lliajfiiilrlll.mt~~~~ffi:~ ~ ~ H~S~l~mti?im:§m:51~al~~ (ossan8N nosses S!uaa) ~l1!*m.i\!B~ffi~ ~ ~ftt (VnO-aule::>PJV ~l!un,I ap uopes. ~~!. )~~rn~m.~~~~o~~~ffi~~*~.!~F*~m.~~tF~.~Im~~~~.ffi:~~~~m~~~.m~§.mt~III. • • ~~m.~~~m• • ~;]l.1. ~fit:lffi:;»f+:~lt':tot:Wt~.~tF~.DtI;imilp.>~~Htlm::iHa: ~ ::ta~~m(ru~ ~ I1fijt'ffi:.~.mt~. • • ~~~.§~~.~~~N-~~.mffi:~tF~. .~~~m~mITJm;::l-+::m?\l. ~~tF~ • • ~~~~~a. -~9. j,i>-ti}>~ ~ i\!B~.~~ntlfilman~ ~ BIl!!51.m5lt!1llJ~ili~~ ~ flmtifE!nt~*.~mtill~*,~. ]mf I Htlml~.ffi:;]l$~~Wt~tF~}iit ~ (~3a aO ~Jtil*;on~F*~~~.~~~)~.....,~~m~<-.JIII~KiltF~ ~ *~mR\ ®" ~. ~~~~~~I~~~e~~~~~~~~~.~~I~~*,*ffi~~~~~~~*~~~~~~'-iE\~~~N-~~~.I~~ll. ~ct~m)r+::mII1H'IT>?I-. ®f.'l!!!. em. 'lOl 'd 'L861 'Ullr OZ "I 'UOUD.A?qn.

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