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The use of unified theory of acceptance and use of technology to confer the behavioral model of 3G mobile telecommunication users

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Wu, Y.-L., Tao, Y.-H., P.-C. Yang, The use of unified theory of acceptance and use of technology to confer the behavioral model of 3G mobile telecommunication users, Journal of Statistics and Management Systems, Vol.11, No.5, 919–949, 2008

Investigating the consumer behavior of Ta

i

wan’

s

3G mobile

telecommunication services

Yu-Lung Wu1, Yu-Hui Tao2, Pei-Chi Yang1

1

Department of Information Management, I-Shou University: ISU96-01-14 No.1, Sec 1,Syuecheng Rd.,Dashu Township Kaohsiung County 840

wuyulung@isu.edu.tw,

2

Department of Information Management, National University of Kaohsiung Kaohsiung (833, Taiwan)

ytao@nuk.edu.tw

Abstract

Although Taiwan’s 3G services started its operation in 2003, the main profit source for every telecommunication company is still the cheaper fees of airtime minutes. Therefore, this study is directed on how these companies design the marketing tactics closer to the consumers’ need under the dual influences of the decreasing individual’s contribution and the low utility rate, as well as how to improve customers’ willingness to adopt 3G mobile telecommunication services. Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) is used as the model to carry out the investigation of expert interview and consumers’survey. This study found thatthefactorsthatsignificantly influenced the“behavioralintention”include “performanceexpectancy,”“socialinfluence,”and “facilitating conditions,” whilethe traditional known “effort expectancy” did not. Moreover, three non-assumed relationships were discovered during the Structural Equation Model analysis, which helped to revise the UTAUT model for the adoption of 3G telecommunication services in Taiwan. The results of this study can be helpful to Taiwan’s mobile telecommunication companies to adjust their corporate strategies and tactics for providing customer-oriented 3G services to both existing and potential customers, such that the overall 3G market can be expanded as well as a win-win situation for the 3G industry and their consumers can be achieved.

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I. INTRODUCTION

According to the latest research report of GSM Association, the number of global mobile telecommunication users will surpass 5 billion in 2015, which is three times the current number. Meanwhile, the coverage of the mobile network has already reached 80% of the global population, which is twice of the number in 2000. The annual output value of global mobile telecommunication market has already reached US$700 Billion, and this value continued to grow with 10 % every year (GSM Association, 2006). Even when facing such a great business opportunity of huge market, besides Japan and Korea, the global application of 3G has just officially started in 2005. In the past, limited to the software and hardware abilities of 2G cell phones, the cell phone was unable to send information rapidly and safely. Now the 3G cell phone can not only greatly improves the deficiency of data transmission speed of 2G cell phones, but also offer diversified services, such as voice, data and video services.

In Taiwan, cell-phone number users had reached 2,2970,000 users in the third quarter of 2006, and the popularity of cell-phone number was up to 100%, there were 3,840,000 users for 3G data services and PHS users in the third quarter of 2006, which accounted for 42.7% of the total users of network Internet. The above figures show that the numbers of cell-phone and mobile Internet of Taiwan usage have always kept at a high level. In contrast, the mobile value-added services have been at a low level at the same time, which only accounts for 5% to 10% of theprofitofTaiwan’s mobile telecommunication industry (Institute for Information Industry,2006a) In the past,Taiwan’scellphonemarketisrelatively smallon thedataservices.Foruser’s contribution to data-service profit, the highest one is 8% by Far EasTone, and then 6% by Chunghwa Telecom and Taiwan Mobile.Among Taiwan’smobiledataservices, picture and ring tone downloading, game and friend-meeting are the most popular mobile value-added services besides messaging, which reflects that the current mobile services has not been widely accepted by the consumers. This is a general bottleneck faced by the worldwide mobile phones suppliers, and thus deserves a further investigation on the consumer’s adoption behaviorregarding 3G mobile service adoption.

The behavioral intention that is adopted to discuss technology acceptance is always the an emergent topic in contemporary management (Davis, 1989; Davis et al., 1989; Mathieson, 1991; Mykytyn & Harrison, 1993; Igbaria et al., 1997; Jackson et al., 1997; Liao et al., 1999). Because Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) has the best explanatory power in behavior for information technology, among the technology acceptance models (Davis, 1989), it is used as the

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main framework in this study. In order to identify the adoption factors of 3G mobile service issues, the purpose of this study verifies the suitability of UTAUT under the background of mobile telecommunications, understands consumers’relevant factors of behavioral intention with regard to mobile telecommunications service, and focuses on differentusers’characteristics, using habits, and the connection between service types and key successful factors in order to serve as the reference for the marketing strategies of mobile telecommunications subscribers and the customer relationship management.

II. BACKGROUND INFORMATION

A. The current situation of 3G mobile telecommunication industry

Mobile telecommunication system continuously progresses with the advancementoftechnology and theusers’demandstowardstransmission speed and application services. A noteworthy point is that the mobile telecommunication system is not only evolved and developed unilaterally, but the 1G, 2G, 3G that this study mentioned are also the classifications of the current mobile telecommunication system according to their transmission speeds and applications. In particular, the so-called third generation mobile telecommunication system is the mobile telecommunication system that combines the multimedia communications, such as wireless communication and global Internet, copes with many kinds of media, such as picture, audio-visual, and video conference, and offers diversified information services including Internet surfing, video conference, and mobile e-commerce. The third generation of mobile telecommunication system must possess enough bandwidth and transmission speed in order to offer this kind of multimedia service (Topology Research Institute, 2005), such that customers can have the best quality of receiving environment in any place and any time (S.C. Zeng, 2002).

According to the investigation report of Global System for Mobile Entertainment Services Market of Informa Telecoms & Media, the Global System for Mobile Entertainment Services Market is up to US$18.8 billion in 2006, and it is expected to be up to US$39.3 billion by 2011 (Informa Telecoms et al.,2006). In termsoftheuserpopulation,thenew research report,“WorldwideCellularUser Forecasts, 2005-2010”,by Strategy AnalyticsWirelessNetwork StrategiesService points out that the global mobile users will be up to 2.5 billion by the end of 2006, and reaches 3.5 billion users before the end of 2010. In addition, Strategy

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Analytics also predicts that in the following ten years, the industry of the mobile telephone will produce the service profit of US$800 billion.

With the gradual progress of technology and the mobile device of downloading, 3G technology will be commercialized successively. The market of 3G becomes gradually clear in other countries. For example, since the third quarter of 2006 in Japan, the 3G user population has already been up to 57 million. In addition, the transmitting rate of 3G technology increases from 384bps to 2Mbps, so that the potential multimedia network services, such as e-book, electronic comic, mobile TV (audio-visual steam), mobile game, mobile music, etc., are put forward successively. Take South Korea as another example, the consumers are charged for about US$15 per month for the service of watching TV though the cell phone.

B .The present using condition of 3G telecommunications service in Taiwan

With respect to the development of 3G telecommunication services in Asia, the 3G subscribers of Japan, Korea, Singapore, and Hong Kong have already set up 3G services before June of 2005, though the first 3G subscriber (Asia Pacific Telecom) in Taiwan set up the 3G services earlier than the subscribers in Hong Kong and Singapore, but the 3G services of the main 3G subscribers started to operate continually until May 2005, and the last subscriber, VIBO Telecom, set up the 3G services until December 2005 (Table 1), the starting time of Taiwan had not only fallen behind Japan and Korea, it also has a gap with Hong Kong and Singapore (Institute for Information Industry, 2006).

Table 1 –The general situation of 3G mobile telecommunication subscribers’systems in Taiwan 3G mobile telecommunicati on companies Chunghwa Telecom Taiwan Mobile Co. Far Eastone Telecom VIBO Telecom Asia Pacific Telecom

System WCDMA WCDMA WCDMA WCDMA CDMA 2000

Frequency bands(GHz) 1.960~1.975 2.020~2.025 2.135~2.150 1.945~1.960 2.015~2.020 2.135~2.150 1.915~1.935 2.125~2.135 1.945~1.960 2.125~2.135 0.825~0.845 0.870~0.809 3G image roaming 25 countries, 41 networks 5 countries, 9 networks 14 countries, 22 networks 37 countries X The number of 850,000 490,000 300,000 300,000 990,000

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3G users in November 2006 The time of setting up commercial service July 2005 September 2005 July 2005 December 2005 September 2003

Source of materials: Telecommunication Bureau(2006/12)

However, until the forth quarter of 2006, the number of 3G of users has increased 26.7% comparing to last season, the number of users broke 3,420,000. Compared with the end of 2005, the growth was astonishing, the 3G users in the forth quarter of 2006 has increased 157.5% more than the same period of last year, the number of 3G users has increased 2,097,000. Thus it can be seen that the increasing power of 3G users is considerable, the mobile telecommunication users of Taiwan shift to 3G specifications progressively. but the fact is not so. According to “Thebehavioralinvestigation oftheusageofTaiwan mobiledata service” conducted by the Institute for Information Industry, the popularity of mobile data service for Taiwanese was 59% in 2006, which is only relatively fair compared with 2004 and 2005. In other words, the mobile data service has not been significantly improved as the rapidly growth of 3G user population. In addition, the profit of Taiwan mobile data service accounts for only 8.3% of average profit per user, which is still incomparable with 20% in Japan and Korea(Institute for Information Industry, 2007).

The third generation of communication service has the same advantage of the traditional e-commerce as well as the unique service characteristics and value-added benefits. If the companies of the third generation of communication servicecan understand theconsumers’behaviorofusing 3G servicesin depth, then they can not only promote the quality of communication service, but also can obtain abundant consumers’ information (N. Nohria,2001). Accordingly, investigating the customers’ behavior of using 3G services can improve the effective customer service and expand the using market (R. B. Green, 2002). However, the success of mobile value-added service market must be established under the prerequisites of complete customers, content, terminal device, service platform, marketing service and operational models, and none of above-mentioned conditions can be dispensed with. The cell phone subscribers in Taiwan are full of expectation towards mobile value-added services, but they are currently not satisfied in the actual applications. This polarized response has been shown on the

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content and application of the mobile value-added services and paying desire. Therefore, how to understand theconsumers’demandsand intention/behaviorand then bring outtheconsumers’actualapplication ofmobileservices.。So, this is the main purpose of this study.

C. Technology Acceptance Model (TAM)

Davis (1989) uses Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) from Fishbein & Ajzen (1975) as the foundation and cooperates with the application situation that is used by information system, so as to propose Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). In other words, it can be regarded as TRA and then applied to explain the specific model that is adopted by information technology (Taylor & Todd, 1995a). The purpose of TAM is to simplify TRA and provide a generalization model that possesses theoretical foundation & parsimony and the tools that a manager uses. It also allows the manager to use TAM to weigh the introduction of new technology, and then predicts and explains the user’sbehavior of accepting information technology (Venkatesh, et al., 2003). At the same time, the researcher can understand the external factors thataffectresearcher’sinternalfaith, attitude and desire when using the technology.

The reason why TAM is generally valued and adopted by researchers is becauseitusesusers’perception to inferBehavioralIntention (BI)directly,its method is simple and clear,butquestionssuch as“which factorswould influence users’perception”havenotbeen discussed.Legrisetal.(2003)suggested that other variables should be added to TAM so as to provide a more complete model structure; thus, Venkatesh and Davis (2000) have proposed a new structure, TAM2, which extends forward, and they claimed that “Social influence” and “Cognitive instrumental” are the two main variables that influence users’ consciousness. The former includes three dimensions, which are “Subjective norm”,“Voluntariness”and “Image”; the latter includes four dimensions, which are“Job Relevance”,“OutputQuality”,“ResultDemonstrability”and “Perceived EaseofUse”. TAM2 has omitted behavioral attitude (ATU) because ATU does not have significant influential effect towards BI and actual system usage (AU).

The Evidence-based study shows that the explanatory power of two forward

extending variableswith regard to “Perceived Usefulness”hasreached 51%,and the entire model has 49% of explanatory powerfor“BehavioralIntention”. Besides forward extending the TAM framework and improving the completeness of theory, the more important thing is that TAM2 expands the study field to the internal parts of actual enterprises, it also brings them into the dimensions that are

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closely related to the business, such as Job Relevance.

D. Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT)

With thevigorousdevelopmentofTAM2’srelevantstudies,moreand more external variables that focus on different fields have been brought up. Venkatesh has finished a review in accordance with the relevant studies over the years, he found out the previous evidence-based models have their own characteristics, each of the models also had been verified in its own field and category respectively; hence he integrated the eight models from previous documents: TRA, TAM, Motivational Model (MM), Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), Combined TAM and TPB (C-TAM-TPB), Model of PC Utilization(MPCU), Innovation Diffusion Theory (IDT), Social Cognitive Theory(SCT), addressing the new framework of Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology(UTAUT). The discussion of the eight relevant individual behavioral acceptance models and theories is shown in Table 2. Its theoretical structure is shown in Figure 1.

Table 2 –The discussion of relevant individual behavioral acceptance models and theories

Theory Core Structure Definition

Attitude Toward Behavior The positive or negative feeling that an individual has towards certain behavior 1.Theory of

Reasoned

Action (TRA) Subjective Norm

An individual experiences others thinking that he should or should not have what kind of behaviors

Perceived Usefulness The degree that the user believes that using the information system can improve work performance

Perceived Ease of Use The degree that an individual believes its easy to use the system

2.Technology Acceptance Model (TAM)

Subjective Norm

An individual experiences others thinking that he should or should not have what kind of behaviors

Extrinsic Motivation

User has the feeling to perform some actions because of some activities, improvement of work, salary, and advertisement

3.Motivational Model (MM)

Intrinsic Motivation

User has the feeling to perform certain behaviors because he wants to, not because of any obvious stimulus Attitude Toward Behavior The positive or negative feeling that an

individual has towards certain behavior Subjective Norm

An individual experiences others thinking that he should or should not have what kind of behaviors

4.Theory of Planned

Behavior (TPB)

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experienced from inside and outside towards his behavior

Attitude Toward Behavior The positive or negative feeling that an individual has towards certain behavior Subjective Norm

An individual experiences others thinking that he should or should not have what kind of behaviors

Perceived Behavioral Control

The restriction that an individual has experienced from inside and outside towards his behavior

5.Combined TAM and TPB (C-TAM-TPB)

Perceived Usefulness

The degree that the user believes that using the information system can improve work performance

Job-fit

The degree that the system can strengthen an individual’s work performance

Complexity The degree that the system is difficult to understand and use

Long-term Consequences The result will be somewhat benefited in the future

Affect Towards Use

An individual feels joyful, happy, depressed and detesting towards s certain behavior.

Social Factors

The internalization of individual towards team culture and the agreement with the group

6.Model of PC Utilization (MPCU)

Facilitating Conditions

The subjective factor that makes people feel it is easy to take action under a certain environment

Relative Advantage The degree of using new method and can do better.

Ease of Use The degree of using new system and make people feel difficult to use. Image The degree that using new system can

strengthen others’impression Visibility

The degree that one can observe different users to use the new system in the organization

Compatibility

The degree that user feels the new system is in chorus with the value of existence, demand, and experience. Results Demonstrability

The substantial result of using new system includes the things that are visible and can be expressed by languages.

7.Innovation Diffusion Theory (IDT)

Voluntariness of Use The user experiences the innovation of the new system and begins to have voluntariness and freedom.

Outcome Expectations-Performance

The performance expectancy is related to the result of behavior, especially the performance expectancy that is related to work.

Outcome Expectations-Personal

The individual expectancy is related to the result of behavior, especially personal respect and achievement feeling.

8.Social Cognitive Theory (SCT)

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has when using a kind of technique to complete a specific work or assignment.

Affect Personal interest towards a special behavior

Anxiety

The anxiety or emotional response that an individual has when performance behavior is involved.

Source of the materials: Venkatesh, et al. (2003)

Fig.1. UTAUT model

Source of the materials: Venkatesh et al. (2003)

UTAUT model integrates the issues that are mentioned in the relevant documents into four main core determinants: Performance Expectancy (PE), Effort Expectancy (EE), Social Influence (SI), Facilitating Conditions (FC), and four control variables, which are “Gender”,“Age”,“Experience”,and “Voluntariness ofUse”.Its four main dimensions are shown in Table 3.

Table 3 THE FOUR CORE DETERMINANTS OF UTAUT

UTAUT Determinant The Sub-Determinant The Source of Integrated Model Perceived Usefulness TAM/TAM2/C-TAM-TPB Extrinsic Motivation MM

Job-fit MPCU

Relative Advantage IDT Performance

Expectancy/PE

Outcome Expectations SCT

Perceived Ease of Use TAM/TAM2 Effort Expectancy/EE

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(Ease of Use IDT Subjective Norm

TRA 、 TAM2 、 TPB/DPTB 、 C-TAM/TPB

Social Factors MPCU

Social Influence/SI

Image IDT

Perceived Behavioral Control TPB/DTPB、C-TAM-TPB Facilitating Conditions MPCU

Facilitating Conditions/FC

Compatibility IDT

Source of the materials: Venkatesh et al.,(2003)

Venkates et al. (2003) thinks that the purpose of UTAUT model is to offer the manager with using tools, the manager can use UTAUT to weigh the introduction of new technology and predict & explain the user’s behavior of accepting information technology. From the previous test result, one found that the explanatory power of this UTAUT model is up to 70% with regard to technology using behavior, it is more effective than any of the models that are known before; and the use of UTAUT model has become more extensive in recent years, it is no longer confined to the discussion of the use of information system, such as mobile commerce (Carlsson et al. ,2006; Ming-Hong Siao, 2006), online learning (Yi-Yuan Zeng, 2005), and wireless network (Hong-Chang Zhang, Cang-Yi Guo, Mei-Chi Lai, 2004); and the study problem of this study takes user’s desire and behavior as the core, so this study uses UTAUT model as the theoretical foundation of this study.

III. Research Model and Hypothesis Development

A. The Study Framework

Synthesizing the above-mentioned literature reviews, the framework of this study can be integrated and shown in Fig. 2. The external variables are formed by the four core determinants in UTAUT model; the control variables are in accordancewith the UTAUT model’svariables,including gender,age,experience, voluntariness of use, and level of education is added.

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The major differences between this study and the original UTAUT study (Venkatesh et al., 2003) lie in the temporal dimension and the connotation of determinants by “external variables”. For the temporal dimension, because Venkatesh et al. (2003) focused on the specific application software to train the same participant, it was required to carry out three tests in three periods of time before and after training. This study only has one test because it is designed to survey participants at different stages of the temporal dimension all at once. Also, because theuser’s“familiarization”with regard to that software will change with time,thiscan beused to measure theinfluence of“using experience” towardseach determinant.Therefore,“using experience”in thisstudy refersto theindividual’s using habit in the past (Venkatesh et al., 1996). Finally, education is added into the control variable group because it is conjectured to be relevant as the other control variables in mobile communication adoption.

Fig.2. The Study Framework

B. The Study Dimensions

This study uses the four main dimensions of UTAUT, which includes Performance Expectancy, Effort Expectancy, Social Influence, and Facilitating Conditions, and the control variables. Each dimension is defined referring to relevant documents, the explanation is as follows:

(1) Performance Expectancy/PE It refers to “the degree that the user believes that using the information

Control Variables

External variables

Performance Expectancy Effort Expectancy Social Influence Facilitating Conditions Behavioral

Intention Use Behavior

Gender Experienc

e Age

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system can improve work performance”, Venkatesh has arranged five sub-dimensions from the documents in the past, which are Perceived Usefulness (TAM/TAM2/C-TAM-TPB), external motivation (MM), work correlation (MPCU), relative advantage (IDT), and expectancy to the achievement (SCT). Venkatesh et al. (2003) thinks that expected effectivenessrefersto “ableto obtain significantrewardsafterusing thesystem”,and from the previous studies, one could know that the influence that the difference between Gender and Age has towards performance expectancy is relatively significant; therefore, the male worker or young worker who pursues performance will be more outstanding than other groups.

(2) Effort Expectancy/EE

Itrefersto “Theeasinessthatan individualthinksofwhen using thesystem”, Venkatesh has arranged three sub-dimensions from the documents in the past, which are“consciousnessofeasy to use”(TAM/TAM2),“systematiccomplexity” (MPCU),and “operating simplicity”(IDT).Thismeansthatwhetherthedesign of information system can allow the user to use it easily or not is one of the key factors of accepting information technology, for instance: whether the operation of cell-phone functions is clear and easy to be understood, whether it is easy for the user to use 3G mobile telecommunication to access Internet, all of these are the factors that determine whether the system is easy to use or not. Venkatesh et al. (2003) believes that the diligent expectation of an individual towards the use of system would be somewhat different because of gender and age, women or old people are usually more significant, but these influences will be reduced as the using experience increases.

(3) Social Influence/SI

It refers to “the degree that an individual senses that the person who is important to him thinks that he should use the new system”, Venkatesh has arranged three sub-dimensions from the documents in the past, which are “subjective norm”(TRA, TAM2, TPB/DPTB, C-TAM/TPB), “social factor” (MPCU), and “public image”(IDT).

The so-called “subjectivenorm”refersto “acertain kind ofimageofthe party thatisgiven by the peoplearound him”,or“peoplethink thathow theparty should do”. “Subjective norm” will urge the party to produce the point of behavioral intention (BI), this was first proposed by Fishbein & Ajzen (1975) in TRA, thereafter through the discussions of a lot of scholars, different results have also appeared. Taylor& Todd (1995)found out“subjectivenorm”would really

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make party produce the behavioral intention, and Mathieson (1991) & Davis et al (1989) believed that the relationship between them is not significant. According to the view of Davis (Davis et al.,1989),thestrong orweak strength of“subjective norm” is closely related to the environment that the discussion subject is in. “Public image”refersto “the party thinks a certain image helps to maintain or improve his own position in the group”(Moore and Banbasat, 1991), because the image or impression that the party hopes to establish is usually related to role model that the group identifies, so there is significantly positive relation between the so-called “public image”and “role model identification”(Venkatesh, et al., 2000).

Venkatesh et al. (2003) believes the relationship between social influence and use intention would be influenced by the interfering factors such as gender, age, experience and use voluntarily. In addition, social influence has very significant influence towards old workers; if use gender to distinguish, women workers will be easily influenced by the attitudes of senior managers and colleagues. But these influences would usually happen only at the beginning of use, after using for a while, social influence does not have significant influence on behavioral intention. (4) Facilitating Conditions/FC

It refers to “the degree of supporting that an individual feels from the organizational and technical relevant equipment towards system use”,Venkatesh has arranged three sub-dimensionsfrom thedocumentsin thepast,which are“the control of conscious behavior” (TPB/DTPB, C-TAM-TPB), “promoting condition” (MPCU), and “compatibility” (IDT). Among them, the so-called “control of conscious behavior” refers to user’s self-efficacy to the system in general, which is the user’s judgment of able to operate the system or not; “promoting condition”refersto thetechnology assistancethatisprovided by the objective environment; “compatibility” is the consistency of system and organization value. Therefore, cooperating situation means that the organization and technical framework support the user to use the system, including the support of computer software and hardware or the assistance on systematic operation (Venkatesh et al., 2003; Thompson et al., 1991). Experience and age are the interfering factors between cooperating situation and behavior. In conclusion, Venkates et al. (2003) considers the purpose of experience, gender, age, and user is to emphasize that there is difference between personal acceptance and the strategy of using IT under different situation, one must consider these interfering factors and correct the implemented strategy appropriately. It arranges the sub-dimensions of UTAUT’seach dimension and theirdefinitions.

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(5) Moderators

Besides the above-mentioned four core determinants, there are still four significant moderators in the theoretical structure of UTAUT: Gender, Age, Experience and Voluntariness of Use.

There is no lack of the discussions of these variables in the previous relevant studies, take Gender as an example, a lot of studies point out the influence of different dimensions towards BI is related to Gender, just like the influence that Performance Expectancy (PE) has towards Behavioral Intention (BI), female is more significant than male, and in the mean time because female cares about others’pointofview more,so SocialInfluence(SI)ismoresignificant(Venkatesh and Morris, 2000). UTAUT further cross-analyzes the roles of other relevant variables (such as Age), the result of study finds out the complex interaction of two or more variables will make the influence even more significant. For example, in PE’sinfluencetowardsBI, in case of only considering Gender, male is more significant than female; if adding Age factor, then young male is more significant than other groups; In the influence of “Effort Expectancy”(EE) towards BI, female is more significant than male, especially the young female who is lack of the experience of using computer; in SI’sinfluencetowardsBI,femaleismore significant than male, especially under involuntary situation and the older female who is lack of the experience of using computer; maybe SI has more significant influence towards older age employees, and the intensity of this influence will decrease progressively with the accumulation of use experience (Venkatesh, et al., 2003).

C. Study Assumptions

According to the structure of this study, the variables are divided into external variables and control variables in order to establish the following assumptions:

(1) External Variables

Hypothesis 1 –The consumers of 3G mobile telecommunication services think that“performanceexpectancy”willliftthe“behavioralintention”of the 3G mobile telecommunication services.

Hypothesis 2 - The consumers of 3G mobile telecommunication services think that“effortexpectancy”willliftthe“behavioralintention”ofthe3G mobile telecommunication services.

Hypothesis 3 - The consumers of 3G mobile telecommunication services think that“socialexpectancy” willliftthe“behavioralintention”ofthe 3G

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mobile telecommunication services.

Hypothesis 4 - The consumers of 3G mobile telecommunication services think that“facilitating conditions”willliftthe“behavioralintention”ofthe 3G mobile telecommunication services.

Hypothesis 5 - The consumers of 3G mobile telecommunication services think that“behavioralintention”willliftthe“usebehavior”ofthe3G mobile telecommunication services.

2. Control Variables

Hypothesis 6 –Gender has significant difference towards the study variables of 3G mobile telecommunication services.

Hypothesis 7 –Age has significant difference towards the study variables of 3G mobile telecommunication services.

Hypothesis 8 –Voluntariness of Use has significant difference towards the study variables of 3G mobile telecommunication services.

Hypothesis 9 –Experience has significant difference towards the study variables of 3G mobile telecommunication services.

Hypothesis 10 –Education has significant difference towards the study variables of 3G mobile telecommunication services.

D. Questionnaire Design and Data Collection

In orderto understand theconsumers’demandsand intention/behavior,and then bring out the consumers’ actual application of 3G mobile telecommunication service, this study used the questionnaire method to examine the framework of this study. The questionnaire was initially designed in accordance with the operational definitions referred in “2006 WMIS Global Mobile Internet Investigation” issued by Institute for Information Industry in 2006. Then interviews were conducted with related units of five domestic 3G mobile telecommunication companies for possible modifications of the final questionnaire. The questionnaire was divided into three sections, including the questions for external variables, the questions for behavioral intention, and the questions for use behavior.

The tables that this study use mainly adopt the table of technology acceptance model that is developed by Davis (1989) and the items that are arranged from Venkatesh et al’s UTAUT model (2003) so as to serve as the foundation; thus, the question about content validity does not exist. In the part of Behavioral Intention, because the questionnaire content of UTAUT relies mainly on investigating “thefollow-up BehavioralIntention ofdifferentperiod”,this

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doesnotcorrespond to thesubject’scharacteristicsofthisstudy.Therefore,the questionnaire content of Behavioral Intention would refer to TAM2, besides substituting with the proper words in accordance with the subject’s characteristics, the content has not been revised additionally. Because the study object of this study is mainly the consumer who is already using 3G telecommunication services, so in Use behavior, it investigates the whole acceptance that the users have with regard to the use of every area of 3G mobile telecommunication services. Finally, the pre-questionnaire is produced according to the definitions of this study structure’sstudy variablesand the questionnaire content of relevant documents.

After completing the tables, this study sends 40 questionnaires out at random so as to carry out the pretest of the small sample, 40 questionnaires have been retrieved, and the retrieval rate of questionnaire is 100%. The retrieved questionnaires are analyzed using SPSS15.0 software, and the questions in the pre-questionnaire are deleted through factor analysis. In Performance Expectancy, 12 questons have been deleted; in Effort Expectancy, 5 questions have been deleted; in Social Influence 4 questions have been deleted; in Facilitating Conditions, 4 questions have been deleted; in Behavioral Intention, 3 questions have been deleted; in the acceptance of Use behavior, 1 question has been deleted; thus, there are 29 questions in the formal question table.

In the end, this study has received 292 valid responses via online questionnaire lasted for 3 weeks, plus another 102 valid responses distributed on-the-spot of telecommunications companies, which summed up to 394 valid responses altogether. The user profile is summarized in Table 4, which indicates majority of them were male, between 26-35 age group, working professionals, above college degree level, living in metropolitan area, having over five years of telephone experience, paying over 400 NT$ monthly fees, and spending less than 15 minutes on 3G services.

Table 4 The user profile

Variables Categories Frequency Percentage (%)

Male 242 61.4 Female 152 38.6 Sex Total 394 100 Under 17 2 0.5 17-25 70 17.8 26-35 258 65.5 36-45 62 15.7 Over 46 2 0.5 Age (year) Total 394 100 Occupation Students 114 28.9

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IT industry 44 11.2

Manufacturing 26 6.6

Financial and insurance/ real estate

industry 16 4.1

Mounties 46 11.7

Services 90 22.8

Medical industry 8 2.0

Media / advertising industry 4 1.0

Others 46 11.7

Total 394 100

Foreign countries 14 3.6

High school / grade 158 40.1

University / specialist 188 47.7 Over Institute 34 8.6 Education Total 394 100 North 114 28.9 Central 42 10.7 Southern 228 57.9 Eastern 4 1.0 Islands region 6 1.5 Region Total 394 100

Less than a year 2 0.5

1-2 6 1.5

3~4 24 6.1

Over 5 years 362 91.9

Use phone time (year) Total 394 100 Under 200 38 9.6 201-400 60 15.2 401-600 108 27.4 601-1000 86 21.8 Over 1001 102 25.9 The monthly phone rates (NT$) Total 394 100 0-15 minutes 328 83.2 16-30 minutes 20 5.1 31-60 minutes 12 3.0

Between 1 and 2 hours 10 2.5

Between 2 and 3 hours 8 2.0

Over 3 hours 16 4.1 The daily average amount of time spent online 3G Total 394 100

Source of the materials: Arranged by this study

IV. THE STUDY ANALYSIS AND RESULT

A. Factor Analysis

KMO is Kaiser-Meyer-Oilskin measure of sampling adequacy, the higher the value of KMO, the more the common factors between variables and the more suitable to undertake factor analysis. According to the views of Banning and Kaiser(1974),ifthevalueofKMO ishigherthan 0.9,itmeansthatitis“very suitable for factoranalysis”,theKMO valuesofthisstudy are allhigherthan 0.8,

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so they are suitable for factor analysis. In addition, from Bartlett’s Test of Sphericity, one can find that they all reach the level of significance, representing the common factors exist between the relevant matrixes of population, so they are suitable for factor analysis(Table 5).

Table 5 - KMO and Bartlett’sTest Study variables PE EE SI FC BI UB KMO measure of sampling adequacy 0.925 0.824 0.897 0.712 0.9661 0.808 Approximate Chi-square Distribution 16.936 10.349 15.529 25.755 12.690 18.505 Degree of freedom 3 3 6 6 3 3 Bartlett’s Test of Sphericity Significance 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 Source of the materials: Arranged by this study

In the Questionnaire of this study, 29 questions are divided into three parts in accordance with UTAUT model, questions PE-1 to FC-4 belong to the question group of “external variables”; questions BI-1 to BI-3 belong to the question group of measuring Behavioral Intention (BI); questions UB-3 to UB-1 belong to the question group of measuring Use behavior (UB). First, SPSS15 software is used in order to adopt Principal Component Analysis to undertake factor analysis to the 29 questions, and the result shows Cronbach’sα =0.9521, and then retest of Reliability Analysis is carried out to these three parts, the result is shown in Table 6.

Table 6 –The result of factor analysis

Factor

Ques tion Cod e

Questions in Questionnaire Factor loading

Cronb ach’α

value

PE1 I think it is useful to use 3G mobile telecommunication

service. 0.932

PE

PE2 I have new experience in using 3G mobile 0.935

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telecommunication service

PE3 3G mobile telecommunication service includes a lot of

information that is relevant to my work 0.929 PE4 I think 3G mobile telecommunication service can satisfy

the demand from work 0.927

PE5 I think the use of 3G mobile telecommunication service

can bring some recreation to my work 0.932 PE6 I think the use of 3G mobile telecommunication service

can bring convenience to my work 0.927 PE7 To some of my work, it is essential to use 3G mobile

telecommunication service 0.929

PE8 I think the use of 3G mobile telecommunication service

can lift my work efficiency 0.923

PE9 I think the use of 3G mobile telecommunication service

can lift my work quality 0.926

PE1 0

I think the use of 3G mobile telecommunication service

can produce innovativeness for my work 0.926 EE1 I think it is easy to understand 3G mobile

telecommunication service 0.773

EE2 I think the using interfaces of 3G mobile

telecommunication service is easy to be familiar with 0.810 EE

EE3 I can be skilled at the use method of 3G mobile

telecommunication service very quickly 0.883

0.811

SI1 The people around me think that I should use 3G mobile

telecommunication service 0.902

SI2 I will discuss the feeling of using 3G mobile

telecommunication service with family and friends 0.893 SI3 My family and friends can influence me to use 3G mobile

telecommunication service 0.900

SI4 I think not able to use 3G mobile telecommunication

service is really a kind of falling behind phenomenon 0.904

SI5

I think it is an admirable thing for me to be able to use 3G mobile telecommunication service to engage in various kinds of relevant activities

0.896 SI

SI6

I think the use of 3G mobile telecommunication service can help me to maintain or improve my own position in the group

0.888

0.913

FC

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I can search and connect to the Internet easily

FC2 I can easily obtain the relevant knowledge of using 3G

mobile telecommunication service 0.786

FC3

Once I have encountered difficulty with the use of 3G mobile telecommunication service, I can use the information from various areas to solve the problems (books, Internet, friends)

0.720

FC4 I think using 3G system to surf the Net is better, more

convenient and faster than using 2G system 0.833 BI1 I would want to use 3G mobile telecommunication service

because of some activities, propaganda and fashion trend 0.896 BI2 If the rate is reduced, I am glad to use 3G mobile

telecommunication service 0.859

BI

BI3 I will continue to use 3G mobile telecommunication

service in the future 0.924

0.903

UB1 Overall speaking, the effect of using 3G mobile

telecommunication service makes me feel satisfied 0.966

UB2

Overall speaking, using 3G mobile telecommunication service to engage in various kinds of activities makes me feel satisfied

0.801 UB

UB3 Overall speaking, the experience that I used 3G mobile

telecommunication service in the past is happy 0.849

0.885

Source of the materials: Arranged by this study B. Analysis of Structural Equation Modeling

According to the above-mentioned of the establishments of UTAUT model, measuring variables and weighing indices, Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) isused to classified “Performance Expectancy”,“EffortExpectancy”, “Social Influence” and “Facilitating Conditions” as the independent variables, and “Behavioral Intention” and “Use behavior” are independent variables, also “BehavioralIntention”isintermediary variable.And then, AMOS7.0 software is used to adopt maximum likelihood to undertake overall model fitness test with regard to each dimension, the path change of each variable is based on the Modification Indicators (MI) that is recommended by SEM for data analysis, Modification Indicators revise or delete the content of each variable, so as to improve the explanatory power of the model towards the actual behavior.

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significant;χ2/dfis2.62;GFIvalueis0.940;AGFIis0.990;RMESA valueis 0.046; NFI value is 0.980; and NNFI value is 0.993. The fit indices of all judgments have already reached the standard, which means that the overall model fitness is good, namely the fitness between the path plot of the model and the actual observed information is good; thus the assumption of causal model that is mentioned by this study has obtained statistical support. The result is shown in Table 7.

Table 7 –Fit indices

Test Statistic Fit Standard or Threshold

Value Data of Test Result χ2

value P>0.05 (does not reach

significant standard) 479.732(p=0.000) χ2

and its degree of freedom >2 2.62

Goodness of fit index(GFI) >0.90 0.940

Adjusted goodness of fit index(AGFI) >0.90 0.990 Root mean square error of

approximation(RMSEA) <0.05 0.046

Normed fit index (NFI) >0.90 0.980

Non-normed fit index(NNFI) >0.90 0.993

Source of the materials: Arranged by this study

After modifying the model, all fit indices’determinationshad reached the desirable standard, which means that the overall model fit was good. In another word, the path diagram of the model fitted well with the actual observed data, the assumption of the cause and effect model diagram that this study addressed had obtained the statistical support. Moreover, some non-assumed variables’ relationships, including “performance expectancy/use behavior”, “effort expectancy/usebehavior”,and “socialinfluence/usebehavior”,weresignificant. So, these three non-assumed variables’ relationships were added to the study framework. The modified study framework with SEM statistics is shown in Table 8 and fig 3.

Table 8 –Revised SEM study structure The Relationship of Variables Path

Coefficient Critical Ratio P-value Significance

PE→ BI 0.419 7.020(>1.96) *** Yes

EE→BI 0.057 1.192 0.233 No

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FC →BI 0.228 3.054 *** Yes FC →UB -0.212 -2.154 * No BI →UB 1.179 6.063 *** Yes PE→UB 0.529 5.747 *** Yes EE→UB 0.141 2.459 * Yes SI →UB 0.243 3.621 *** Yes

** p-value < 0.05, ** p-value < 0.01, *** p-value < 0.001 Source of the materials: Arranged by this study

*represents p value <0.05,** represents p value <0.01,*** represents p value <0.001

Figure 3 –The SEM analytical structure that does not consider the control variables

Among the 5 hypotheses, only hypothesis 2 was disproved. The direct interpretation of this result was that for users of 3G mobile communication services, their "effort expectancy" did not significantly influence their”behavioralintention”.Thisisan interesting characteristicof3G mobile communications services since most other technology adoption models credited theinfluenceof“easeofuse”factoron “behavioralintention”.Thisrevealsan important but uncommon insight for 3G mobile communication services that only “easeofuse”isnotenough to attracttheusers.

PE

EE

SI

BI

FC UB 0.42*** 1.18*** 0.53*** 0.362*** 0.228*** 0.141* 0.243***

The study has been assumed

The study has not been assumed

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C. Influences of control variables

This study focuses on Internet user’s “gender”, “age”, “education”, “experience”,and “voluntarinessofuse”to analyzetheresultwith regard to the entire path coefficients, the result is shown in Table 9.

In accordance with the above-mentioned result, it shows that the external variables’ influence towards the degree of acceptance of 3G mobile telecommunication service (Behavioral Intention and Use behavior) would have significantdifferencebecauseofdifferentcontrolvariables,including “gender”, “age”,“education”,“experience”,and “voluntarinessofuse”,thusHypotheses6, 7, 8, 9, and 10 are proved. This study also findsoutthefourfactors’influence towards“Behavioral Intention”and “actualuse”hasreached thesignificancethat was proven in the previous documents, but they are controlled by different conditions (gender, age, voluntariness of use, experience, and education), thus their influential degree towards “Behavioral Intention”and “UseBehavior”is varied.

Table 9 –The SEM study structure of control variables Control Variables The Relationship of Variables Path

Coefficient P-value Significant Ratio

PE BI 0.30 ** Female >Male

SI BI 0.29 ** Female > Male

FC BI 0.46 *** Male

PE UB 0.56 *** Female > Male

EE UB 0.27 * Female > Male

SI UB 0.26 ** Male >Female

Gender

BI UB 0.36 *** Male >Female

PE BI 0.75 *** Over the age of 36

FC BI 0.74 *** Over the age of 36> under the age of 35

EE UB 0.75 *** Over the age of 36

SI UB 0.55 *** Over the age of 36

Age

BI UB 0.52 *** Over the age of 36

PE BI 0.22 ** Medium voluntariness > high voluntariness

SI BI 0.73 *** Low voluntariness > high voluntariness > medium voluntariness FC BI 0.28 ** High voluntariness > medium

voluntariness

PE UB 0.53 *** High voluntariness > medium voluntariness

EE UB 0.17 ** Medium voluntariness > high voluntariness

SI UB 0.30 *** Medium voluntariness > high voluntariness

Voluntariness of Use

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voluntariness

PEBI 0.45 ** 1 to 5 years > more than 5 years SI BI 0.68 *** Less than 1 year> more than 5 years

FC BI 0.44 *** 1 to 5 years

PE UB 0.51 * Less than 1 year > 1 to 5 years > more than 5 years

EE UB 0.35 * More than 5 years> 1 to 5 years SI UB 0.39 * 1 to 5 years > more than 5 years > less

than 1 year Experience

BIUB 0.53 ** More than 5 years> 1 to 5 years

PE BI 0.24 * University or above

SI BI 0.44 *** Vocational School or below > university or above

FC BI 0.59 *** Vocational School or below > university or above

PE UB 0.51 * University or above

EE UB 0.20 * University or above

SI UB 0.39 *** Vocational School or below > university or above

Education

BI UB 0.21 *** University or above

*represents p value <0.05,** represents p value <0.01,*** represents p value <0.001

VI - Conclusion and Suggestions

1. Conclusion of study

In the development of 3G, the most important business opportunity is no longer the cell-phone hardware only, but it is important to know how to offer more application content services and software to more and more 3G users. For this reason, expanding cell-phone function differences and creating demand motive have very important influence in the mobile telephone development of new generation. The main purposeofthisstudy focuseson differentusers’characteristics,using habits, and the connection between service types and key successful factors in order to understand the structure of current users and serve as the reference for the marketing strategies of mobile telecommunications subscribers and the customer relationship management. And also, underthesituation thattheusers’degreeoffamiliarization towards that software would change as time passes, UTAUT is used to measure the influence of using Experience towards each dimension. The important conclusions of this study are generalized and shown as follows:

(1)With regards to the users’ “Performance Expectancy” of 3G mobile telecommunication services, it has positive influence towards “Behavioral Intention”and “Usebehavior”,and its’influencetowards“recreation”isgreater. In 3G mobile telecommunication services, the practicability of system is still the major influential factor that influences the users to use technological service, and

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system that is easy to operate is the important basic ability for the use of 3G mobile value-added services. In addition, the recreation that 3G mobile telecommunication services brings will improve the consumers’desiretouse 3G services as well, this is because 3G service is a kind of technical service product.However,consumers’ preferences towards 3G services would not influence their satisfaction for 3G mobile telecommunication service, because the functions of 3G services are far more than 2G service functions; and consumers can change telecommunication subscriberand cellphone brand easily,thusconsumers’initiatives are stronger than before.

(2)With regards to the users’ “Facilitating Conditions” of 3G mobile telecommunication services, it has positive influence towards “Behavioral Intention” and “Usebehavior”,and its’influencetowards“system completeness”is greater. System completeness is also the important factor that influences the consumers to use the service. Therefore, website’s system must be accurate, it needsto providethelatestinformation immediately in orderto attractconsumers’ use. Secondly,website’s connection quality will influence the desire of consumers’ use, and 3G Internet connection quality can extend the time & place that consumers use and solve the urgent demand, that is to say the better the connection quality is, the user will be more willing to use that website.

(3) With regardsto the users’“SocialInfluence”of3G mobiletelecommunication services, it has positive influence towards “Behavioral Intention” and “Use behavior”. Consumers’family, friends can influence them to use 3G mobile telecommunication services, some consumers think that not able to use 3G mobile telecommunication service is really a kind of falling behind phenomenon. Consequently, the behaviors and manners of the family or friends around the consumerswould allinfluencetheconsumers’desireto use3G telecommunication services.

(4)With regardsto theusers’“BehavioralIntention”of3G mobile telecommunication services,ithaspositiveinfluencetowards“Usebehavior”,whiletheinfluenceof “reduced rate” is greater. Every telecommunication subscriber combines the favorable measures that the terminal device offers, it is easy to attract consumers to use 3G service naturally, and then it can influence the consumers’desire touse and use frequency.

2.Study Limitations

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following limitations still exist: (1) The design of questionnaire mainly uses the tables of UTAUT model and then revises & tests the tables so as to discuss the users’ behavioral model towards the acceptance of 3G mobile telecommunication services. When the follow-up researchers discuss the same subject, they can think of adopting the theories of different technology acceptance and weighing models, in order to undertake thestudy ofacceptanceofthe user’sbehavioralmodeltowards3G mobile telecommunication services further. (2) In sample selection, because of limited manpower, the questionnaires are distributed to the consumers who have used the 3G services of each telecommunication subscriber, and also this study mainly distributes network questionnaire. Because the main users of Internet are mostly students, the result of study may be unable to be completely applicable to all groups. (3) Because this study does not focus on the primitive technology acceptance model to undertake discussion, it is impossible to compare the strengths and weaknesses between the explanatory powers of the model that is constructed by this study and primitive models. But it is sure that the model that this study constructed still has certain explanatory power towards the use intention of mobile value-added services, and the newly added external variables also have positive significant effect.

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數據

Table 1 –The general situation of 3G mobile telecommunication  s ubs c r i be r s ’ s ys t e ms in Taiwan 3G mobile telecommunicati on companies ChunghwaTelecom Taiwan Mobile Co
Table 2 –The discussion of relevant individual behavioral acceptance models and theories
Table 3 THE FOUR CORE DETERMINANTS OF UTAUT
Table 4 The user profile
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