A Comparative Study of the Developments of Teacher Education in England and Taiwan, R.O.C.








Kuei-Hsi Chen


The purpose of this study is to examine the socio-economic and historical back-grounds and the existing systems of teacher-training in Eng1and and Taiwan


R.O.C. and to compare and discuss the new trends in teacher education in the two countries since 1975.

From the comparative study


it was indicated that there were some simi1arities and differences in the systems of teacher education between the two countries:

(1) Simi1叫ties: (a) T,οupgrade pre-service teacher education to an a11哲aduate

level is the most 油1portant trend in both countries; (b) persons to be employed to teach in schools have to complete their professionaltraining and must be qualified teachers; (c) a rapidly growing number of teacher are engaged in in-service training.

(2) Differences: (a) While the teacher education in Taiwan. is still a system of

‘closed circui

t' training


in England the cOntemprary developments in teacher educa-tion have shown a radical change in breaking the circuit. (b) Whi1e the pattern of teacher education in Taiwan is basically still the dual tracks


the system developed in England has moved towards a unified pattern. (c) Another difference in teacher educa-tion between the two countries is the

‘concurrent' courses vs.

‘consecutive' courses of

initial training.

In the last chapter


some recommendations concerning the future developments of teacher education in the two countries are presented.



The importance of the functions of education to the cu1tural, socio-economic,

and technological developments in modern society has been increasingly realized. Indeed


education is a 'vital social process and schools are extremely 卸lportant institu-tions. It has also been recognized that the discharge of educational functions mus~

largely depend upon weU-educated teachers and obviously, school-teaching will become a preeminent profession.τ'hus, teacher education is an essential part of the whole educational system worthy of more intensive study.

Since 1975 the system of teacher educatioÍ1 in England and Wales has been basically re-organized. And in Taiwan, the Repub1ic of China, there have been some \ssues and problems resulting from the social and economic changes in recent years,

especially after the promulgation of the Teacher Education Act in 1979. It is the author's belief that a comparative' study -of teacher education between different countries (with different cu1tures) is a meaningful task for educationalists. Owing to my special i


terest in the system of teacher education in England and my involvement in the work of teacher-training in Taiwan, 1 would like to bring the two systems of teacher education together so as to find some similarities and differences between them.

The purpose of this paper is to examine the socio-economic and hi,storical

back-grounds and the existing systems of teacher-training in the two coui1tries


and to discuss the new trends in teacher educationsince 1975.

It is hoped that


from the comparative point of view


the evidence shown in the paper will help us, first, to improve the mutual understanding Qf the educational problems between the two countries, and then, to present some recommendations concerning the future developments of teacher education in the two countries .




Taiwan, which is better known to the West by its Portuguese name

Formosa' or 'Ilha Formo泊" is an island located in the western Pacific, less than 100 mi1es off the coast of the Asian Continent. Chinese settlement in Taiwan began in the 12th century,

but not until the 17th century did large groups of Chinese begin to cross the Taiwan Straits. In1886, it was formally made a province of China by the Manchus (or Ching dynasty) but was ceded to Japan at the conc1usion of the first Sino-Japanese War in 1895. As a resu1t of Japan's surrender at the end of World War 11


Taiwan was restored to the Republic of China in 1945. Following the fall of the Chinese Mainland to the Communists in 1949, the government of the Republic of China moved to Taiwan. Together with several 'off shore' islands, i.e. Pescadores, Quemoy, Matsu, etc., Taiwan has since been the temporary seat of the Republic. The people in Taiwan speak both Mandarin Chinese and Taiwanese.

In the past 30 years


the economic progress in Taiwan has been very impressive. In agriculture, it has successfully carried out a land-reform, improved production tech-nique and raised farm output. In industry, it has established many new enterprises providing numerous products to supply eI').ough both for domestic market and for

export. Because of economic developments, per capita income has shown remarkable and uninterrupted in叮ease , accompanied by a rising standard of living which is now among the highest in Asia.

As a resu1t of industria1ization, Taiwan's society is experiencing a transformation from the traditional agricu1tural society. The concomitants of urbanization and the rapid change in family structure have created a grave problem of readjustment in the traditional beliefs, attitudes, and moral standards. The social impact of pop~lation

explosion, resu1ting from improved health service and a high birth rate, constitutes another threat. Surplus labour and the problem of unemployment are the inevitable outcome in the process of economic development.

Britain, formally known as the United Kingdom of Great 'Britain and' Northern



forms the greater part of the British Isles


a group of islands lying off the northwestern coast of Europe. The largest islands are Great Britain and Ireland. England, which is a p缸tof Great Britain, has a total area of 50,335 square miles.


-151-The people who now inhabit the British Isles are descended mainly from the people who inhabited them nine centuries ago. It is difficu1t to estimate the relative importance of various early people--pre-Ce1ts








and the Norsemen


including the Danes--in the ancestry of the present English




Welsh and Irish. It is significant, however, that throughout most of England and the lowlands of Scot1and the- language which soon came to predominate was Eng1ish, main1y a marriage of Anglo-Saxon and Norman-French, whi1e the use of Ce1tic languages per sisted in Wales


the highlands of Scot1and and iri Ireland.

As one of the most highly industrialized countries in the world, Britain is now

facing 由e stage of mass consumption. Its pr卸lary objective is to achieve fastereco-nomic growth and to obtain a proper solution for periodic balance-{)f-payments pro-blem. It 'goes without saying that the British economic change ,泊 the near future cannot be very acute. In order to sustain stabi1ity and growth




many achemes have been evolved in different spheres, including an active labour market policy, an acceleråted deveIopment' of science and technology


the intetÌ.sive exploration of. natural resources


and the changing policy on private industry.

The traditional patterns of life in both Taiwan and Eng1and have undergone considerablè change in the last few decades. Not on1y have distinctions of c1ass and social habits become less rigid


, but many behaviour patterns which might 、 be anti-social in traditional terms are now acceptable in anti-social 1ife. Relationships between the generations are also changing


with the resu1t that there has been a greater readiness today than there was on the part of young people to criticize traditional institutions and to seek more influence 訊 shaping society. Thus


the importance of the role of education to young people in both countries has been increasingly r




As early as Chou Dynasty in ancient China (1122-255 B.C.)


the government authorities made strenuous efforts in promoting education. Throughout Chinese history


there were always certain institutions of higher education established in the capital and verious grades of schools in the vi1lages. Emperor Wenti (179-156 B.C.) of Han Dynasty, inaugrated Civi1 Service Examination system for selecting government officials. This system was adopted whole-heartedly by Sui Dynasty (581-618 A.D.),

and for a long period of time


ethics and literature were the subjects of the examina-tion. Thus, the mastering of these two subjects became the sole requirement of


govern-中英兩國師範教育發展之比較研究 ment officials. The function of schools in the traditional Chinese society was therefore only to prep訂efor the examination.

The traditional system of Chinese education began to be challenged in the 19th century. After the Opium War of 1842


China had a series of clashes with the West both culturally and po1itically. The traditionalinstitutions of Chinese society have declined, including the examination system which was abolished in 1905. The modern-ization of Chinese education began in the early part of this century; however, it was not until 1922 that the current 6-3-34 uniform system was founded. During the past fifty years, many changes have been made in the school system; separate regulations were also promulgated for different levels of schools. Following are the essentials of the present-day school system in Taiwan, the RepubIic of China:

(1 ) The educational system covers the total period of study from kind~rgarten

to post-graduate school, including 2 years for pre-school education, 6 years for primary schools, 3 years for junior-high schools, another 3 years for senior-high schools, and 4 years for universities except certain departments of medical facu1ty and departments of law; óf which the study period ranges from 5 to 7 years.

(2) In 1968


the programme of Nine-Year Free Education was enforced in Taiwan. The first 6 years are compulsory primary education. The next 3 years of junior-high school are available without tuition to all pupils


and they are also compuIsory at the present time.

(3) Vocational and technical education begins at the senior high level with a period of study of three years. However, there are various types of junior colleges and technical colleges for further and advanced technical training.

In the school year 1982-83, there were 16 universities, 89 colleges, 1 ,038 se-condary schools, and 2


57 primary schools in Taiwan, R.O.C. * Nearly 5 million children and young people, about one-quarter of the total population of Taiwan,

spend their time on full-time attenda,nce at schools, colleges and universities.

England has its long' tradition of education for

‘leadership' through the line

from the public school to the ancient universities. The main objective of the system was to educate middle and upper-class young men for civi1 services and imperial admin-stration. The provision of educ


tion for all dates only from the end of the 19th cen-tury wh

*Ministry of Education, Education in the Republic of China, 1983, pp. 38-9.



The earliest provision of elementary education was in parish and

‘dame' schools.

By the late 18th century there was a fairly wide network of charity schools. Then, as a result of thesocial and economic changes


voluntary provision for elementary educa-tion was greatly extended; the Sunday Schools were among the first to try to provide faci1ities on a national scale. They were followed at .the beginning of the 19th cèntury by the monitorial schools of National Society and the non-denominational British and Foreign School Society. Their educational methods were associated. with the names of Bell and Lancaster.

The main development of pub1ic1y provided primary education dates from the Elementary Education Act 1870, whièh accepted the pr泊cipleof compulsory elemen-tary education with government aid; its object was virtually achieved by the end of the 19th century. Public provision of secondary education date.s from 1889 in Wales and 1902 in England. The system in England and Wales is now g<;>verned by the Educa-tion Act 1944


which aimed to widen and improve educational opportuníties at every stage.

There are certain features of the school system in England which in varying degree distinguish them from those in Taiwan. They are as follows:

(1) Primary and secondary education 訂e compulsory;' parents in England are required by law to ensure that their children receive efficient full-time education a1 schools between the ages .of 5 and 16.

(2) In the maintained sector, children may attenn nursery schools or classes from 2 or 3. to 5, infant schools frnm 5 to 7, junior schools from 7 to 11, and secondary schools from 11 to 16, possibly up to 19. Following a recommendation of the Plowden Report, there isa growing number of middle schools, which children attend frQm the ages of 8, 9 òr 10 to about 12, 13 or 14. In the independent sector, transfer from

pr卸lary to secondary education takes place at 13; children going .10 publicschools usually attend pre-prep訂atory schools from 5 to 8 and preparatoJY schools from 8 t6 13.

(3)τhe trend towards theestablishment of comprehensive schools


which admit -childien wíthout reference to abi1ity or aptitude


began in the 1950s. By 1982 there were approximately 3.6 million pupils in 4


241 comprehensive schools


covering near1y 90 per cent of the secondary school population in England


and more than 95 per cent in Wales';


中美兩國師範教育噩展之比較研究 (4) Although the school system is national in its main outlines


there are substan-tial local differences. Thus


it is very much a matter of local choice whether some form of comprehensive system is adopted; there is also great variation in the .provision and availabi1ity of various forms of further education.

According to the educational statistics in 1982


there were 36 universities and 32,084 primary and secondary schools with 8,802,203 pupils in England and Wales.



I<Department of Education and Science, The Eduω tional System 01 England and Wales, London:

HMSO, August 1983, pp. 72-3~




Throughout Chinese history, teachíng has been considered one of the most respectable professions 凶.society. The esteem for teachers has penetrated into the Chinese family system where teachers are frequently looked upon as second partents to the pupils. This respected status of teachers has operated as a strong stimulus towards directing many able young people into the teaching profession, and to keep those who are already teaching satisfied despite heavy responsibilities and small mate-rial rewards.

It is interesting, however, to note that the supply of teachers was in a state of laissez faire for a long period of time. The first provision for teacher education in modern sense came in 1897 with the establishment of Nan-Yang Col1ege in Shanghai; a normal department was added for the training of teachers. The actual inauguration of a systematic teacher education programme came with the introduction of the Chinese modern school system at the beginning of this century. The present form of teacher education in Taiwan, which is based largely on the system which was previously developed in mainland China, has undergone several radical changes.

Generally speaking, the system of teachereòucation in Taiwan, the Republic of China, is divided into two levels:

(l) The education of primary school teachers is provided at 'junior normal col-Ieges' which were upgraded from normal schools in the early 1960s, and recruit their students from junior-high school graduates and offer a fíve-year course.

(2) The education of secondary school teachers is províded dt the ‘normal college' and

‘normal university' which recruit their students from senior-high school graduates

and offer a four-year course.

It is widely believed that every teacher's conduct should be a ‘norm' or model for the general pub1ic to fonow


and the initial training for teachers in all institutions should cultivate the character and career commitment that the teaching profession demands. Teacher education in China is popular1y called

‘normal education' in its

literal meaning, and teacher-training institutions are termed

‘normal' colleges and

universities in accordance with the social expectations demanded of these institutions to provide a professional atmosphere and to foster the teaching morale for intending


中英兩國師範教育誼民之比較研究 teachers. The empirical studies have shown that the occupational prestige of teachers is much higher in Chinese society than in Western societies. This is probably because the Chinese are sti11 affected by traditional values, in which teachers have been held in unusually high regard for a very long time.

In England the first systematic attempts to train teachers were made at the beginning of the 19th century in the monitorial schools of Lancaster and Bell. Then,

Dr. J. P. Kay (S廿 James Kay-ShuttIe-worth) was first responsible for the pupi!-teacher system, which was an improvement on the monitorial system by staffing a school with one teacher and a number of pupi1 teachers or ‘assistant' teachers. When Kay became first Secretary to the Committee of the Privy Counci1 in 1839, he strove for the estab-lishment of a State Training College, but the proposal was turned down by Parliament. After failing to get the Government to take action, Kay and his friend E. C. Tufnell,

in 1840, opened a Training College at Battersea. The college was taken over by the National Society in 1843. As the national system of elementary education developed


and particularly after 1-904 when local education authorities began to establish Main-tained Training Colleges


training col1eges (they were known as Col1eges of Education until the 1970s) became an essential part of public educational system and supp1ied it with a great number of elementary teachers.

As for secondary school teachers, particularly those in grammar sch,ools, a uni-versity degree alone was held to be sufficient qualification, a1though professional. training has more recently been inc1uded in the university training course.

The basic teacher-training pattern was estab1ished after the McNair Report of 1944, which proposed two schemes of Area Training Organizations and brought about a partnership öf universities, training colleges, local education authorities and schools. Twenty-one institutes of education, in some cases known as

‘schools of education'


acted as A. T.O.s, which were responsible for the content and" standards of the college courses and were a1so responsible for examining students and recommending them as qualified teachers. They acted to integrate the training facilities in the area and also promote the study of education by providing courses for serving teachers and stimulating research.

In England and Wales, before the 1970s, three-year courses of education and training for intending teachers were provided mainly in colleges of education. Follow-ing a recommendation of the Robbins Report of 1963, suitable college of education students have been able to work for a B.Ed. degree, together with a professional


...151-teaching qualification, by means of a four-year course. University graduates can follow a one-year course at university departments of education or a number of colleges in order to obtain a teaching qualification in addition to their degree.


As mentioned above, in Taiwan, pre-service education for primary and secondary school teachers is still on separate tracks. Junior normal colleges provide a five-year course for students who have completed junior-high school education and wish to entèr primary school teachjng. There were nine junior normal colleges in Taiwan with an enrollment of about 9


000 students in the school year 1979-80. The trainingpro-gramme is divided into two parts; the -first part (3 years) offering general education at the senior-high schoollevel


and the second part (2 years) providing more specialized training in pedagogics.

By contrast


normal college and uníversity


responsible for the training of se-condary school teachers, grant bachelor's degree to students after they have succes-fully completed four years of undeigraduate study

, and one year of teaching practice.

There are three higher institutions for training of secondary school teachers, i.e. National Taiwan Normal University


National KaÇ>hsiung Normal College and National

Taiwan College of Education (in Changhwa). The latter two colleges were provi


cial ÏI1 the 1970s.

All teacher-training institutions in Taiwan are, established and operated by the

government; no private foundations or churches are allowed to take p訂t in any kind of teacher training. With the exception of Changhwa College of Education, of which on1y part of the students are government-supported, students of Normal University, Normal College and Junior Normal Colleges are awarded by the government a uniform scholar-ship covering tuition


boarding fees


textbook costs


and aid for participating in study tours. Direct aid entails a statutory Qbligation for students to serve as teachers or carry out other educational work for a period of five y~ars.

The qualifications of teachers are screened and approved by local educational authorities. However


it is administered in accordance with the \'Regulation for Certi-fication and Examination of Secondary


Primary School and Kindergarten Teachers" issued by the Ministry of Education. Graduates from teacher-training institutions may apply for certification as primary or secondary school teachers. After the im-:-plementation of the nine-year free education programme 扭 1968 , a large number of


中英兩國師範教育疆農之比較研究 junior-high schools were established. More teachers had to be recruited. To cope with

the exigencies


graduates from all other universities and colleges were recruited to teach pertinent subjectsand might be certified as qualified secondary school. teachers after they had completed the required educational courses. Those who had n~t com-pleted the reqdred credits in educational courses might temporarily be certified as probationary teachers.

In England and Wales


the responsibility for ensuring a sufficient number of trained teachers for public education lies with the Secretary of State for Education and Science. However, the responsibility for ensuring that the courses and examinations leading to the Teacher's Certificate were of the requisite quality was undertaken, for 30 y'ears after the Second Wor1d War


by universities. Under the leadership of each university, the Area Training Organization was formed to, carry out the duties of the

education and training of teachers. To perform the academic and administrative duties falling to an ATO, each university established an Institute of Education. The principal functions of an Institute of Education were:

(1)To make administrative arTangerrlents for the coordination,and aPRroyal by its University


of the courses




and examinations in the constituent member estab1ishments of the ATO.

(2) To arrange courses and conferences for serving-teachers and other people engaged in. educational work in the ATO area, including courses leading to named qualifications


which were va1idated by the University.

(3) To provide and maintain a specialist library.

(4) To promote educational research and development.

In England and Wales, there were 泊 1975 five types of teacher training establish-ment:

(1) University Departments of Education (UDEs);

(2) COllegeS' of Education (until 1964 called Training Colleges);

(3) Col1eges of Education (Technical); (4) Polytechnic Departments of Education; (5) Art Training Centres (ATCs).

By far the most numerous were the Colleges of Education

, of which there were

over 160. Their principal tåsk was the education and trail1ing of non六graduates, to

whom they gave a three-year ∞urse leading to the Teacher's Certificate. Well-qualified

‘~ture' students mie;ht have the three-year course compressed into two years


or even


exceptionally into one year. From 1965, students who had done well in their Certifi-cate courses were offered a fourth year, in order to complete the course leading to a newly-created degree, the Bachelor of Eôucation (B.Ed.). A few colleges had fOll many years provided also one.,year courses for graduates; in the 1960s, other col1eges

were invited by the- Department of Education and Science to do this; and soon the number of graduate students in the ωUeges had steadi1y increased.

Most of the Colleges of. Education were 'general' colleges, that 峙, they trained non-specia1ist teachers, most of them for teaching in primary schools. In the 1950s and 1960s, there were small numbers of colleges devoted exclusively to training soecialist teachers ofdomestic subjects or physical education; but by 1975 almost all of these had taken on alsô the ~rainipg of non-sp,ecia1ist teachers.

Col1eges of Education (Technical), UDEs and. ACTs provided courses of pro-fessional training only, most of which were one-year programs. The four Col1eges of Education (Technical) trained teachers for service irt Further Education. They did not ordinari1y accept app1icants uhder the age of twenty-five unless they were

gradu-at郎, and they required vocational as well as academic qualifications. In addition to one-year pre-service cours臼 they also offered courses


of various lengths


to serving teachers


who attended on a d為Ffeleeseor sandwich basis.

ATCs accepted only persons with professional qualifications in art. or handi-craft to be trained to be spec..ialist teachers. Several of the general colleges of education also offered specialist one-year courses to students professionally qualified in music,

speech anddrama


dance and moverhent




home economics


or rural science. UDEs accepted graduates only


whom they trained to be specialists


predominantly for secondary schools.

UDEs ~ere provided, mà:Ï1ltà泊eð , and staffed by their universities. Four ACTs were provided by univ


tsities, the otb~rs by Art Colleges (or Polytechnics). Local Educational AuthoritièS provided abouttwo-~hirds of the CoIleges of Education,

voluntary bodies (most denominational) the other third. Of about 50 Voluntary colleges, half were in assoc,iation with the Church of England.

Colleges provided by Local Educational Authorities were financed from a


to which al1 the local authorities contributed in proportion t





(1) Promulgation of Teacher Education Act:

The first Teacher Education Act of the R.O.C. was promulgated in 1979. It has been regarded as a new era of teacher training in the history of Chinese education. The

'Jleacher Education Act confirms that a11 teacher-training institutions should be estab-1ished by the government. Private co11eges and universities are not aècfedited to offer professional training courses. For graduates from universities other than normal coI-leges and university, who wish to enter the teaching profession, it is necessary for them to receive preservice training in a norma1 college or university, or in some cases, in a department of education of national universities.

That the system of telcher education is monopolized in the R.O.C. is probably because, in Chinese society, a teacher-training institution is frequently cited to be analogous to a mi1itary academy in the sense that education is considered a sort of

‘national spiritual defense' to safeguard the moral values rooted in Chinese culture. According to Teacher Education Act, a11 students in normal colleges and uni-versities receive a uniform scholarship awarded by the government. They are required to teach in scho01s


after graduation


for a period of five years


including one-year teaching practice. During the term of service required


they are not allowed to engage in work outside the field of education, or to advance their own studies at general colleges and universities. (Enrollment in night school courses for in-service training, however, is acceptable.) No postponement of their five-year teaching service wi1l be permitted.

(2) Upgrading the Level of Education for Teachers:

It has recently been a pervailing trend in advanced countries (e.g. in Eng1and) to upgrade pre-service teacher education to an all-graduate 1eve1. The training of primary school teachers in Taiwan is still bèing undertaken through junior norma1 colleges. To improve the pte-service education fOI: primary teachers, the discussion and sugges-tion have recently been focused on the upgrading of junior norma1 college's to four-ye訂 colleges.

The advocates of this proposition point out that a youngster 1eaving basic educa-tion at the age of fifteen is too inexperienced to decide his future career. The present


_161-systemof junior normal colleges


which covers five years of study from grade 10 to grade 14 does not provide for matriculation with academic type senior-high schools and úniversitie~﹒ Therefore , its 'students, once admitted, would find it difficult to transfer to another track. Moreover, the main aim of upgrading to college status would enable the'prospective primary teachers to acquire a more solid basis of general know. ledge


and also to diminish the demarcation between the education of primary and secondaryschool teachers.

Though there are still some difficulties 個 putting it into practice in the present stage, according to


Proposed Plan on Innovation of Educational System' pro-mulgated by the Ministry of Education in December 1983


* this new programme

would be one of the most important future policies in teacher educatioI1. Another thing worth noting is that it is becoming a marked development for senior-high schools to ,recruit teachers with a Master degree.τhis new :trend has also been po卸ted out in

the Proposed Plan.

(3) Promoting Competency-Based Teacher Education:

In the light of the Competency-Based Teacher Education


Taiwan Provincial Department of Education, after consulting with educational specialists


will set up the objectives and detai1ed αiteria for evaluating junior normal college students' com. pentence in different sections and different levels so as to improve educational con. tents of junior normal colleges and enhance the qualities of primary scnool teachers. Starting with the 1982-83 academic year


the Department of Education has sponsored a series of contests on hand-writing


story-tel1ing, piano-playing for junior normal colleges in order to enhance the students' basic abilities to teach. **

(4) Expansion of In-Service Training Programmes:

Durmg the last decade, Ol'le of the most 卸lportant developments in teacher

education is the increase in the' size of in-service education. The objective of in-service training is two-fold: It is .designed not only to help the probationary teachers in their professional training in view of certification, but also to assist the already certified teachers to gain the new knowledge and competence that they have to master.

The present issúe existing in in-service education concems whether the pro--gramme provided should be a sort of advanced study by nature, leading to a higher


Central Daily fVews, Taipei, Republic of China, 23 Oecember .198;3.

**Departrilent of Education, TaiwanRrovincial Government, Education in Taiwan Pròvin凹, Re: TJuþlicofChina, June 1982, p.14.



degr間, or a series of practically-oriented programmes designed for in-service teachers with new ideas and new competence needed for teaching in schools. However, the controversy is complementary. There has. been a step made toward reconci1iation


considering the academic incentive of the teacher on the one hand, and the profes-sional need on the other.

There are four types of in-service training programmes existing in Taiwan


the Repub1ic of China: (1) The teaching training institutions


in cOQperation with educa-tional authorities


provide a variety of refresher cOUfses øn a short-term basis. (2)

Summer Institute for teachers


either to take educational training or to engage in advanced courses at post-graduate level. (3) Evening Institute and Week-end Courses for local in-service teachers. (4) Television and Broadcasting Courses. 串

The functions of Teachers' Centers have played an. important role in in-service teacher training. The Taiwan Provincial In-Service Training Center for Prímary ~chool

Teachers was founded in 1956. Taipei Municipal Teachers' Center has recently been set up for teachers to participate in the workshops on teachingmaterials and methods. Another teachers' center 扭 central Taiwan wil1 be established in the near future to provide in-service activities for secondary school teachers. The expansion of oppor-tunities for primary and secondary school teachers to broaden their range 6f know-ledge and deepen their professional competence has been regarded as an important trend in teacher education.

NEW TRENDS IN ENGLAND AND WALES (1) Re-Organization of Colleges of Education:

Since 1975 thé system of teacher education in England and Wales has been basically re-organized. Col1eges of education have been asked to face the problems of diversification


possible amalgamation with other institutions


and even the prospect of closure.

Throughout the thirty ye缸s up to 1975 all kinds of teacher-training establish-ments were d~voted exclusively. to one purpose: the training of teachers. The White Paper


Educt}tion: A Framework for Expansion


issued in


December 1972


put an end to that. Colleges of educafion were no lOnger to be monötechnic. They were to admit

students no neccessarily committed to teaching as their career


and consequently


The Open University is expected to'be established in Taiwan, R.O.C. in the near future.


they would provide courses that could lead to other careers. And with possible excep-tions, they were 'no longer to be 1inked with universities, but integrated into the public sector of higher education.

After the White Paper was pub1ished, discussions between the parties concerned began almost immediately. Despite a declining demand for student-teachers, due to a falling birth-rate, by the summer of 1976 the futures of nearly all the colleges of educa-tion and polytechnic educaeduca-tion departments seemed to have been decided. By 1981,

said the Department of Education and Science, there would be about 40 instiutions doing both further education and teacher training


about 30 colleges engaged almost wholly ip training teachers and about 25 education departments in polytechnic. Of the former 164 colleges of education -only four would have merged, with universities;

but 18 would haveclosed down.

But in 1977 the Secretary of State announced a further reduction in the number of places 卸 training estab1ishments required in the 1980s. This meant that more colleges of education would have to close, and mQre be merged with other institutions,

than had been anticipated.

By 1979 there were in the public sector of higher education 96 estab1ishments training teachers: 25 polytechnic, and 71 others, describing themselves variously as College, or Institute, of Higher Education, College of Education, or just College. Some colleges had merged with universities. And 36 colleges of education had closed, but the premises of some had been adapted to other educational uses.

In pursuance of the Governement's policy that


outside the Universities


teacher education and higher and further education should be as有imi1ated into a common system"



the Secretary of State laid before Parliament in July 1975 new Further Education Regulations, which came into operation on 1 August. These formally incorporirted the colleges of edJcation (except those merging with universities) into the pub1ic sector of higher education.

(2) Achievement of an AlI-Graduate Teaching Profession:

In' England and Wale~ , according to Education (Teachers) Regulations 1982,

all teachers in publicly maintained schools must be qualified and, generally, new -'entrants to teaching must have successfully completed ~ recognized course of initial


D.E. 丘, Circular 5/75, dated 18 July 1975, The Reorganization of Higher Education in the Non-University Sector, and The Further Education Regulations, 1975, para. 2


中英兩國的範教育發展之比較研究 teacher-1:raining.

There are now two main routes to qua1ified teacher status. At undergraduate level, there are courses at universities, polýtechnics, colleges and institutes of higher education and other non-university institùtions leading to the Bachelor of Education (BEd) degree, either after three years without honours, or after four years with honours. A1ternatively, those who have already held a first degree may undertake a one-year course leading to the Post~Graduate Certificate in Education (PGCE) in a university, polytechnic or other higher education institutions.

There are exceptions to this general pattern:

1.. A. few insitutions, mainly universities, offer concurrent courses (normally of 4 years' duration) leading both to a degree other than a BEd and to a teaching qualifi-catíon.

2. People with relevant q.u~1ifications below degree level-:-and with practical experience-in business studies, music, and craft, design and technology may qualify themselves to teach by taking a one~year Certificate in Education course.

3. A11 graduates who obtained their degrees before January .1974 may teach 卸

secondary schools without having taken a course of professionàl training, and those who graduated before January 1970 may teach in primary or special schools as well.

In 1978, the DES announced in a Circular* that from the start of the academic year 1979-80 all applicants for training as teachers would have to provide evidence of competence in English and mathematics. Passes grade C in GCE 0 level, and at grade One in CSE would be accepted as sufficient evidence. This Circular also con-firmed that, with a few exceptions mentioned above, the last entry for the non-ß radu-ate' Certificate of Education course would be in the academic year 1979-80; after that all students must take a course leading to the degree of BEd.

In 1983, a Report presented to Parliàmem by the DES confirmed that the Government adopted the target of an...all-graduate school teaching profession. It is the Government's view that

the depth and rigour of initial training must be wholly commensurate with the standards which obtain generally in British higher education; and that the courses leading to qualified teacher status should equip the stude


t for other graduate employment."牢牢

* D.E. 鼠, Circular 9/78, Entry to InitÙll Training in England and Wales, dated 2 August 1978.

**D.E. 丘, Teaching Q~ality; London: HMSO, March 1983, p. 17.


-165-(3) Introducing Diploma inHigher Education:

The monotechnic pattern of teacher education is possible only if all students are on entry in.切 college intending to make teaching their career. For uncommi位ed stu .. dents courses must be provided which can serve as fòundation for specialized training in any one of several careers. Theanswer to this situation suggested by the James

Committee (1972), was a two-year course leading to a Diploma in Higher Education (DipHE). The Government agreed


providing that the following conditions were fulfiled:

1. DipHE courses

must offera genuine and useful addition to those forms of higher education already avai1able, not a cheap subsitute for any of them." Conse-quent!y,“the normal minimum\entry-qua1ification should be the same as for degrees or comparable courses."

2. They should be

“offered by institutions in each of the main sectors of higher



and “both general ar咽 specializedcourses should be made available".

3. TheDipHE

must,be made generally acceptable as a termiIial qualification". 4. DipHE courses

should also be seen as providing a foundation for further study".. (Towa'rds other qualifications, including degrees and teaching qualification).

5. They

should be vålidated by existing degree-awarding bodi~s" , i.e. universities and the CNAA (Council for National Academic Awards).

The first DipHE courses were introduced in 1974; there were,63 institutions


in 1980


offering DipHE ∞urses.

(4) Emphasis on In-Service Education and Training (INSET):

In-service education and training enable teachers to prepare for new responsibi-lities or to keep a1;>reast of ri.ew developments.in their subjécts? teaching techniques



世le pattern of school organization.

In the pa'st


many colleges of edu間。onoffered full-time ‘Súpplementary Courses'


usual1y of one year's duration, to serving teacners. Some colleges also offered similar part-time courses extending over two 'y閉路. Both types of courses could earn a spec旭­

list Certificate of Diploma-'

After the 'publication of the James Report in 1972, the DES and the Lρcal

'Educational Authorities (LEAs) began .to give increasing attention to the induction of newly-qualified teachers and the in-service education and training (INSET) of more experienced ones. In 1976-77、 and 1977一78 over.80 per cent of teachers in their first year were given inctuction courses.and over half of the 450.000 teachers


中美兩國部範激育發展之比較研究 maintained schools in England and Wales took part in some form of in-servìce training.


The Teachers' Centres, which began to spring up in numbers from the mid-1960s,

are probably one of the major innovations in professional education to have taken in England and Wales. These Centres


most of which have been established by LEAs for the teachers in their areas, vary in character. They do a variety of jobs, both educa-tional and social. Most provide short courses for teachers, and a library of professional books and, magazines; many have a store of audio-visual equipment. Most provide a

common room and refreshment faci1ities.

In 1977 the DES launched a scheme to encourage people to be trained


or re-tained


for teaching one or more of the

‘shortage subjects': mathematics


the physicål sciences, craft, design and technology. By December 1978 this scheme had produced an additional 700 teachers of these subjects; and in 1979 and 1980 simi1ar figures were reached.

Besides, the Open University offers various courses for qua1ified teachers. This is another way in which teachers in-post can become better qua1ified.


D.E. 丘, Statistical Bulletin 81沌 , Induction and Jn-Service Training for Teachers. 1978.



The importance of the function of education in modern society has been in-creasingly realized in recent decades. It is also recognized that the discharge of the educational functions must largely depend upon well.qualified teachers and, more obviously than ever before




i11 become a preeminent profession; therefore, teacher educatioh and training would repay more intensive study.

The social and economicbackgrounds of the two countries


the developments of the systerrì of teacher trining until the 1970s, and the new trends in teacher education in both countries have been dealt with in the previous chapters. In this last chapter


it seems possible and necessary for us, first, to draw some general conc1usions from the comparative point of view


and then


to present some recommendations bearing on the future development of teacher educ~tion in the two countries.


From the evidences sh。只n in the previous chapters, it was indicated that there were some similarities and differencesin the system of teacher education between England and Taiwan


R.O.C. The following appeared to be more prominent and worth noting:

(1) Similarities in the Two Countries:

1. To upgrade pre-service teacher education to anall-graduate level is the most important trend in both countries, although this has been achieved in England more progressively than in Taiwan. In England, with some limited exceptions, the last entry for the nongraduate Certificate of Education courses would be in the academic year of 1978-80; after that all students must take courses lyading to BEd. or PGCE. In Taiwan


though there are sti11 some difficu1ties in upgrading junior normal colleges to four-year colleges at the present stage


this would be one of the most 出portant

future policies. The Teacher Education Act promulgated in 1979 has provided the legal foundation to achieve it.

2. The education Regulations in both countries require that persons employed

to teach in maintained schools must be qualified teachers. In general it means that they must complete an initial professiona1 course approved by the central education authorities, i.e. the Secretary of State for Education and Science in England and the


中英兩國師範教育發展Z比較研究 Ministry of Education in the R.O.C. !n Taiwan


all graduates from colleges ana um-versities rnust cornplete a course of professiona1 training before they enter teaching in secondary schools; in England, however, rnore recent graduates in rnathernatics and sorne sciences have unti1 now been able to enter teaching in secondary schools without undertaking professional training due to shortage of teachers in these subjects. The Governrnent has announced its intention to withdraw this general exception effective 31 Decernber 1983.

3. In both countries


a ra[iidly growing number


employed teachers are engaged in in-service training. It is generally be1ieved that the teacher's own education rnust extend throughout his teaching career. Therefore, various co叮ses , conferences, se-rninars


and training sessions have been organized by the central or local education authorities, by Teachers' Centres, or by teacher-training insitutions and universities. In sorne cases teachers are seconded on full salary to take thern. Sorne


especially the longer courses


involve rigorous study for a higher degree. The Open University 扭

England and Television and Broadcasting courses in Taiwan are a1so playing an

加1-portant part in in-service training for teachers. In addition


local education authorites in England have provided lor the induction


new teachers to the extent that-available resources al1ow; while in Taiwan a new induction prograrnrne for probationary teachet:s has also been introduced at National Taiwan Norrnal University.

(2) Difference~ hetween the Two .Countries:

1. While the teacher education in Taiwan is still a system


'closed circuit' training, in England and Wales the contemporary developments in teacher education have shown a radical change in breaking the circuit. In Taiwan the teacher education

has always been rnonopo1ized (established) by the governrnent, and all teacher training institutions are rnonotechnic-to train school teachers or educational workers. Partly because of the po1itical dernands on teachers to be loyal to the national po1icy


partly because of the pub1ic expectations of teachers that they should be strictly ‘behaviour models' in society, the other universities, which ernphasize a liberal education to foster the developrnent of independent personalities, were not accepted by the government as institutions for teacher training.


On. the contra


Besides National Taiwan Normal University. National Chengchi University is the only university containing a department of education in Taiwan.


‘open' system of teacher education developed in Eng

l<ind is qcite different from ihat developed in Taiwan.

2. While the pattern of teacher training in Taiwan is basically still the dual tracks:

the training of pr凶ary and secondary school teachers is provided in separate institu-tions


the system developed in England has moved towards a unified pattern. In England

an increasing number of colleges are now providing a four-year course leading to a BEd degree; some of them are even providing the one-year course of post-graduate certification; while a number of universities departments of education have recently initated undergraduate courses in education leading to joint or single honour degrees. In Taiwan, junior normal colleges have no doubt been regarded as one sector of higher education. However, their academic standards are still much lower than those of the Normal University and their .graudates are not entitled to teach in secondary schools. Accordingly, as far as can be observed, the reform in England has been more drastic and encouraging than in Taiwan, where the training of pr加ary school teachers has always been undertaken by junior normal colleges, and where very few graduates from the Normal University have an intention to teach in primary schools.

3. Another difference in teacher education between the two countries is the 'concurrent' courses vs 'consecutive' courses of initial training. In Taiwan, all teacher-training insitutions, including junior normal colleges, normal colleges and universities.,



t' courses, i.e. personal, academic (specialized), and professional courses are taken simultaneously by students during their p間-service education. In England, colleges of education provided

‘concurrent' courses before 1975. Follwoing

the recommendation by the James Report, a two-year course leading to DipHE has been introduced; it is quite obvious that the course for initial training in colleges has moved towards a ‘consecutive' pattern; while the university departments of education (PGCE courses) recruit graduates with a degree in specialized subjects and provide them with one-year professional training. Thus the whole pattern of teacher education in England are tending towards a

‘consecutive' course of initial training

, while that in Taiwan remains the same, i.e. to maintain a


t' course in the pattern of teacher education





中英兩國前範教育單民之比較研究 The overall aim of teacher education, as the author sees 泣, is to produce


teachers who are professionally well-educated persons with the abi1ity to fulfi1 their roles properly in schools. The desirable qualities of an ideal teacher may be considered in four areas: namely, his academic standard in the main subjects, his understanding of the theory of education, líis competence in the practice of teaching, an1 his personal suitability for educational work. In view of the diffuse nature of the teacher's role in modern society, to define the ideal teacher in terms of his academic, professional, and personal competence is rather difficu1t. However


it seems desirable and necessary to present some c1ear objectíves which may serve as guidelines for the education and training of teachers. It is recommended that the aims should be as follows:

1. To develop, through academic study, a thorough command of the subject-matter.

2. To foster a profound understanding of educational theory which will inform professional judgments and actions.

3. To develop, through practical training, the teaching skills which are directly related to the day-to-day work of teaching.

4. To cultivate professional attitudes, e.g. a sense of responsibility, a concern for the individual pupil, and a strong commitment to educational work.

(2) The Re-<>fganization of Teacher Education.

The post-war development of the teacher-training system, both in England and in Taiwan, has aimed at improving the academic and professional standards of teachers.

Primary school teachers

, who had been regarded as

‘technicians' for a long time, are

now general1y recognized as well-educated professionals who need a broader back-ground of academic preparation. With regard to secondary school teachers, a university degree was considered to be sufficient qua1ification in the past


but it is now rea1ized that they should receive professional training before teaching in schools. Nevertheless,

the pattern of training in Taiwan is still the dual system in character: the training of

pr卸lary and secondary teachers is provided in separate insitutions. And graduates from other universities are not. allowed to teach in schools. In the light of remarkable re-forms achieved in England


two practical ways of reorganizing teacher education in Taiwan, in the author's opinion, would benefit the teaching profession as a whole. Theyare:



srarus 01" Normal Colleges. These new colleges should recruit their students from senior-high school graduates and provide a four-year course leading to a BEd degree Thus they would be accorded equal status with the Normal University for training: both primary and secondary teachers.

2. To provide educational courses for students in other universities who wish t,ο be qualified for school-teaching. Educational courses may be offered either at other universities as concurrent subjects for students who intend to teach in schools after their graduation or at the Normal University and other teacher-training institutions as one-year post-graduate studies.

(3) The Policy for Raising the Status of Teachers:

1. Teaching has traditiorially been regarded as one of themost respectable pro-fessions in China. In modern industrial society, however, a high standard of educational service can no longer be sustained by the feeling of being respected alone; it must also be secured by a reasonably high scale of salary. Therefore, it is recommended that a

professional salary scale should be provided in which teachers' salaries should compare favourably with income in other occupations requiring similar preparation.

2. Better working conditions are a1so essential for building up the morale of teachers. Since teachers are particularly qua1ified to judge the learning situations and facilities most suitable for their pupils


they should be given the professional freedom in the choice of teaching material, the selection of textbooks and the application of teaching mathods, within the framework of approved programmes. and with the assistance of the educational authorities.

3. The status of the teaching profession depends to a considerable extent upon teachers themselves; a11 teachers should ma~e every effort to achieve the highest possible standards in all their professional work. It is therefore recommended that (a)

in-service education should be widely provided for teachers to secure a constant improvement of their academic and professional standards and their teaching tech-niques; and that (b) codes of ethics or of conduct should be ~stablished by the teachers' organizations to ensure the prest智e of the profession in the performancè of the pro-fessional duties.

(4) Recommendations for Further Study in Teacher Education:


中英兩國師範教育發展之比較研究 problems in teacher education are very complicated; they need more intensive studies. The fol1owing aspects can be specially recommended for further research in this field:

1. A more detailed study of the cultural, socio-economic backgrounds of the two countries which may have a great deal to do with the developments of teacher


2. The study of the èurriculum provided in teacher education could be

pro-foundly meaningful.

3. Another approach to studying teacher education in the two countries is to examine the balance between the supply of and the demand for teacher force.



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摘要 本研究之目的,在運用比較方法,探討中英兩國師範教育發展之社會、經濟、與歷 史背景,以及目前實施現況,並比較兩國師資養成制度之革新動向,以供改進我國師範 教育之參考。 本研究,經比較分析,發現中英兩國師範教育的發展趨勢,有其異同之處,其重要 者,分述如下: l 相ft{之處: (1)整體提高中小學教師訓練水車,以達到大學程度為目標。 (2)中小學教師均頭接受教育專業訓練,並輕,登記合格 o (3)擴充在職教育機會,鼓勵中小學教師在職進修。 Z 相異之處: (1)我國堅守師範教育「閉鎖J 政策,而英國採取「開放 J 敢策。 (2) 我國中小學教師分由不同訓練機構培養,而英國已打破界限,統一培養。 (3) 我國師資養成的課程安排,採取「並進式J C concurrent ),而英國則採取 「連韻式 J C consecutive ) ,各有利弊得失。 本研究最後對我國師範教育的目標、政策,以及對提高教師地位等方面,提出數項 建議。 (本研究承行改院國家科學委員會 73 年度獎助,謹致謝忱)