新版高中英文教科書文化內涵分析及探討

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Introduction

Owing to the rapid growth of technology, the improvement of transportation, the pattern of immigration, and the increasing economic interdependence of countries all over the world, the world has now become more and more like a global village (Brislin, 1995; Porter & Samovar, 1993). Trade, education, and government institutions are becoming more global (Hayles, 1995; Pakir, 1999); thus, globalization is the current trend in the twenty-first century. It is getting increasingly common to meet people from different cultures. However, without fully understanding each other’s cultural background, misunderstandings are simply aroused because of inappropriate language uses and misinterpretations of behaviors (Brislin, 1995; Hammer, 1999; Wolfson, 1989). It is, therefore, important to build up cross-cultural awareness, and then people are more likely to interact more successfully in any cultural context which may be greatly different from one’s own (Shirts, 1995).

When interacting with people from another culture, English is used most often since it serves as a lingua franca in the globe (Jenkins, 2006; Master, 1998; Porter & Samovar, 1993; Wolfson, 1989). Thus, in order to achieve communicative proficiency, the study of cultures is tremendously necessary when English is taught in the language classroom (Omaggio, 1986). Without a good understanding of each other’s culture, communication may break down (Storti, 2001). Therefore, merely knowing the language is not adequate since the true meaning often lies in a complex social knowledge, not in the actual words uttered (Chaika, 1989; Omaggio, 1986). Thus, it is necessary to examine our English textbooks, the major means for most students to learn English by (Chan, 2004; Chen, 2000 & Huang, 2003), in terms of culture learning to see if the textbooks can equip our learners with adequate cultural instruction.

In Taiwan, English textbooks do include a certain amount of cultural information, but the cultural information does not contain various cultures throughout the world—America is the country which is mentioned most often in Taiwan English textbooks (Cho, 2002; Su, 1991). This kind of foreign-cultural approach focuses on merely one target culture has lost popularity since 1980s. Instead, it has been replaced by the intercultural approach and the transcultural approach, which promote the acquisition of cultural-independent intercultural communicative competence and also stress the cultural and linguistic complexity within cultures (Risager, 1998). Nowadays, people need to deal with a lot of intercutural interaction and learn to cope with a variety of cultural conflicts in the process of internationalization or globalization.

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Without certain cross-cultural knowledge, skills, and awareness, people may fail to have a successful communication with foreign people (Lafayette, 1997; Levy, 1995).

Since the most significant cultural carrier in a language classroom probably is the textbook itself, if a teacher is not taken into account (Savignon, 1986), the English textbooks newly released in 2006 are examined to see if they contain cross-cultural knowledge and cross-cultural activities to provoke students’ cross-cultural awareness.

Research Questions

This study intends to examine the cultural content in senior high school English textbooks newly released in 2006. The research questions of this study are as follows:

1. Do the textbooks provide sufficient cross-cultural knowledge?

2. Do the textbooks offer sufficient skills of cross-cultural communication?

3. Dothetextbooksprovidestudentswithappropriateactivities to stimulate cross-cultural awareness?

Method

This section deals with research method which mainly contains five sections: data collection, instruments, procedures of the study, data analysis, and intra-rater reliability.

1. Data Collection

The textbooks chosen for the present research are New F and L sets of English textbooks. They were chosen for two reasons. First, these two sets of senior high school English textbooks were the most popular and widely used textbooks in the market. Second, in 2006, the publishers of these two sets of English textbooks have published three volumes respectively: the two sets had the most complete volumes in comparison with Sanmin and Nan-yi , the other two sets of popular English textbooks in Taiwan. Therefore, for the sake of quantity, New F and L sets of English textbooks were chosen by the present study.

2. Instrument

In Taiwan, a comprehensive checklists or criteria to evaluate cultural content elaborately are not available. Consequently, the research adopted Moran’s (2001) cultural knowings framework—content, activities, and learning outcomes, to assess the cultural load of the English textbooks (see Table 1).

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Based on this framework, New F and L sets of textbooks are examined. The four phases of content, activities, and outcomes are knowing about, knowing how, knowing why, and knowing oneself, indicating that cultural learning is a process rather than a product (Moran, 2001).

Moreover, each lesson in both sets is also checked against the cultural objectives in English Curriculum Guidelines for Senior High Schools issued by Ministry of Education 2004.

Table 1. Cultural Knowings: Content, Activities, Outcomes

Content Activities Outcomes

Knowing About cultural information gathering information cultural knowledge Knowing How cultural practices developing skills cultural behaviors Knowing Why cultural perspectives Discovering explanations Cultural understanding

Knowing Oneself self reflection self-awareness

Source: See Patrick R. Moran Teaching culture: Perspectives in practice. Boston: Heinle & Heinle, 2001, p. 18. 3. Procedure of the Study

Three steps are conducted in this study, and each of them is briefly described as follows. 3.1 The collection of the research data

This study started with the collection of the research data—the first three volumes of New F and L sets of English textbooks published for the academic year 2006.

3.2 The classification of each lesson

Each lesson in New F and L sets of textbooks is divided into two parts: content and activities. There are eleven sections in each lesson in both sets. The eleven selections in New F set are Getting Started, Reading, Comprehension Check, Discussion, Vocabulary, Idioms and Phrases, Word Focus, Grammar Focus, Language Use, Listening, and Writing. On the other hand, the eleven sections in L set include Pre-reading Activity, Reading Selection, Comprehension Check, Vocabulary, Idiomatic Expressions, Word Study, A Look at the Language, Now Hear This, Patterns in Action, Collocations, and Writing Corner ( see Appendix 1 and Appendix 2). Then the eleven sections in each lesson in both sets are divided into two parts: content and activities, respectively.

The principles for the researcher to divide the eleven sections in each lesson in New F and L sets of English textbooks are: (1) if a section does not contain exercises, it belongs to the content domain, and vice versa. (2) if the sections are typically the information or uses of particular words or phrases without much to do with cultural content, they are excluded for cultural analysis. (3) if the sections are just activities or exercises to enhance students’ grammatical, listening writing, speaking ability, or to evaluate students’ comprehension of the

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Reading, they are excluded as well. Table 2 presents the analyzed sections in both sets. Table 2. Analyzed Sections in New F Set and L Set

Criterion Textbooks Analyzed sections

New F set Reading

Cultural Knowings: content

L set Reading Selection

New F set Getting Started, Discussion, Language Use Cultural Knowings: activities

L set Pre-reading Activity, Thinking Further About the Topic, A Look at the Language 3.3 Analyses of textbooks based on Moran’s cultural knowings framework

In this study, Moran’s (2001) cultural knowings framework, a very complete, systematic criterion, is employed as the main tool to measure cultural content, cultural activities, and cultural awareness.

The items are based on Moran’s cultural knowings framework (pp. 142,144,148,150). The items in each domain serve as a rule to decide whether the analyzed section in each lesson reaches Moran’s cultural knowings framework.

4. Data Analysis

The whole research was conducted through a quantitative analysis of the collected data. First, the statistical results of the cultural analyses on content and activities are presented respectively, followed by a related discussion. Based on the results of cultural content and cultural activities analyses, students’ cultural learning outcomes are inferred, followed by a related discussion.

5. Intra-rater Reliability

Due to the fact that inter-rater reliability is very time consuming and it is unlikely to find another rater to rate the materials reviewed, the researcher uses intra-rater reliability to ensure the reliability of the present study. The following are the steps employed. First, all of the materials are categorized. Second, about a month later, all of them are analyzed again. Then, the results of the first and the second analyses are compared. The results of the two analyses yield more than 90% consistency. If the results are not the consistent, the results of the second analysis are generally adopted because at the second time, the researcher is more familiar with the materials and the evaluative criterion—Moran’s cultural knowings framework. Through the three steps, the intra-rater reliability is achieved.

Results And Discussions

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cross-cultural knowledge, cross-cultural skills, and students’ cross-cultural awareness provoked by New F and L sets of English textbooks. In the end of the section, answers to the research questions, suggestions for cultural instruction, limitations of the study, and suggestions for further study are discussed.

1. Cross-cultural knowledge: Cultural content

In this section, two major themes are discussed. First, the results of the English textbooks analyses are presented, and then whether the cultural materials take a culture-specific or culture-general approach is discussed.

Moran’s (2001) cultural content consists of four phases—knowing about, knowing how, knowing why, and knowing oneself. Namely, cultural information, cultural practices, cultural perspectives, and cultural awareness of oneself are the cultural content in Moran’s (2001) cultural knowings framework. After the analyses, we have reached some findings. First, the books fail to provide sufficient cultural knowledge and activities to promote learners’ cross-cultural understanding and communicative competence. For example, as shown in Table 3, in New F and L sets of English textbooks, more than 40 percent of cultural content focuses on cultural information, only 6 percent centers on cultural practices and cultural perspectives respectively, and knowing oneself is totally neglected. That is, students lack opportunities to go into the depth of learning other phases of culture learning—knowing how, knowing why, knowing oneself. Second, the target culture—American or British culture—is highly emphasized in comparison with other cultures, such as learner’s native culture or other cultures. The result of putting much emphasis on American or British cultures is similar to the findings conducted by Su (1991). In other words, the cultural information in English textbooks has not changed too much in terms of countries or cultures involved in textbooks. Third, the way textbooks used to present cultural content is fixed, lacking variety.

Table 3. Result of Content Analysis of New F and L Sets of English Textbooks (Vol. 1-Vol. 3)

New F set L set

N % N %

Knowing about: Cultural information 16 44.4% 17 47.2%

Knowing how: Cultural practices 2 6% 2 6%

Knowing why: Cultural perspectives 2 6% 1 3%

Knowing oneself: Self 0 0% 0 0%

2. Cross-cultural skills: Cultural activities

In this section, the discussions are mainly on the results of the analyses of New F and L sets of textbooks (from volume 1 to volume 3) based on Moran’s (2001) cultural knowings

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framework—cultural activities.

Moran’s (2001) cultural learning activities contain four phases—knowing about, knowing how, knowing why, and knowing oneself. That is, gathering information, developing skills, discovering explanation, and reflecting on oneself are the four concerns. On the whole, activities containing cultural characteristics in the two sets of textbooks are not enough. For example, there are 36 activities in each volume, but both sets contain 5 cultural activities on average in each volume. Second, as shown in Table 9, in the New F set of English textbooks (from volume 1 to volume 3), among 108 activities, 11.1% belong to gathering information, 6.4% developing skills, 0.9% discovering explanations, and 1.87% self-reflection. On the other hand, in the L set of English textbooks (from volume 1 to volume 3), among the 108 activities, 3.6% belong to gathering information, 6.4% developing skills, 0% discovering explanations, and 0.9% self-reflection. Clearly, in the two sets of English textbooks, the cultural activities center on gathering information and developing skills, paying little attention to discovering explanations and self-reflection.

Table 4. Result of Cultural Activities Analysis of New F and L Sets of English Textbooks (Vol. 1-Vol. 3)

New F set L set

N % N % Knowing about: Gathering information 12 11.1% 4 3.6%

Knowing how: Developing skills 7 6.4% 7 6.4%

Knowing why: Discovering explanations 1 0.9% 0 0%

Knowing oneself: Reflection 2 1.87% 1 0.9%

Pedagogical material, dialogue, role-plays, rituals, research project, discussion, and focused talking are activities occasionally used in the two sets of English textbooks. Although the section of “Discussion” in each lesson in N F set and the section of “Thinking Further About the Topic” in each lesson in L set are presented in the form of discussion, most of them do not contain cultural characteristics. They are generally questions about the reading content, lacking the quality of cultural learning.

Learners have to learn culture beyond a cognitive level (Lafayette & Schulz, 1997; Moran, 2001). Therefore, related discussions or activities must be followed, or language learners probably fail to be equipped with cross-cultural communication ability (Hadley, 2001; Lafayette, 1997; Seelye, 1997).Triandis (1975, cited in Savignon, 1986), furthermore, highlighted the need for cross-cultural activities to enable learners to be familiar with significant cultural differences, and to enhance the transfer of learning to new occasions. However, cultural activities in the two sets of English textbooks not only are scarce in number

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but also lack variety.

To sum up, about 88.8% activities in New F set of textbooks and 93.5 % activities in L set of textbooks do not contain cultural learning characteristics. “Facts-only” is not enough for cultural learners. Culture should be taught as a process, not as cognitive information (Moran, 2001).

3. Cross-cultural awareness: Cultural learning outcomes

Cultural awareness can be regarded as the belief that culture has an influence on individual’s perspectives, and culture influences a person’s values, attitudes and behaviors. The development of cultural awareness possibly leads learners to empathize and appreciate diverse cultures (Clark, 1980; Hoopes, 1979). Also, to accomplish cultural training, besides cultural knowledge, certain evaluation measures to test learners’ cross-cultural awareness are necessary (Clark, 1980; Lafayette; Schulz, 1997; Hanvey, cited in Moran, 2001 & Savignon, 1986). However, no cultural evaluation forms are provided in New F or L sets of English textbooks, so the researcher can only infer students’ learning outcomes based on the results of cultural content analysis and cultural activities analysis.

As shown in Tables 3 and 4 above, learners studying the two sets of textbooks probably have the cultural learning outcomes of cultural knowledge and cultural behaviors, but are short of cultural understanding, and self-awareness. That is, students might just be able to remember or repeat what they have learned, and perform certain cultural behaviors efficiently or precisely (Moran, pp. 142-145) in the target culture. Learners studying the two sets of English textbooks may probably just reach Level I (tourism, textbooks, National Geograpic Mode) of Havey’s model of Levels of Cross-Cultural Awareness, failing to accomplish Level II (cultural conflict situation), Level III (intellectual analysis) and Level IV (cultural immersion: living the culture). That is, the learners might be aware of “superficial or very visible cultural traits: stereotypes” (cited in Moran 2001, p. 161).

4. Answers to the research questions

There are three findings in regard to the research questions. First, the culture-specific information in the two sets, does not follow the current trend of culture-general understanding or the transcultural approach in the world (Risager, 1998). Second, as far as activities are concerned, few activities are incorporated with cultural elements. Third, learners studying the two sets of textbooks probably have the learning outcomes of cultural knowledge and cultural behaviors, but are short of exposure to activities which promote cultural understanding and cultural awareness. In response to research questions listed in Chapter 1, the answers are as follows.

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Research Question 1. Do the textbooks provide sufficient cross-cultural knowledge? The answer is that although the six volumes of textbooks do contain cultural lessons, the cultural content tends to focuses on American or British cultures. Thus the answer to Research Question 1 is that both sets of textbooks do not provide sufficient cross-cultural knowledge that will enable users to be successful communicators in international settings.

Research Question 2. Do the textbooks offer sufficient skills of cross-cultural communication? As both sets of textbooks contain cultural activities fewer than five in each volume, the answer to Research Question 2 is that both sets fail to offer sufficient cultural activities for learners to develop the skills of cross-cultural communication.

Research Question 3. Do the textbooks provide students with appropriate activities to stimulate cross-cultural awareness? In the two sets of textbooks, dialogues and role-plays are occasionally used as cultural activities, discussions are rarely seen. As Hadley, Lafayette, and Seelye (2001; 1997; 1997) pointed out, related cultural activities must be added to cultural information, or language learners might fail to achieve cultural communication and awareness. In addition, since the answers to Research Questions 1 and 2 are negative, it can be inferred that both sets of textbooks do not succeed in stimulating students enough cross-cultural awareness.

Suggestions for Cultural Instruction

Since the value of cultural instruction has been emphasized in the field of language teaching, it is urgent to pay more attention to it. Below are the suggestions to different authorities concerned.

1. Suggestions to the committee of English Curriculum Guidelines

Since English Curriculum Guidelines for Senior High Schools are the principles for private textbook publishers to follow, English Curriculum Guidelines have to state clearly that culture learning should be in the form of cultural experiences, not cultural information only. Moreover, certain activities to increase cross-cultural communication and awareness must be integrated into English textbooks. The last and also the most important point is that the concept of culture-general understanding or the transcultural approach has to be integrated with a view to preparing our students to fit into the increasingly linked world.

2. Suggestions to institutions of educational programs

Institutions of educational programs have to provide teachers with related training programs first as long as cross-cultural education is a must in today’s world. In Taiwan, the

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insufficiency of teachers’ cultural knowledge, the difficulty in gaining cultural resources, the lack of activities to facilitate cross-cultural competence, the scarcity of cultural load in English textbooks, and the limited instructional time are the five major problems found to obstruct the teaching of culture (Tsai, 2002; Yang, 2004). Except for the last two problems, the first three reveal that language teachers do not have enough knowledge and skills to teach cultures in language classrooms. Therefore, “if we wish to have serious impact on increasing the cultural component in language teaching, we must try not only to influence publishers, but, more importantly, to design teacher training programs that will provide teachers with both a knowledge of culture and the ability to convey it to their students” (Lafayette, 1997, p. 120). Moreover, language teachers are the ones who choose textbooks and the ones who teach cultures. As long as language teachers prefer grammar teaching or are not confident of cultural instruction, regarding cross-cultural communication as a minor issue, textbook publishers will have to do their best to meet teachers’ need (Lafayette, 1997). Thus, it is important for the institutions of educational programs to equip teachers with cultural teaching knowledge and related cultural activities.

3. Suggestions to textbooks editors and publishers

The danger of only presenting cultural facts alone in textbooks will possibly result in stereotypes towards people from other cultures (Hadley, 2001; Lafayette, 1997). Culturally, related discussions or activities must be followed, or language learners probably fail to achieve cross-cultural communication. In a word, cultural knowledge, skills/activities, and attitude/awareness are the three foremost elements included in culture-loaded English textbooks. Besides, one of the reasons that teachers can not spend time on cultural instruction is that they lack appropriate teaching resources or materials (Sercu et al., 2005; Tasi, 2002; Yang, 2004). That is, once teachers get appropriate textbooks, it probably will be easier for them to teach culture in language classrooms. What’s more, English teachers in Taiwan use textbooks as their main teaching resources (Chen, 2000). However, two main problems have been found in New F and L sets of textbooks (from volume 1 to volume 3). First, cultural sections are presented mostly in the form of “facts-only” cultural knowledge instruction, lacking related cultural activities or self-evaluation forms to enhance cultural awareness. Second, the countries mentioned most in the two sets of English textbooks are America and Britain. The portrayal of monolithic culture in textbooks is risky because students are likely to be led to see only a unified culture (Cortazzi & Jin, 1999).

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In English Curriculum Guidelines for Senior High Schools 2004, foreign countries mentioned in the cultural objectives section do not specifically refer to any particular target country. Thus it is suggested that the textbooks publishers should design textbooks containing various countries or cultures, cross-cultural knowledge, and cross-cultural activities to fit teachers’ need and catch up with the current trend of internationalization.

Suggestions for Further Studies

Some suggestions based on the limitations mentioned above are presented as follows. 1. The number of the sample textbooks in this research is limited due to the time constraint.

Hopefully, future researchers can do cultural analyses again after all the major English textbook publishers—New Far East, Lungteng, Sanmin, and Na-yi—publish the whole sets of textbooks.

2. A group of in-service senior high school teachers are expected to cooperate to evaluate the cultural load in English textbooks once more in order to reach inter-rater reliability. It is hoped that the future results of the cultural analysis can stimulate textbook editors to pay more attention to the cultural load when editing English textbooks.

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Appendix 1

An Example Lesson in New F set English Reader 3

Lesson Two Sounds of Moonlight (in New F set 3)

Sections Illustrative Materials 1. Definition of each section

2.The relation to cultural teaching. Getting Started 1. Who is the composer in the picture?

□ A. Tchaikovsky □ B. Beethoven □ C. Bach □ D. Chopin

2. Match each of the following classical pieces of music with its composer.

(1) Swan Lake A. Tchaikovsky (2) Blue Danube B. Beethoven (3) Trout Quintet C. Johann Strauss (4) Fur Elise D. Schubert

1.“Getting Started” isawarm-up activity for each lesson so as to prepare and motivate learners to learn a new lesson. 2. The section might

be a cultural activity. Reading In the middle of his life, Ludwig van Beethoven, the

German musician, slowly began to lose his hearing. Beethoven was afraid of he would have to stop writing music. People tell the following story about who he found the courage to continue. No one knows to this day whether the story is true or not. (the first paragraph)

1. “Reading” is the main part of each lesson. 2. The section might

contain cultural content. Comprehension

Check

I. Choose the main idea of the article.

(A)Ludwig van Beethoven continued to write beautiful music even after he grew deaf. Perhaps he was inspired by the struggles of a young blind girl.

(B)Ludwig van Beethoven created "Moonlight Sonata" because of the kindness and encouragement of a young girl.

(C) Ludwig van Beethoven demonstrated to a young blind girl how to play the piano without sheet music.

II.Put the following statements in the order in which they happen in the reading.

(orII.Mark each statement with T (True), F (False), or N (information NOT given in the reading).

or II. Choose the best answer to each question.)

1. Beethoven hurried home through a strange section of Vienna and heard a girl playing music and crying.

1.“Comprehension Check” is a test for learners to know how well they understand the messages in each lesson. 2. The section does

not aim to contain any cultural activity.

Discussion 1. Do you think this is a true story? Why or why not?

2. What do you do when you suffer a setback or just feel low for no reason?

1. “Discussion” is a further discussion about the “Reading.” 2. The section might

be a cultural ctivity.

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Lesson Two Sounds of Moonlight (in New F set 3) (Continued 1) Vocabulary musician n. [C] a person who plays a musical instrument very

well 音樂家 musical adj. 音樂的

Yo-Yo Ma is a distinguished musician.

Lisa has a great musical talent. At the age of ten, she could play three musical instruments.

courage n. [U] the ability to do something dangerous or difficult,

or to face pain without showing fear 勇氣 courageous adj. 有勇氣的;勇敢的

It takes courage to do things that make you feel scared.

A courageous man jumped into the river to save the drowning boy.

1. “Vocabulary” defines the new words, and one or two sentences are made according to the new word. 2. The section does

not aim to contain any cultural content.

Idioms and

Phrases in the middle of (time or space) near the center of 在……中途;在……之中 He came back to Taiwan in the middle of July.

to this day so far 到目前為止

What caused the ship to sink? It remains a mystery to this day.

1. “Idioms and Phrases” presents new idioms and illustrate its usage. 2. The section does

not aim to contain cultural content.

Word Power Types of music

1. pop music 流行音樂 4. disco 迪斯可音樂

2. rap 饒舌音樂 5. heavy metal 重金屬樂

3. rock and roll 搖滾樂 6. classical music 古典音樂

1. “Word Power”, generally, includes collocation, vocabulary related to the title of each lesson, and so on. The two main goals of this section are enlarging students’ vocabulary and students’ using certain words or phrases appropriately. 2. The section does

not aim to contain cultural content. Grammar

Focus

I. Adverbial phrase + V + S Examples

1. The sound of a piano came from a nearby cottage. Æ From a nearby cottage came the sound of a piano. 2. An owl perched on the branch.

ÆOn the branch perched an owl.

Practice

Rewrite the following sentences using the “Adverbial phrase + V + S” pattern

1. A magnificent castle stood at the edge of the forest. ÆAt the edge of the forest stood a magnificent castle.

2. A beautiful princess, who had been kidnapped by a wizard, lay on the bed in one of the rooms.

Æ 1. “Grammar Focus” is the major linguistic practices for each lesson. Generally, two sentence patterns are included. 2. The section does

not aim to contain any cultural activity.

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Lesson Two Sounds of Moonlight (in New F set 3) (Continued 2) Language Use Music and you

I. Famous musicians

Besides Beethoven, how much do you know about other famous classical composers? Try matching each composer below with his accomplishments.

Schubert A leading composer of the Classical period,

called the “Father of the Symphony” and “Father of the String Quartet.”

Tchaikovsky A magician of melodies, creating nearly a

thousand compositions in his short life of thirty-one years.

Haydn A widely recognized child prodigy who started

writing music at the age of four or five.

Mozart Composer of the music for some of ballet’s

most popular stories, such as Swan Lake and The Nutcrackers.

II. The role music plays in your life

Music adds spice to life. What role does music play in your life? Answer the following questions and combine some of the answers to make a report. A sample had been done for you. *Do you listen to music or even play music? When do you do so? *What kind of music do you usually listen to?/What songs do

you listen to or sing?

*What’s your favorite song or piece of music? What is it about? *Who is your favorite musician or singer? Why do you like

him/her so much?

Your report (Sample) (omitted)

1. The activities in “Language Use” are related to the title or Reading in each lesson. The goals of this section are to increase students’ communicative competence and motivate students’ learning interest. 2. The activities in the section might contain cultural quality.

Listening Listen to the following passage about Beethoven. After the passage, you’ll hear five statements. Mark T (True) or F (False) based on the passage.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. One portion of Listening Script

As Beethoven’s hearing grew worse, he began to keep away from other people. He explained to his brothers in a letter that his deafness often made him feel like killing himself. …

Statement number one:

Beethoven once lost the will to live because he was losing his hearing.

Statement number two:

Many people think that Beethoven composed even better music when he was going deaf.

1. “Listening” is a listening exercise to enhance students’ listening ability. 2. The listening exercises in the section do not intend to contain cultural quality.

Writing Topic sentences

The introduction of a paragraph is generally a sentence that indicates what the paragraph will be about. It is called the topic sentence, and is often the first sentence in the paragraph.

Example (Omitted) Practice

The following paragraph does not have a topic sentence. Read the paragraph and choose the most appropriate topic sentence from the list that follows. Write the sentence on the blank line. Practice paragraph: (Omitted)

1. This section aims to strengthen students’ writing ability. 2. The section does

not aim to contain any cultural activity.

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Appendix 2

An Example Lesson in L set English Reader 3

Lesson Two Someone Else’s Watch (in L set 3)

Sections Illustrative Materials 1. Definition of each section

2. The relation to cultural teaching. Pre-reading

Activity

What will you do if you find an MP3 player on campus? □ Tell your teacher what you have found.

□ Put it in your pocket and say nothing. □ Ask your classmates if they lost anything. □ Put a notice on the bulletin board. □ Put an advertisement in the school paper. □ Turn it on to the school’s “Lost and Found.”

1. “Pre-reading Activity” is a warm-up activity for each lesson in order to prepare and motivate learners to learn a new lesson. 2. The section might be a

cultural activity. Reading

Selection

Finders may be keepers, but Cerita just wasn’t happy until she got rid of the watch she had found.

It was a beautiful watch. Cerita spotted it on her way out of work. It was lying on the floor, between a table and a chair. Slowly, she picked it up and looked at it. The watch was gold, and obviously an heirloom. On the back were the letters HGB, which stood for someone’s name. Cerita felt certain it would be easy to find the owner. (the first paragraph)

1. “Reading” is the major part of each lesson.

2. The section might containcultural content.

Comprehension

Check I. Reading for the Main Idea The main idea of “Someone Else’s Watch” is that . (A) it is okay to keep something you find

(B) honesty is always the best policy

(C) don’t get involved in someone else's business

II. Reading for Details

A. Decide whether the statements are true or false according to the reading selection.

1. Cerita found the watch lying on her desk.

2. The watch seemed to tick louder when Cerita took it home.

3. On Saturday, Cerita took the bus downtown to do some shopping.

4. A salesman in a store showed her some rings. 5. Cerita found out that the watch belonged to

someone’s mother.

B. Answer the following questions with short answers according to the reading selection.

1. Describe the watch that Cerita found.

2. What are some of the things Cerita did with the watch when she got home from work?

3. Why did the watch seem to be ticking louder and louder all weekend?

III. Thinking Further About the Topic

Did you ever find something that belong to somebody else? What did you do? How did that make you feel?

1. “Comprehension Check” is a test for learners to know how well they understand the messages in each lesson.

2. “Reading for the Main Idea” and “Reading for Details” do not aim to contain cultural instruction, but “Thinking Further About the Topic” might contain cultural discussions.

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Lesson Two Someone Else’s Watch (in L set 3) (Continued 1) Vocabulary suit vt. [C] to be right for 適合

Sharon’s new dress suited her very well.

suitable adj. 適合的

Editing is a suitable job for John. He’s good with details.

1. “Vocabulary” defines new words, and one or two sentences are made according to the new words.

2. The section does not aim to contain any cultural content. Idiomatic

Expressions get rid of to take action so that you no longer have something you do not want 擺脫 Billy got rid of his old car because he didn’t want to spend so much money repairing it anymore.

1. “Idiomatic Expressions” presents new idioms and illustrate their usage.

2. The section does not aim to contain cultural content.

Word Study Study the words in the chart. Then fill in each blank with the appropriate form of the word. Follow the example.

Example:

neatness n. neat adj. neatly adv.

Neatness is a big help in staying organized. If you arrange things neatly on your study desk, you will be able to study more efficiently. Students who are neat often get better graders than those who are not. Practice: shake v. shaking n. shaky adj. shakily adv.

Sue felt her boyfriend’s body with fear as they were watching the horror movie. She reached over to hold his hand, trying to stop the . In the dark, he whispered a “thank you” to Sue. “Now I feel a little myself,” whispered Sue.

1. “Word Study” illustrates three or four

derivatives of new words in each lesson. 2.This section does not

tend to have cultural content.

A Look at the

Language Proverbs about Money A. There are many proverbs, or old sayings, about money. Below are five proverbs. Match them to their definitions.

Definitions Proverbs

1. The person who finds something gets to keep it.

2. When you save money, it is like making money.

3. You can get anything done with money.

4. Talk does not mean anything unless you do what you say. 5. Be smart and careful with your money. Otherwise, you may lose it quickly.

(A) Money talks. (B) Finders keepers. (C) A fool and his

money are soon parted. (D) A penny saved isapenny earned. (E) Put your money

where your mouth is.

1. This section is an extension activity related to Reading Selection. Through the practices in this section, students are expected to familiarize certain uses of certain words or phrases. 2. “A Look at the

Language ” might contain cultural activities.

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Lesson Two Someone Else’s Watch (in L set 3) (Continued 2) A Look at the

Language

B. Now read the following conversations, and choose the best proverb for each conversation. The first one has been done for you.

1. A: Excuse me? Could you help me carry my bags to my room?

B: Can’t you see I’m busy? A: Here’s NT$ 200.

B: Okay. Where do you want your bags again? A: Hm… Money Talks.

2. A: It that an NT$ 10 coin? B: Where?

A: By that shoe. B: Yes! It is! I’m rich! A: But I saw it first!

B: Yes. But I picked it up first. .

Now Hear

This! Lost and Found Directions: Listen to each of the following short conversations and answer the question that follows.

___ 1. Which of the following statement is true? (A) Helen wants to keep the pocketbook.

(B) Helen doesn’t know how they can return the pocketbook.

(C) Helen thinks it will be easy to return the pocketbook.

___ 2. Which of the following statement is not true? (A) Patricia found a necklace the day before. (B) Patricia found the necklace in the girls’ bathroom. (C) Patricia made no attempt to return the necklace. Listening Script

1.

Helen: Oh, look! Someone left their pocketbook on the table! Pam: That’s too bad! What can we do?

Helen: It shouldn’t be too hard to find the owner. After all, there must be some kind of I.D. inside.

2.

Amy: Oh, what a lovely necklace you’re wearing!

Patricia: Yes, isn’t it nice? I found it lying on the floor of the classroom yesterday.

Amy: But didn’t you try to find the owner? Patricia: No way. After all, “Finders keepers!”

1. This listening activity containing materials related to the Reading Selection aims to train and develop students’ listening ability. At the same time, students are expected to be familiar with English pronunciations and intonation. Generally, there are five listening questions in this section.

2. This listening activity does not aim to contain cultural instruction. Patterns in Action I. Prep. Phrase + V + S Example:

The letters HGB, which stood for someone’s name, were on the back. Æ On the back were the letters HGB, which stood for

someone's name.

Exercise A:

Rewrite the following sentences by using the pattern above. The first one has been done for you.

1. Julie’s e-mail address is under her name.

ÆUnder Julie’s name is her e-mail address. 2. The link to Julie’s personal website is under her e-mail address.

Æ

1. In general, two sentence patterns are included in each lesson. Students are expected to build up grammatical concepts through the exercises. 2. “Patterns in Action” is not a cultural activity, but a linguistic one.

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Lesson Two Someone Else’s Watch (in L set 3) (Continued 3) Collocations advertisement 與動詞搭配 answer an advertisement 回應廣告 paste an advertisement 貼上廣告 exhibit an advertisement 陳列廣告 .... 與形容詞搭配 a classified advertisement 分類廣告 an exciting advertisement 動人的廣告 a fine/good advertisement 好廣告 .... 與名詞的搭配 a color advertisement 彩色廣告 a neon-light advertisement 霓虹燈廣告 .... 參考例句

1.If you want to sell the house, run an advertisement in the newspaper.

2.The department store’s customers are its walking

advertisement.

3.John is looking for a job by reading the classified

advertisements in the newspaper.

1. “Collocations” list what verbs, adjectives, or nouns can be associated with certain word. 2. “Collocations”, generally, are not designed as a cultural section.

Writing

Corner Writing Better Sentences: Combing with Participial Phrases You probably know that a participle is a changed form of a verb. It is formed by adding –ing or –ed to the verb. For example, looking is the present participle and looked is the past participle of "look." A participial phrase consists of a participle plus some other words:

Looking behind her and looked at from a different angle are

both participial phrases. You can make interesting sentences by combining a participial phrase with an independent clause. Your turn!

A. Here are two more sentences from “Someone Else’s Watch” that contain participial phrases. Break down each of the following sentences into two shorter sentences. Then write your new sentences on the lines below.

1. Holding the watch, she listened.

(1) (2)

B. Combine the pairs of short sentences below into longer sentences by using participial phrases.

1. She picked up the watch. She looked at it.

Æ

C. Use participial phrases to combine the sentences below into a short paragraph about the beginning of a new school year.

1. The students were a bit bored during the long summer vacation. They were eager for the new school year to begin.

1. Students are expected to develop the ability to write a composition from systematic ways. 2. This section does not aim to contain cultural information.

數據

Table 4. Result of Cultural Activities Analysis of New F and L Sets of English Textbooks (Vol

Table 4.

Result of Cultural Activities Analysis of New F and L Sets of English Textbooks (Vol p.6

參考文獻