臺灣地區大學生生涯未定向、生涯自我效能感與就業意願之關係探討--以高等教育資料庫為例

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ᇃᢊӴୢσᏰҡҡిҐۡөȃҡి!

Ռרਝ૖ཐᇄ൷ཾཎ᜹Ϟᜰ߽௤ଆ˕˕

оଽ้ఀىၥਟ৲࣏ٽ!

!

෬ᓆ໴! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

؃ኋસ!

ᇃѕѿҳఀىσᏰЖ౩ᇄᒚ୦Ᏸفօ౩ఀ௲!!!ᇃѕѿҳఀىσᏰЖ౩ᇄᒚ୦Ᏸفंـҡ!

൦ȃᆱ፣!

! ! ײ൶ՌϏޟۡ՝࢐ؐ՝ߧЍԑܚהؑ ζശৠܾ֨උޟЖ౩ฐኌȂюҡӵ Y жф Ȟ1980-1995 ԑȟޟࡆυȂ௥ڧپՌᏽࡣᔉ ڋዘਢфЮҔޟک៖ྱ៫ȂޢЀᐠЮҔ1ל ԙᒑυ໢ᆧ஝ϣᒦޟড়৳ᜰ߽Ȃ։ٺ໌Σσ Ᏸܖ౳ཾࡣ኷ਢϚདώհȂЮҔϫ᜹ཎЛп ࡆυޟҡࣀܚሯȞឃؾኋȂ2005ȟȄӵԪᆍ ᜰ߽஝ϸޟᒑυϣଢ଼ϛȂࡆυ௃ωџ૖឴ܻ ೝԊ௶ڷೝؚۡޟΙတȂ࿋тঈംᅚߝσԙ ΡȂઍғ७ᄇڗሯᏵᎬՌϏޟ૖ΨپᒵᐅҐ پᙛཾਢ܁܁ོϚޣܚ௩ȂՄӔ࡙ᕻӱԊӒ ޟড়၇Ȅ ! ! ӵ Super Ռר྅܈ี৤౩፣ϛȂඪڗष ߧЍԑฒݲׇԙಒӫ၎໦ࢲޟҡిӈ୛ 1 ȶޢЀᐠЮҔȷΙຠپՌ 100 এఀᎴറюࡆυޟᓺ ؾજ೦ȞLoving without spoilingȟΙਪȞন๿ Nancy Samalin and Catherine Whitney, 2003ȟȂཎԟড়ߝ೽ல ഍הఖϚौᡱࡆυငᐣӰ܇ຜড়ٱȃן଄ђ፞ ܖϚ ॒೰ӈޟࡣݎȂܚоড়ߝ൷჋ޢЀᐠΙኺȂਢਢړ ړӵࡆυ٘᜞҈ᙽȂྥരӵ಑Ιএബྮ߬ဴю౪ ਢȂю७၌௿тঈȄӰՄЮҔ࡞ৠܾ൷ོўୈࡆυ ՌϏ൷џоୈޟٱ௑Ȅ ਢȂོኇ៪ڏᙽϽ࣏ԙΡҡిُՓȄ࣏Οႀ ԙҡిԙዣȂԑሆΡ҆໸ᄇՌ٘Ԥٗஊޟᕣ ၌ϗԤ૖Ψ໌՗ԤᜰҡిܖᏰཾޟؚۡ Ȟ Ochs & Roessler, 2004 ȟ Ȅ Ж ౩ Ᏸ ড় Erickson ෆ о Ж ౩ ޥ ོ ۽ ጥ ෈ ໢ Ȟpsychosocial moratoriumȟپߒҰߧЍԑ ӵ໌ΣᙛൟࠉȂΙࢲՌר௤ષޟਢ໢Ȃആႆ ӻኺࣀଢ଼ޟՌҥᡝᡛϛᇯᜋՌϏȂоጂۡՌ ϏҐپޟПөȂ࢐ࣺ࿋࣢ິޟΙࢲਢ໢ȄЎ ڏӵᙛిПөϚጂۡਢȂჂᓾᏰҡҡి௤ષ ࢐ ᗚ ө ҡ ి ԙ ዣ ޟ ҆ င ໦ ࢲ Ȟ Ochs & Roessler, 2004ȟȄ ! ! ё਌σЖ౩Ᏸড় James Marcia ӵ 1984 ԑо Erickson ౩፣࣏அᙃȂ໌՗ԤᜰߧЍԑ ՌרᇯӣޑᄘޟंـȂо 20 ՝ظσᏰҡ࣏ ᄇຫ໌՗೤ፙȂభᕣ၌ڧၐޱ࢐֏ϐင࡚ҳ ᄇՌϏޟᙛཾᇄཎᜋלᄘޟᇯӣȂоЅ࢐֏ ϐငᐣܖғӵငᐣୈؚۡޟႆแȞࡾߧЍԑ ޟᇯӣӠᐠȟȄ௃೤ፙ๖ݎ Marcia ᘪઽю ѲᆍᇯӣޑᄘȂڏϛڍᆍ࣏Ԥᜰᇯӣלԙޟ ᜸࠮оЅڍᆍᇯӣ౅౒᜸࠮Ȅᇯӣלԙѓ֤ Ռ Ϗ ୈ ؚ ۡ ޟ Ռ к ᇯ ӣ Ȟ identity

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achievementȟڷᒳ௃ЮҔೣۡޟткᇯӣ Ȟidentity foreclosureȟȇᇯӣ౅౒ѓ֤ᄇҐ پཐڗ௳Кڷᐊ኏ޟ൶ؑᇯӣȞidentity moratoriumȟȂᄇҐپཐڗᒿ༄иϚᜰЖޟ ᇯӣ౅౒Ȟidentity confusionȟޑᄘȞMarcia, 1966; Vondracek, Schulenberg, Skorikov, Gillespie, & Wahlheim, 1995ȟȄ

! ! ҡిۡөޟଽճแ࡙фߒএᡝӵ७ᖝ ҡి׮ᐅਢȂᄇڏПөȃҬ኿ޟ݂ጂแ࡙ȞЕ Ռ೨໯൹Ȃ2008ȟȄҡిҐۡөޟߧЍԑџ ૖೎ܻȶ൶ؑᇯӣȷܖȶᇯӣ౅౒ȷޑᄘȂ ᄇܻҐپޟПөۦӵ௳КڷϚጂۡϛȂؠԤ ݂ጂޟҡిҬ኿ȄႆўΙٲࣺᜰंـȞᗂ׉ ඏȂ1989ȇ؃ພऍȂ2001ȇߙљᆫȂ2004ȇ ഌڃ๻Ȃ2006ȟี౪ҡిؚۡ֨ᜲᇄҡిՌ רਝ૖Ϟ໢ڎԤᡗ๿ޟࣺᜰȞЕՌጾ໷يȂ 2008ȟȄҥܻҏंـኺҏڥՌᇃᢊଽ้ఀى ᐌӫၥਟ৲ȞTIPEDȟϛȶ2005 Ᏸԑ࡙σ έ୰ڢ፡ࢥȷᇄȶ2006 Ᏸԑ࡙౳ཾҡᚔਮ ࠉࢺө፡ࢥȷϞԤਝೱਢܒၥਟȂڏϛҡి ҐۡөϞก໔ࡾ኿پՌڧၐޱσέਢ୰ڢ ፡ࢥ๖ݎȂҡిՌרਝ૖Ϟก໔ࡾ኿࣏౳ཾ ҡᚔਮࠉ፡ࢥ๖ݎȂӰԪҏंـоҡిҐۡ ө࣏Ⴑกᡐ໶ȂΟ၌ڏᄇҡిՌרਝ૖ޟኇ ៪࣏դȄ ! ! ӵ Bandura ޟ୅೩ϛȂՌרਝ૖࢐Ρঈ ӵޣᇄ՗໢ޟϛϭᡐ໶ȂΡঈོٷՌϏޟ૖ Ψ߬܈ؚۡтঈ௴ڥդᆍ՗ଢ଼ȞSwanson & Fouad, 1999ȟȄLentȃBrown ᇄ Hackett ӵ 1993 ԑඪюޥོᇯޣڥөҡిؚۡ፣։о Bandura ޥོᏰಬ౩፣ᇄҡిՌרਝ૖౩፣ ี৤ՄپޟȞLentȃBrown & Hackett, 1994;

1996ȇ೨໯൹Ȃ2008ȟȄкौѓ֤έএкौ ޟ྅܈Ռרਝ૖ȃ๖ݎႱ෈ڷҬ኿ޟᒵᐅȂ ڏϛՌרਝ૖ڷ๖ݎႱ෈ོޢ௥ኇ៪Ҭ኿ ޟᒵᐅȂӰԪȂҡిᒵᐅོޢ௥ڧڗҡిՌ רਝ૖ܚኇ៪Ȅ ! ! ӵԤᜰσᏰҡҡిี৤ޟМᝦϛȞങీ วȂ1998ȇӈᑽ࣡Ȃ2004ȇങ᜷ԇȂ2007ȇ Ochs & Roessler, 2004 ȇ Cunningham, Bruening, Sartore, Sagas & Fink, 2005 ȇ Lindley, 2006ȇLent, Lopez, & Sheu, 2008ȟ ζี౪Ռרਝ૖߬܈࢐ҡిҬ኿ᒵᐅႆแ ϛ१ौޟኇ៪ӰυȄՌרਝ૖߬܈ܚՃ໔ޟ Ϛ༉࢐ΙএΡܚ᏿Ԥޟ׬૖ᗙѓ֤тܚ૖ ഽӈޟแ࡙ȂҡిՌרਝ૖߬܈Іࢎএᡝӵ ໌՗ҡిؚۡӈ୛ਢޟ߬ЖȂڏϛҡిؚۡ ӈ ୛ ѓ ֤ Ο ຟ ե ҡ ి ࣺ ᜰ ૖ Ψ ᇄ ׬ ૖ ȞSwanson & Fouad, 2004ȟȂζ൷࢐רঈσ Ᏸ ఀ ى ϛ ȶ ᙛ ૖ ȷ ܖ ᆎ Ϟ ࣏ ȶ ൷ ཾ Ψ Ȟemployment abilityȟޟՌרຟեȄӰԪȂ ҏंـభആႆଟᘪᇄᡒᒮ඼Ȟlogisticȟଟᘪ ϷݙȂΟ၌σᏰҡσέਢޟҡిҐۡөแ࡙ ᄇҐپҡిՌרਝ૖ᇄ൷ཾཎ᜹ޟኇ៪Ȃо ෈૖Ԥօܻড়ߝȃఀৱȃଽ้ఀىᐠᄺܖఀ ى࿋׋ӵσᏰҡిሄᏲȃ፞แೣგᇄࢇ๊ᔣ ۡਢୈ࣏୤ՃȂоڞօҐپПөϚጂۡޟσ Ᏸҡঈ௃ϛငҥՌר௤ષȂײڗՌϏޟҡి Ҭ኿Ȅ ! ! அܻΰक़Ϟंـଢ଼ᐠȂҏंـᘪઽюή ӖඁᘈंـҬޟȄкौंـҬޟԃήȈ Ιȃᕣ၌Ᏸਮ᜸࠮ӵσᏰҡЮҔఀىแ ࡙ȃσᏰᏰཾߒ౪ᇄҡిҐۡөᇄ൷ཾ ཎ᜹ޟ৯౴௑לȄ

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ΠȃϷݙএΡधශӰશᄇҡిҐۡөᇄҡ ిՌרਝ૖ޟኇ៪௑לȄ έȃᔮຜҡిҐۡөȃҡిՌרਝ૖ᇄ൷ཾ ཎ᜹໢Ϟᜰ߽Ȅ! Ѳȃᆣӫ௤ଆኇ៪σᏰҡ൷ཾཎ᜹ޟএΡ ӰશȄ

ຯȃࣺᜰंـӱ៫!

! ! ߖඁԑپ୽ϱσᏰҡҡిҐۡөᇄҡ ిᒵᐅϞࣺᜰंـี౪Ȃኇ៪σᏰҡҡిҐ ۡөޟএΡӰશѓ֤ȈܒտȃΡਿȃᑹ፸ȃ ড়৳ᕗცȃҡిՌרਝ૖ཐȃ௡ڙ߬܈Ȟ༁ શ໴Ȃ2003ȇᗂहೇȂ2003ȇᗂڃ࣡Ȃ2006ȟȇ Մኇ៪ҡిᒵᐅޟӰશࠌѓ֤ȈܒտȃЮҔ ޥငӴ՝ȃᏰਮ᜸࠮ȃкওȃᏰ೚ԙ൷ڷՌ רਝ૖้ȄܒտП७ȈӵЀᏰؚۡڷఀىᏰ ೚॒ܲᇄᙛཾ॒ܲП७Ȃظҡ഍ᡗ๿ଽܻτ ҡȂӰԪظܒᒵᐅЀᏰޟᐠོሉσܻτܒ ȞԧకཏȂ2007ȇቓж፱Ȃ2007ȇҤ҄๼ȃ Ҥ޿๼Ȃ2008ȇ෬ऍܑȂ2008ȟȇՄճᏰᐣȃ τܒоЅடऋᏰҡӵᒗᙛП७ШၶϚৠܾ Ȟ೅ਏ୤Ȃ2005ȇጾᆵৗȂ2006ȟȂծζԤ ंـᡗҰظܒѶཾ౥ၶτܒଽȞҤ҄๼ȃҤ ޿๼Ȃ2008ȇ᎒ഽ᝺ȃࢹסԙȃ߮໯໳Ȃ 2008ȟȄޥငӴ՝П७ȂЮҔޟఀىแ࡙ڷ υτޟҡిЀᏰᒵᐅԤଽ࡙ޟғࣺᜰȂڏϛ Юᒑޟఀىแ࡙ᄇυτҡిؚۡޟኇ៪Ψ ౱σܻҔᒑޟఀىแ࡙ȂՄЮҔޟᙛཾӴ ՝Ȃᄇυτᒵᐅ௥ڧЀᏰޟኇ៪Ϛ݂ᡗȄѪ ޥငనӇၶٹȃۨ՞Ӵ഍ѿϽแ࡙ଽޱζᗍ ө᝷៉ЀᏰȞԧకཏȂ2007ȇҤ҄๼ȃҤ޿ ๼Ȃ2008ȟȄ ! ! Ᏸਮ᜸࠮П७ȂϴҳσᏰ౳ཾҡᒵᐅЀ Ᏸޟџ૖ܒଽܻؽҳσᏰҡȂծѶཾᐠ౥ζ ШؽҳᏰਮپுଽȂՄ׬ᙛ଱ਮϞϴؽҳᏰ ਮӵԪڍП७ࣱฒ৯౴ȞдරȂ2007ȇԧక ཏȂ2007ȇҤ҄๼ȃҤ޿๼Ȃ2008ȇ෬ऍܑȂ 2008ȇ᎒ഽ᝺้ΡȂ2008ȟȇкওП७Ȉं ـี౪൷᠞ऋفϚོኇ៪౳ཾҡᒗᙛޟᐠ ౥ȂфߒؠԤ๘ᄇᒗᙛᓺ༖ܖӛ༖ޟऋفȄ ڏϛ౳ཾܻᔖҢܒၶଽᏰߞޟσᏰҡȂٽԃ ఀىᏰ଱ȃ༈ኬᏰ଱ȃѴᇭᏰЅ୦Ᏸ଱Ȃौ Ш୑ө౩፣ܖஅᙃंـϞ౩Ᏸ଱Ȃ༊өᒵᐅ ൷ཾȞݓ࿅নȂ2006ȇጾᆵৗȂ2006ȇдරȂ 2007ȇቓж፱Ȃ2007ȇҤ҄๼ȃҤ޿๼Ȃ2008ȇ ෬ऍܑȂ2008ȟȄ൷Ᏸ೚ԙ൷ՄِȂσᏰ౳ ཾԙᕼ௶ӪཕԁޟᏰҡȂᒵᐅ᝷៉ЀᏰޟᐠ ོཕσȂԙᕼճޱ༊өᒵᐅ൷ཾȞдරȂ 2007ȇԧకཏȂ2007ȇҤ҄๼ȃҤ޿๼Ȃ2008ȟȄ ! ! ൷Ռרਝ૖ՄِȂങ᜷ԇӵ 2007 ԑޟ ंـϛี౪Ᏸಬငᡛᗶณฒݲޢ௥Ⴑก൷ ཾ૖ΨȂծࠓആႆՌרਝ૖ȂᏰಬငᡛᄇ൷ ཾ૖ΨԤᡗ๿ޟ໢௥ਝݎȞങ᜷ԇȂ2007ȟȇ ՄԑឭЅώհငᡛᇄҡిؚ๊Ռרਝ૖ࣱ Ԥᡗ๿ғࣺᜰȂфߒԑឭཕσȂᄇՌϏޟ૖ ΨູԤ߬ЖȇՄώհငᡛູӻȂζོԤၶଽ ޟՌרਝ૖߬܈Ȟӈᑽ࣡Ȃ2004ȟȄ᏿Ԥଽ ҡిՌרਝ૖ޱၶலՃኌҐپޟҡిᒵ ᐅȂиڏҡిᒵᐅጒ൜ၶ࣏ቶኄȂѪѴȂҡ ిՌרਝ૖ζ࢐τܒؚۡҡిᒵᐅޟ१ौ ࡾ኿Ȃτܒӵ༈ಛᙛཾϞՌרਝ૖ᡗ๿ଽܻ ߨ༈ಛᙛཾȂظܒࠌฒ݂ᡗϚӣȂӰԪτܒ ၶৠܾڧܒտኇ៪ᒵᐅ༈ಛޟᙛཾȞ೨ీ ᕬȃ஻ኈᄸȂ1999ȇ༁ؾᕬȂ2007ȟȄ

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! ! ҏंـॶӑઽΣএΡधශᡐ໶௤ଆڏ ᄇҡిҐۡөȃҡిՌרਝ૖ޟኇ៪Ȃ௥๿ ᔮຜҡిҐۡөȃҡిՌרਝ૖ᇄ൷ཾཎ᜹ ޟኇ៪ᜰ߽Ȃശࡣᆣӫ௤ଆኇ៪σᏰҡ൷ཾ ཎ᜹ޟএΡӰશȄ

୤ȃंـПݲ!

! ! ҏंـоᇃᢊӴୢ 2006 Ᏸԑ࡙ϞσᏰ ᔖ۩౳ཾҡ࣏ंـᄇຫȂ௤ଆҡిҐۡөแ ູ࡙ଽϞσᏰҡᄇՌ٘ҡిՌרਝ૖ᇄ൷ ཾཎ᜹ޟኇ៪Ȅ Ιȃၥਟپྛᇄंـώڎ! ! ! ҏंـኺҏپՌᇃᢊଽ้ఀىᐌӫၥ ਟ৲ܚភюޟ໔Ͻၥਟ໌՗ϷݙȂTIPED Ҭࠉҥᇃᢊৱσдᝋ໴ఀ௲кࡻȂԪၥਟ৲ ف឴ܻ୽ড়࠮ޟၥਟ৲Ȃᇔ໱ӻ७өޟσᏰ ҡၥਟȂѓࢂᏰಬᕗცȃఀᏰ௩ࢊоЅᏰҡ ޥငधශȃᏰಬԙݎȃ౳ཾҡ൷ཾᇄ໌ওޑ ݷ้ȄٮঙڎᐗᘞܒЅᖃೱܒϷݙђ૖Ȃӵ ܪኺһՃ໔ਮ઻ȃᏰߞЅӨ᜸Ᏸҡޟ೩ॎ ȞЕՌඇි݂ȃങ㈥ПȂ2008ȟȄӵԪᓺ༖ ήȂԪၥਟ৲џඪټҏंـӵ१ौᡐ໶ޟၥ ਟȂ௃ڏᖃೱܒၥਟџᕣ၌σᏰҡޟᏰಬध ශȇ௃ܪኺ೩ॎϛџ໌՗Ᏸਮ᜸࠮ϞШၶϷ ݙȄԪंـܚ௴Ң TIPED ϛȶ2005 Ᏸԑ࡙ σέ୰ڢ፡ࢥȷᇄȶ2006 Ᏸԑ࡙౳ཾҡᚔ ਮࠉࢺө፡ࢥȷϞԤਝೱਢܒኺҏȄ ! ! ȶ2005 Ᏸԑ࡙σέଡᙹ୰ڢ፡ࢥȷ࢐ ٷྱӨட଱ਮᇔ໱پޟஅҏၥਟȞҔᡝȟ໌ ՗ܪኺȂٷᏰਮȃΪΤᏰߞȞఀىഋಛॎ೎ ኿ྥȟЅ٘ӋտϷቹȂܪኺШٽ࣏ 25%Ȃ ӨᏰߞΡኵՍЍ 30 ΡȃӨਮΡኵՍЍ 100 ΡȂӓॎܪю 49,609 ΡȂ፡ࢥӱԝӓ 26307 ӋȂӱԝ౥࣏ 67.83炴炻፡ࢥࢊก෈໢࣏ 2005 ԑ 10 ТӋՍ 2006 ԑ 2 ТӋȞඇි݂Ȃ2007ȟȄ ! ! Մȶ2006 Ᏸԑ࡙౳ཾҡᚔਮࠉࢺө፡ ࢥȷ࢐௴ලࢥПԒȂӓӱԝ 203,046 ӋȂӱ ԝ౥ 75.7ʦȂ፡ࢥࢊก෈໢࣏ 2007 ԑ 3 Т ӋଔՍ 2007 ԑ 12 ТӋХȞඇි݂Ȃ2008ȟȄ ҏंـ௴ҢσέЅσѲϞଡᙹၥਟȂӰԪܪ ڥΠԩ୰ڢ഍ԤڧกϞԤਝኺҏၥਟȂџٺ Ңኺҏӓ 29911 ΡȄ ΠȃࣺᜰӪຠࣨۡ! 1. ҡిҐۡөȈHolland ڷ Holland ӵ 1977 ԑඪюҡిҐۡөࡾএΡᄇՌרᇯӣڷ ᙛཾᇯӣཐޟלԙԤ֨ᜲȂζ൷࢐ᇳȂএ ΡۦฒݲᄇܻՌϏҡిี৤ޟПөୈю ᒵᐅܖؚۡȞSamuel, 1999ȇ଀סਥȂ 2002ȟȄӵҏंـϛ௴Ңȶ2005 Ᏸԑ࡙ σέ୰ڢ፡ࢥȷϛϞၐᚠȶרϚጂۡՌϏ ޟᑹ፸ܖ૖ΨȃרٮϚ఼ཿՌϏ౳ཾࡣौ ୈϧቄȃᒵᐅкওऋفࠉȂרٮؠԤӻП Ο၌ӨএϚӣޟሴ୿ȃרϚጂۡՌϏ࢐֏ ᒵᄇऋفȷ้ѲᚠϞҁ֯Ϸኵ࣏Ԫᄺ܈Ϟ ก໔ࡾ኿Ȅ 2. ҡిՌרਝ૖ȈՌרਝ૖࢐ࡾএΡᄇՌϏ ࢐֏Ԥ૖ΨԙђӴׇԙΙ໶ӈ୛ޟ߬ ܈ȂՄҡిՌרਝ૖߽ࡾএΡᄇՌϏҡి ૖ΨޟՌרຟեȞ೨ీᕬȃ஻ኈᄸȂ 1999ȟˤӵҏंـϛޟҡి૖Ψࡾȶᙛൟ ૖ΨȷȂ௴ȶ2006 Ᏸԑ࡙σᏰᔖ۩౳ཾ ҡࢺө፡ࢥȷ୰ڢϛϞၐᚠȶடཾޣᜋᇄ

(5)

׬೚ȃஅᙃႫသᔖҢ׬૖ȃ஠౩፣ၼҢڗ ᄂሬώհޟ૖Ψȃี௨Ѕ၌ؚώհϛܚᎏ ႄ୰ᚠޟ૖Ψ้ȷ12 ᚠϞҁ֯ՌຟϷኵ ࣏Ᏸҡҡి૖ΨޟՌרຟեȄ

έȃंـ࢜ᄺ!

! ! ҏंـၼҢଟᘪϷݙσᏰҡҡిҐۡ өᇄҡిՌרਝ૖ᇄ൷ཾཎ᜹ޟᜰ߽Ȃ࢜ᄺ ԃήყΙȄ ყΙ ंـ࢜ᄺ

Ѳȃंـᡐ໶!

! ! ҏंـܚٺҢޟंـᡐ໶Ѕก໔ࡾ኿ ၏ԃߒΙȂкौϷݙޟᡐ໶࣏൷ཾཎ᜹Ȃҡ ిՌרਝ૖ȂоЅҡిҐۡөแ࡙Ȅधශᡐ ໶ࠌѓ֤Ᏸਮ᜸࠮ȃܒտȃЮҔᙛཾӴ՝ڷ σᏰᏰཾߒ౪Ȅ ȞΙȟ൷ཾཎ᜹! ! ! ก໔ࡾ኿࣏ڧၐޱ౳ཾкौॎห࣏൷ ཾᇄϚ҈ᆗώհȂڏϛᒵᐅ൷ཾޱ 13322 ΡȂϚ҈ᆗώհޱ 594 ΡȄ ȞΠȟҡిՌרਝ૖! ! ! ӵҏंـϛޟҡిՌרਝ૖ก໔ࡾ ኿Ȃ௴Ң୰ڢϛϞၐᚠȶடཾޣᜋᇄ׬೚ȃ அᙃႫသᔖҢ׬૖ȃ஠౩፣ၼҢڗᄂሬώհ ޟ૖Ψȃี௨Ѕ၌ؚώհϛܚᎏႄ୰ᚠޟ૖ Ψ้ȷ12 ᚠϞҁ֯ՌຟϷኵ࣏ҡిՌרਝ ૖ޟຟեȄԪ 12 ᚠᐌᡝޟϱഋΙमܒ࡙߬ =.89ȄҏंـоԪᐌᡝϞҁ֯Ϸኵфߒڧ ၐޱᄇՌϏҡిޟՌרਝ૖ཐȂϷኵູଽȂ фߒᄇՌϏᙛൟܚሯ૖ΨڷҐپᙛిี৤ ູԤ߬ЖȄ ȞέȟҡిҐۡөแ࡙! ! ! ҏंـϛ௴Ң୰ڢϛϞၐᚠȶרϚጂۡ ՌϏޟᑹ፸ܖ૖ΨȃרٮϚ఼ཿՌϏ౳ཾࡣ ौୈϧቄȃᒵᐅкওऋفࠉȂרٮؠԤӻП Ο၌ӨএϚӣޟሴ୿ȃרϚጂۡՌϏ࢐֏ᒵ ᄇऋفȷ้ѲᚠȂငк໅Ӱυ๵ڥݲܪڥΙ ғఱԾךਏૈ! ൩཰ཀᜫ! ғఱ҂ۓӛำࡋ! Ꮲਠᜪࠠ! ঁΓङඳ! ܄ձǵР҆ ௲ػำࡋǵ Ꮲ཰߄౜

!

!

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এӰશȂԪӰυџ၌ភ 64.52%ޟᖂᡐ౴ ໔ Ȃ Ӱ શ ॒ ೉ ໔ ࣼ ᚠ Ҭ ڷ Ӱ શ ޟ ࣺ ᜰ ӵ.70~.78 Ϟ໢ȂџޣԪѲএᚠҬࣱџก໔ юҡిҐۡөԪ൐Ιᄺ܈ȂϱഋΙमܒ࡙߬ =.82 ឴ϛ࡙ڗଽ࡙ޟ࡙߬๖ݎȂџޣᐌᡝ Մِڎيԁޟ߬ਝ࡙ȄήߒΙ֕౪ҏंـ१ ौᡐ໶Ϟϱৠᇳ݂ȃก໔ࡾ኿ᇄජक़ಛॎᇳ ݂Ȅ ߒΙ ᡐ໶ޟϱৠᇳ݂ᇄජक़ಛॎ ᡐ໶ ᡐ! ໶! ޟ! ก! ໔ ජ! क़! ಛ! ॎ ҡిҐ ۡө ᚠҬ࣏ȈȶרϚጂۡՌϏޟᑹ፸ܖ૖ΨȷȂȶרٮϚ఼ཿՌϏ ౳ཾࡣौୈϧቄȷȂȶᒵᐅкওऋفࠉȂרٮؠԤӻПΟ၌Ө এϚӣޟሴ୿ȷȂȶרϚጂۡՌϏ࢐֏ᒵᄇऋفȷ ॎϷПԒȈ 1=ߨலϚಒӫ 2=Ϛಒӫ 3=ಒӫ 4=ߨலಒӫ Ѳᚠҁ֯ϷኵູଽȂфߒҡిҐۡөแູ࡙ଽȄ M SD Min Max 2.60 .67 1 4 ҡిՌ רਝ૖ ᚠҬ࣏Ȉȶடཾޣᜋᇄ׬೚ȷȂȶߒႀᇄྜ೽૖ΨȷȂȶ஠౩፣ ၼҢڗᄂሬώհޟ૖ΨȷȂȶี௨Ѕ၌ؚώհϛܚᎏႄ୰ᚠޟ ૖ΨȷȂȶஅᙃႫသᔖҢ׬૖ȷȂȶடཾᜌྱܖࣺᜰ૖ΨȷȂȶي ԁޟሴᏲ૖ΨȷȂȶღ໥ӫհ૖ΨȷȂȶᄇՌϏޟᙛిี৤Ԥш Ϸޟᕣ၌ЅೣგȷȂȶΟ၌Ԥᜰޟ౰ཾᕗცᇄี৤௑לȷȂȶڎ ԤؑᙛЅ௰᎛ՌϏޟ૖ΨȷȂȶዅᢎ७ᄇᙛిี৤ࠉශȂᑖ ྃ׹Σ౪ᙛȷȄ ॎϷПԒȈ 1=ׇӒҐڎര 2=Ґڎര 3=ڎര 4=шϷڎര ΪΠᚠҁ֯ϷኵູଽȂфߒՌឈԤၶଽޟҡిՌרਝ૖ཐȄ M SD Min Max 2.77 .41 1 4 ЮҔᒑ ఀى แ࡙ ॎϷПԒȈ஠Юᒑఀىแ࡙ᙽ඲ԙఀىԑኵ 1=୽ωȞ6 ԑȟ 2=୽ϛȞ9 ԑȟ 3=ଽϛᙛȞ12 ԑȟ 4=டऋȞ15 ԑȟ 5=σᏰȞ16 ԑȟ 6=ंـܚоΰȞ18 ԑȟ ϷኵູଽȂфߒఀىแູ࡙ଽȄ Юᒑఀىแ࡙ M SD Min Max 11.66 3.46 6 18 Ҕᒑఀىแ࡙ M SD Min Max 10.79 3.37 6 18 Ᏸཾ ߒ౪ ᚠҬ࣏ȈσᏰҁ֯ޟᏰཾԙᕼȉ 1=60Ϸоή 2=60-69Ϸ 3=70-79Ϸ 4=80-89Ϸ 5=90Ϸ оΰ ॎϷПԒȈ ϷኵູଽȂфߒσᏰߒ౪ູԁ M SD Min Max 3.23 .72 1 5 Ᏸਮ ᜸࠮ ॎϷПԒȈ 1=ϴҳσᏰ 2=ϴҳ׬ᙛ3=ؽҳσᏰ 4=ؽҳ׬ᙛ ϴҳσᏰ 6935 Ρ(23.2%) ϴҳ׬ᙛ 2823 Ρ(9.6%) ؽҳσᏰ 11578 Ρ(38.7%) ؽҳ׬ᙛ 8525 Ρ(28.5%)

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ᡐ໶ ᡐ! ໶! ޟ! ก! ໔ ජ! क़! ಛ! ॎ ൷ཾ ཎ᜹ ᚠҬ࣏ȈௌҬࠉശкौޟॎห࣏ ٷӱ๎ 1=݈ռמ 2=᝷៉໌ও 3=൷ཾ 4=ҬࠉϚ҈ᆗώհ 5=ᄂಬ ٷΰक़ӱ๎௴᜸տᡐ໶Ȃ१ཱིጡጆ࣏ 0=ҬࠉϚ҈ᆗώհ(নᒵ໶4) 1=൷ཾ(নᒵ໶3ᇄ5) ݈ռמ 5436Ρ(22.9%) ᝷៉໌ও5993Ρ(25.2%) ൷ཾ10041Ρ(42.3%) ҬࠉϚ҈ᆗώհ594Ρ(2.5%) ᄂಬ1281Ρ(5.4%) १ཱིॎϷࡣ ൷ཾ 11322 Ρ(95%) ҬࠉϚ҈ᆗώհ 594 Ρ(5%) ܒտ ॎϷПԒȈ 1=ظ 2=τ Ȃ१ཱིጡጆ࣏ 0=τȃ1=ظҡ τҡ 13759 ΡȞ53.8%ȟ ظҡ 9832 ΡȞ41.7%ȟ ຏǺM=ѳ֡ኧǴSD=኱ྗৡǴMax=നεॶǴMin=നλॶǶ ߒΠ ЮҔఀىแ࡙ᇄσᏰᏰཾߒ౪ϞΡኵЅԻϷШ ఀىแ࡙ Юᒑఀىแ࡙ ΡኵȞ&ȟ Ҕᒑఀىแ࡙ ΡኵȞ&ȟ Ᏸཾԙᕼ ΡኵȞ&ȟ ୽ω 3701 Ρ(15.7%) 5135 Ρ(21.8%) 60 Ϸоή 100 Ρ(.4%) ୽ϛ 4595 Ρ(19.5%) 5388 Ρ(22.8%) 60-69 Ϸ 3433 Ρ(14.5%) ଽϛᙛ 7787 Ρ(33%) 7989 Ρ(33.9%) 70-79 Ϸ 11542 Ρ(48.6%) டऋ 3763 Ρ(16%) 2767 Ρ(11.7%) 80-89 Ϸ 8350 Ρ(35.2%) σᏰ 2875 Ρ(12.2%) 1912 Ρ(8.1%) 90 Ϸоΰ 313 Ρ(1.3%) ंـܚоΰ 870 Ρ(3.7%) 400 Ρ(1.7%)

ဓȃंـ๖ݎ!

ΙȃᏰਮ᜸࠮ӵσᏰҡএΡधශᡐ໶ȃ ҡిҐۡөแ࡙ᇄ൷ཾཎ᜹ޟ৯౴ ௑ל! ȞΙȟϚӣ᜸࠮Ᏸਮ౳ཾҡӵএΡᡐ໶ޟ ৯౴௑ל ! ! ߒΠᇳ݂এΡᡐ໶ޟϷҀ௑לȂᐌᡝՄ ِȂЮҔᒑఀىแ࡙оଽϛᙛШٽശଽȞϷ տ࣏ 33%ᇄ 33.9%ȟȂσᏰоΰఀىแ࡙Ш ٽᅚճȞσᏰШٽघ࣏ 12.2%ᇄ 8.1%Ȃं ـܚоΰ࣏ 3.7%ᇄ 1.7%ȟȇσᏰᏰཾԙᕼ σӻϷҀӵ 70-89 ϷϞ໢Ȟघլ 83.8%ȟȄ ყΠ໌Ι؏֕౪Ϛӣ᜸࠮ᏰਮӵЮҔఀى

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8 9 10 11 12 13 14 ϦҥεᏢ Ϧҥמᙍ دҥεᏢ دҥמᙍ ijįĺ Ĵ ĴįIJ Ĵįij ĴįĴ Ĵįĵ ĴįĶ ϦҥεᏢ Ϧҥמᙍ دҥεᏢ دҥמᙍ Рᒃ௲ػำࡋ ҆ᒃ௲ػำࡋ εᏢᏢ཰߄౜ ყΠ Ϛӣ᜸࠮Ᏸਮ౳ཾҡӵএΡᡐ໶ޟϷշ௑ל ߒέ Ϛӣ᜸࠮Ᏸਮ౳ཾҡӵҡిҐۡөแ࡙ᇄҡిՌרਝ૖Ϟҁ֯Ϸኵ ғఱ҂ۓӛำࡋ ғఱԾךਏૈ Ꮲਠᜪࠠ ѳ֡ኧ ኱ྗৡ ѳ֡ኧ ኱ྗৡ ϦҥεᏢ 2.659 .667 2.753 .401 Ϧҥמᙍ 2.721 .632 2.755 .389 دҥεᏢ 2.627 .669 2.755 .669 دҥמᙍ 2.681 .651 2.770 .501 แ࡙ᇄσᏰᏰཾߒ౪ޟϷշ௑לȂџоี ౪ȂӨ᜸ᏰਮϞЮᒑఀىแ࡙ҁ֯ଽܻҔᒑ ఀىแ࡙ȂиΙૡσᏰҡϞЮҔఀىแ࡙ҁ ֯ଽܻ׬ᙛᡝفϞᏰҡȄσᏰᏰཾߒ౪оϴ ҳσᏰޟᏰҡശԁȞҁ֯঄࣏ 3.46ȟȂٷԩ ࣏ؽҳσᏰȃؽҳ׬ᙛᇄϴҳ׬ᙛȞҁ֯঄ Ϸտ࣏ 3.18Ȃ3.15 ᇄ 3.13ȟȞ፜َყΠȟȄ ȞΠȟᏰਮ᜸࠮ӵҡిҐۡөแ࡙ᇄҡ ిՌרਝ૖ޟ৯౴௑ל! ! ! ࣏Ο၌Ϛӣ᜸࠮ᏰਮᏰҡӵҡిҐۡ өแ࡙ᇄҡిՌרਝ૖࢐֏Ԥᡗ๿৯౴Ȃ௴ Ң൐Ӱυᡐ౴ኵϷݙȂӑ໌՗ᡐ౴ኵӣ፴ܒ ᔮۡȂᔮۡ๖ݎᡗҰҐႂІᡐ౴ኵӣ፴ܒޟ ୅೩ȂӰԪٷᐃᡐ౴ኵϷݙޟ๖ݎี౪Ȃҡ ిҐۡөแ࡙ӵӨ᜸ᏰਮϞ໢Ԥᡗ๿৯౴ ԆӵȞF=5.923, P<.001ȟȂڏϛȂо׬ᙛᡝ فᏰҡᄇҡిҐۡөޟแ࡙ଽܻΙૡσ ᏰȂфߒ׬ᙛᡝفᏰҡШΙૡσᏰᄇҐپ؁ ৠܾԤϚጂۡཐȇҡిՌרਝ૖ཐӵӨ᜸࠮ Ᏸਮฒᡗ๿৯౴ȞF=1.248, P=.865ȟȂфߒ ҁ֯ՄِȂσᏰҡҡిՌרਝ૖ޟՌຟϷኵ ϚོӰ࣏ᏰਮϚӣՄԤ৯౴ȄߒέӖюޟ࢐ Ϛӣ᜸࠮Ᏸਮ౳ཾҡӵҡిҐۡөแ࡙ᇄ ҡిՌרਝ૖Ϟҁ֯ϷኵȄ

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15% 44% 31% 54% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% ϦҥεᏢ Ϧҥמᙍ دҥεᏢ دҥמᙍ ൩ ཰ К ٯ ) & * ყέ ϚӣᏰਮ᜸࠮ᔖ۩౳ཾҡϞ൷ཾШٽ׷ጣყ ߒѲ Ϛӣ᜸࠮ᏰਮܪኺΡኵᇄᒵᐅ൷ཾΡኵϞظτҡШٽ Ᏸਮ᜸࠮ ܪኺΡኵ ᒵᐅ൷ཾΡኵ(%) ܒտ ظҡ τҡ ϴҳσᏰ 6935 Ρ 1082 Ρ(15%) 119 Ρ 947 Ρ ϴҳ׬ᙛ 2883 Ρ 1272 Ρ(44%) 85 Ρ 1118 Ρ ؽҳσᏰ 11527 Ρ 3579 Ρ(31%) 226 Ρ 3064 Ρ ؽҳ׬ᙛ 8525 Ρ 4595 Ρ(54%) 325 Ρ 4094 Ρ ᖂڷ 29921 Ρ 10635 Ρ(36ʦ) 755 Ρ(7%) 9223 Ρ(93%) ȞέȟσᏰҡӵϚӣ᜸࠮Ᏸਮ൷ཾཎ᜹ Ϟ৯౴௑ל! ! ! ௥๿оජक़ಛॎЅ׷ጣყȞԃყέȟ֕ ౪σᏰҡӵ౳ཾᒵᐅ൷ཾΡኵᇄШٽȄี౪ Ө᜸Ᏸਮᒵᐅ൷ཾШٽП७оؽҳ׬ᙛᏰ ਮശଽ 54%Ȟघ 4595 ΡȟȂڏԩ࣏ϴҳ׬ ᙛ 44%Ȟघ 1272 ΡȟȃؽҳσᏰ 31%Ȟघ 3579 ΡȟȂശճ࣏ϴҳσᏰ 15%Ȟघ 1082 ΡȟȄܒտП७Ȃτҡӵ౳ཾࠉײڗώհޟ ШٽȞ93%ȟሉଽܻظҡȞ7%ȟȂনӰџ ૖ڧ३ܻϷݙϛւଶ౳ཾҡ݈ռמኺҏ 5436 ΡȂघլ 22.9%ޟন࢈ȂՄٺுظҡ ᒵᐅ൷ཾϞΡኵᇄШٽڧڗኇ៪Ȃ၏ಠΡኵ ᇄԻϷШ፜َߒѲȄ ΠȃএΡधශᄇσᏰҡҡిҐۡөᇄҡ ిՌרਝ૖ޟኇ៪௑ל! ! ! ௥๿ആႆӻϯ⺣ᘪϷݙоҡిҐۡө ᇄҡిՌרਝ૖ޟҁ֯Ϸኵ࣏ٷᡐ໶ȂএΡ धශᡐ໶࣏Ⴑกᡐ໶Ȃ஠ܒտȃЮᒑఀىแ ࡙ȃҔᒑఀىแ࡙ȃσᏰᏰཾߒ౪ઽΣଟᘪ ዁࠮ϛȂоΟ၌Өᡐ໶ᄇᏰҡҡిҐۡөᇄ ҡిՌרਝ૖ޟኇ៪Ȅ

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ߒϤ σᏰҡҡిҐۡөᇄҡిՌרਝ૖Ϟ⺣ᘪ߽ኵեॎ঄ ҡిҐۡө ҡిՌרਝ૖ ᡐ໶ b SE b SE ܒտ -.064*** .011 -.046 .058*** .014 .040 Юᒑఀىแ࡙ -.007*** .002 -.038 .004* .001 .031 Ҕᒑఀىแ࡙ -.008*** .002 -.041 .004** .002 .035 σᏰᏰཾߒ౪ -.122*** .008 -.129 .052*** .006 .087 R2=.15 R2=.012 ຝȈ*Ȉp<.05ȇ**Ȉp<.01***Ȉp<.001ȇb ᇄ SE Ϸտ࣏ଟᘪ߽ኵЅڏ኿ྥᇲϞեॎ঄ȇ ࣏኿ྥϽଟᘪ߽ኵեॎ ঄Ȅ ߒϲ σᏰҡҡిҐۡөᄇҡిՌרਝ૖Ϟ⺣ᘪ߽ኵեॎ঄ ᡐ໶ b SE ҡిҐۡөแ࡙ -.161*** .005 -.262 ! ! ! ! ! R2= .26 ຝȈ***Ȉp<.001ȇb ᇄ SE Ϸտ࣏ଟᘪ߽ኵЅڏ኿ྥᇲϞեॎ঄ȇ ࣏኿ྥϽଟᘪ߽ኵեॎ঄Ȅ ! ! Ϸݙ๖ݎԃߒϤȂี౪Ԫ 4 এএΡधශ ᡐ໶഍ོᄇσᏰҡҡిҐۡө౰ҡኇ៪Ȃڏ ϛτҡШظҡ؁ৠܾᄇҐپ౰ҡϚጂۡཐ Ȟଟᘪ߽ኵ b=-.064, p<.001ȟȇЮҔఀىแ ࡙ᄇҡిҐۡөζ౰ҡ॒өኇ៪ȞϷտ࣏ b=-.007, p<.001ȇb=-.008, p<.001ȟȂфߒ࿋ ڏтనӇϚᡐਢȂЮҔᒑఀىแູ࡙ճȂࡆ υູৠܾᄇҐپ౰ҡϚጂۡཐȇσᏰᏰཾߒ ౪ູ৯ޱȞb=-.122, p<.001ȟȂᄇՌϏޟҐ پПөູϚጂۡȄҥ኿ྥϽଟᘪ߽ኵ঄ࣼ پȂσᏰᏰཾߒ౪ᄇҡిҐۡܒޟኇ៪Ψശ σȄ ! ! এΡधශᡐ໶ζᄇҡిՌרਝ૖౰ҡ ኇ៪ȂڏϛظҡШτҡޟҡిՌרਝ૖ཐپ ுଽȞb=.058, p<.001ȟȇޥငӴ՝ޟኇ៪Ȃ ЮҔఀىแູ࡙ଽȂࡆυԤၶғөޟҡిՌ רਝ૖ཐȞϷտ࣏ b=.004, p<.05Ȉb=.004, p<.001ȟȂҔᒑఀىแ࡙ኇ៪౱ଽܻЮᒑȇ σᏰᏰཾߒ౪ູٹޱȞb=.052, p<.001ȟȂ ᄇՌϏޟҡిՌרਝ૖ູڎ߬ЖȄҥ኿ྥϽ ଟᘪ߽ኵ঄ࣼپȂһ࢐σᏰᏰཾߒ౪ᄇҡి Ռרਝ૖ཐޟኇ៪ΨശσȄ έȃσᏰҡҡిҐۡөᇄҡిՌרਝ૖ ཐȃ൷ཾཎ᜹ޟᜰ߽! ȞΙȟҡిҐۡөᄇҡిՌרਝ૖ཐޟኇ៪ ! ! ആႆӻϯ⺣ᘪϷݙоҡిՌרਝ૖ޟ ҁ֯Ϸኵ࣏ٷᡐ໶ȂҡిҐۡөϷኵ࣏Ⴑก

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ᡐ໶ȂоΟ၌ᏰҡҡిҐۡөޟแ࡙ᄇᏰҡ ҡిՌרਝ૖ޟኇ៪Ȅ௃ߒϲџޣҡిҐۡ өޟแ࡙ᄇσᏰҡҡిՌרਝ૖Ԥᡗ๿॒ өኇ៪Ȟb=-.161, p<.001ȟȂфߒᏰҡҡి ູۡөޟᏰҡȂڏҡిՌרਝ૖ູଽȂᄇՌ Ϗܚڎരޟ൷ཾ૖ΨູԤ߬ЖȄ ȞΠȟҡిҐۡөแ࡙ᇄҡిՌרਝ૖ ཐᄇ൷ཾཎ᜹ޟኇ៪! ! ! ആႆ logistic ⺣ᘪϷݙо൷ཾཎ᜹࣏ٷ ᡐ໶ȂҡిҐۡөϷኵᇄҡిՌרਝ૖࣏Ⴑ กᡐ໶ȂоΟ၌Ᏸҡ౳ཾᒵᐅ൷ཾޟᏰҡᇄ ᒵᐅϚ҈ᆗώհޟᏰҡȂ࢐֏ڧڗՌ٘ҡి ҐۡөᇄҡిՌרਝ૖ޟኇ៪Ȅ௃ߒΜࠉڍ ួџޣҡిҐۡөϚོޢ௥ኇ៪Ᏸҡ൷ཾ ཎ᜹Ȟb=-.027, p=.973ȟȂཎ։σᏰҡσέ ਢᄇՌϏҡిПөҐጂۡޟแ࡙ȂϚོኇ៪ ڏ౳ཾਢᒵᐅ൷ཾޟཎ᜹ȇՄҡిՌרਝ૖ ཐོޢ௥ኇ៪σᏰҡ൷ཾཎ᜹Ȟb=.542, p<.001ȟȂфߒᄇՌϏޟᙛൟ૖ΨູԤ߬Ж ޟσᏰҡȂູ༊өᒵᐅ൷ཾȇശࡣ஠ڍᡐ໶ Ιଔܹ໌ଟᘪ዁࠮ϛϷݙȂี౪௡ڙҡిҐ ۡܒࡣȂҡిՌרਝ૖ϫณџоႱกσᏰҡ ൷ཾཎ᜹Ȟb=.694, p<.001ȟȄ Ѳȃኇ៪σᏰҡ൷ཾཎ᜹ޟএΡӰશ! ! ! ശࡣ௤ଆσᏰҡ൷ཾཎ᜹ڧএΡध ශȃҡిҐۡөแ࡙ᇄҡిՌרਝ૖ཐޟኇ ៪แ࡙Ȃငҥ logistic ໦ቹଟᘪϷݙȂ๖ݎ ԃήߒΤȂี౪ӵ௡ڙڏтᡐ໶ࡣȂџоᡗ ๿ႱกσᏰҡ൷ཾཎ᜹ޟᡐ໶ѓ֤ܒտȃЮ Ҕᒑఀىแ࡙оЅҡిՌרਝ૖ཐȄ௃዁࠮ έپࣼȂᐌᡝՄِȂ࿋ڏтᡐኵ߳ࡻ࡯ۡ ਢȂܒտޟ߽ኵ࣏-1.239ȂExpȞBȟ=.290Ȃ ߒҰτҡᒵᐅ൷ཾᐠ౥࢐ظҡޟ.29 ॻȇՄ ЮҔᒑఀىแູ࡙ճȂڏυτູ༊өᒵᐅ൷ ཾ Ȟ Ϸ տ ࣏ b=-.070, p<.001 ȇ b=-057, p<.001ȟȇҡిՌרਝ૖ཐޟϷኵູଽޟσ Ᏸҡζູ༊өᒵᐅ൷ཾȞb=.717, p<.001ȟȄ ߒΜ σᏰҡҡిҐۡөᄇ൷ཾཎ᜹Ϟ⺣ᘪ߽ኵեॎ঄ Ι Π έ

ᡐ ໶ b SE Exp(B) B SE Exp(B) B SE Exp(B) ᄠຽ 3.10 .214 22.200 1.366 .281 3.919 .636 .472 2.001 ҡి Ґۡөแ࡙ -.027 .078 .973 .144 .082 1.89 ҡి Ռרਝ૖ཐ .542*** .105 1.72 .694*** .135 1.16 R2cs=.000 R2N=.000 R2cs=.002 R2N=.007 R2cs=.003 R2N=.010 ຝȈ ***Ȉp<.001ȇb ᇄ SE Ϸտ࣏ଟᘪ߽ኵЅڏ኿ྥᇲϞեॎ঄Ȅ

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ߒΤ σᏰҡ൷ཾཎ᜹Ϟᡒᒮ඼໦ቹ⺣ᘪ߽ኵեॎ঄

዁࠮Ι ዁࠮Π ዁࠮έ

ᡐ ໶ B SE Exp(B) B SE Exp(B) B SE Exp(B) ᄠຽ 4.095 .415 60.059 1.973 .567 7.189 ܒտ -1.224*** .139 .294 -1.233*** .139 .294 -1.239*** .140 .290 Юᒑఀىแ࡙ -.069** .020 .934 -.069** .020 .934 -.070** .020 .932 Ҕᒑఀىแ࡙ -.054** .021 .947 -.054** .021 .947 -.057** .021 .944 σᏰᏰཾߒ౪ .091 .078 1.059 .092 .078 1.069 .065 .078 1.067 ҡిҐۡөแ࡙ .008 .079 1.008 .124 .082 1.132 ҡిՌרਝ૖ཐ .717*** .132 2.049 R2cs=.016 R 2 N=.048 R 2 cs=.016 R 2 N=.048 R 2 cs=.020 R 2 N=.059 ຝȈ**Ȉp<.01ȇ***Ȉp<.001ȇb ᇄ SE Ϸտ࣏ଟᘪ߽ኵЅڏ኿ྥᇲϞեॎ঄ȇR2 csᇄ R2NфߒႱกᡐ໶ᇄਝ኿ᡐ ໶ޟᜰᖒ஼࡙Ȃᆎ࣏᜸ R2ࡾ኿Ȅ

ӂȃंـ๖፣!

ΙȃᏰਮ᜸࠮ӵӨ१ौᡐ໶ޟ৯౴௑ל! ! ! Ԥᜰఀىแ࡙ȂӨ᜸ᏰਮϞЮᒑఀىแ ࡙ҁ֯ଽܻҔᒑఀىแ࡙ȂиΙૡσᏰҡϞ ЮҔఀىแ࡙ҁ֯ଽܻ׬ᙛᡝفϞᏰҡȄσ ᏰᏰཾߒ౪оϴҳσᏰޟᏰҡശԁȂٷԩ࣏ ؽҳσᏰȃؽҳ׬ᙛᇄϴҳ׬ᙛȄҡిҐۡ өแ࡙ӵϚӣᏰਮ᜸࠮໢һԤᡗ๿৯౴Ȃ׬ ᙛᡝفᏰҡᄇҡిҐۡөޟแ࡙ଽܻΙૡ σᏰȂфߒ׬ᙛᡝفᏰҡШΙૡσᏰᄇՌϏ ܚᒵޟऋفȃՌϏޟᑹ፸૖Ψᇄ౳ཾࡣޟҬ ኿ၶؠԤ݂ጂޟПөȄծҡిՌרਝ૖ཐӵ Ө᜸࠮ᏰਮϞ໢ٮؠԤᡗ๿৯౴Ȃфߒᐌᡝ ՄِȂσᏰҡᄇՌϏᙛൟ૖Ψޟڎരแ࡙ᇄ ᄇҐپᙛిޟ߬ЖӵӨ᜸ᏰਮϷ଩࢐ࣺխ ޟ൷ཾཎ᜹П७Ȃ׬ᙛᡝفᏰਮσᏰҡ౳ཾ кौॎหᒵᐅ൷ཾϞΡኵШٽၶΙૡσᏰ پޟଽȂڏϛоؽҳ׬ᙛ൷ཾ౥ۨڏт᜸࠮ ᏰਮϞॶ՝ȂᇄႆўंـΙमȞдරȂ2007ȇ ԧకཏȂ2007ȇҤ҄๼ȃҤ޿๼Ȃ2008ȇ෬ ऍܑȂ2008ȇ᎒ഽ᝺้ΡȂ2008ȟȄܒտП ७ȂҥܻظҡԤ݈ռמޟဎ୛ȂӰՄҏंـ ϛτҡӵ౳ཾਢᒵᐅ൷ཾиײڗώհޟШ ٽȞ93%ȟሉଽܻظҡȞ7%ȟȄ ΠȃএΡधශᡐ໶џоᡗ๿ႱกσᏰҡ ҡిҐۡөᇄҡిՌרਝ૖ޟ௑ל! ! ! Ϸݙ๖ݎี౪এΡधශᡐ໶џоᡗ๿ ႱกσᏰҡҡిҐۡөᇄҡిՌרਝ૖ޟ ௑לȄӵܒտП७ȂτҡᄇܻՌ٘ޟᑹ፸ܖ ૖ΨȃкওऋفޟΟ၌ᇄ౳ཾࡣޟҬ኿ȂШ ၶؠԤ݂ጂПөȂҡిՌרਝ૖ཐζճܻظ ҡȇӵЮҔᒑఀىแ࡙ޟኇ៪Ȃี౪ఀىแ ູ࡙ଽޟড়৳ȂࡆυӵҐپҡిޟҬ኿ၶԤ ПөȂՌרਝ૖ၶଽཐζၶଽȇՄσᏰԙᕼ

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ߒ౪ູԁޟᏰҡȂູΟ၌ՌϏޟᑹ፸ᇄ૖ ΨȂᄇ౳ཾҬ኿Ԥၶ఼ཿޟПөȂиԤၶଽ ޟՌרਝ૖Ȅ έȃҡిҐۡөོኇ៪ҡిՌרਝ૖ծ Ϛོޢ௥ኇ៪൷ཾཎ᜹ȂՄҡిՌ רਝ૖ཐࠌོޢ௥ኇ៪൷ཾཎ᜹! ! ! ᄇҐپПөູϚጂۡޟᏰҡȂӵᙛൟܚ ሯ૖ΨڷᄇҐپᙛిޟ߬ЖՌרຟቋ഍ࣺ ᄇၶճȂՌឈՌϏҐшϷڎരᙛൟܚሯޟட ཾޣᜋᇄ׬೚ȃؑᙛЅ௰᎛ՌϏޟ૖ΨȂᄇ ᙛిี৤ޟࠉශζၶϚዅᢎȄ! ! ! ՌឈՌϏшϷڎരᙛൟ൷ཾΨޟᏰ ҡȂӵ౳ཾޟкौॎห༊өᒵᐅ൷ཾȂՄࣺ ᄇӴȂᄇՌϏ૖ΨၶؠԤ߬ЖޟᏰҡȂࠌ༊ өᒵᐅϚ҈ᆗώհȄՄҡిҐۡөแ࡙ᗶณ ོኇ៪ڗՌרਝ૖ޟଽճȂծࠓϚོޢ௥ኇ ៪Ᏸҡޟ൷ཾཎ᜹Ȅ Ѳȃኇ៪൷ཾཎ᜹এΡӰશϛȂҡిՌ רਝ૖ᄇσᏰҡ൷ཾཎ᜹ኇ៪ശσ! ! ! ӵএΡधශᡐ໶ϛȂЮҔᒑఀىแ࡙ޟ ଽճོኇ៪σᏰҡ൷ཾཎ᜹ȂЮҔᒑఀىแ ࡙ၶճޱȂڏυτູ༊өӵ౳ཾਢᒵᐅ൷ ཾȄڏϛኇ៪൷ཾཎ᜹ശᡗ๿ޟ࣏σᏰҡޟ ҡిՌרਝ૖ཐȄՄҡిՌרਝ૖ཐڧڗܒ տȃЮҔᒑఀىแ࡙ᇄσᏰᏰཾߒ౪ޟኇ ៪ȂӰԪ࣏ඪଽσᏰҡ൷ཾཎ᜹Ȃଽ้ఀى ᐠᄺȃఀৱЅড়৳џо୤ପήӖఀىᄂ୛ΰ ޟ࡚ដپڞօᏰҡඪЀҡిՌרਝ૖ཐȂጂ ҳՌϏҡࣀޟҬ኿Ȅ

ചȃ࡚ដ!

Ιȃఀىᄂ୛ΰޟ࡚ដ! ȞΙȟҡిሄᏲП७ȂڞօτσᏰҡоЅ׬ ᙛᏰҡᚄ఼ՌϏҡిޟҬ኿Ȃߴ໌ҡ ిۡө ! ! ௃ΰक़Ϸݙี౪τҡڷ൷᠞׬ᙛᡝف ޟσᏰҡᄇՌϏҡిПөၶৠܾԤϚጂۡ ཐȄᗶณҡిҐۡөϚོޢ௥ኇ៪൷ཾཎ ᜹Ȃծࠓџ૖Ӱ࣏ϚጂۡՌϏޟҬ኿ȂՄϚ ᘞӴ؁඲ώհȂฒݲடᆠӵᎌӫޟώհϛȄ ӰԪȂആႆᏰਮЖ౩ᇄሄᏲϛЖᖞᒲҡిࣺ ᜰᖿ৴ܖՌר௤ષޟღᡝࣀଢ଼Ȃџоᔓօσ Ᏸҡ؁ᕣ၌ՌϏޟᑹ፸ᇄ૖ΨȂٮ௃Ᏸߝ۔ ޟᙛిϷٴϛȂᚄ఼ՌϏޟҡిҬ኿ȂඪԞ ӵσᏰҡጂۡҡిПөȄ ȞΠȟσᏰ፞แԊ௶ᔖ๿१ᙛൟܚሯ૖Ψ ޟஉᎴȂоቨ໌σᏰҡޟҡిՌרਝ ૖ཐ ! ! 1990 ԑछ୽஠ȶ൷ཾΨȷຜ࣏Ᏸυ҆ രޟ಑Ϥ໶அҏ૖ΨȂՄ೻ٲ૖Ψܖ੫፴ࢇ ۺሯ॒ଔᔣॏఀىࢇ๊ᇄॎหȂٮӵσᏰ፞ แϛ௰՗Ϟ೰ӈȞ֔ኈཾȂ2001ȟȄӰԪȂ σᏰ፞แԊ௶ଶΟᙛൟடཾޣᜋ׬૖ޟஉ ᎴϞѴȂӣਢौ१ຜᜰᗤ૖ΨޟஉᎴȂѓ֤ ᇄтΡϣଢ଼ޟღ໥ӫհ૖Ψȃྜ೽ߒႀ૖Ψ ้้ȂٮആႆᜌྱՃڥᐠڙܖ࡚ఀӫհޟᐠ ོȂ๝ϠᏰҡԤၼҢ೻ٲ૖ΨޟᐠོȂо࡚ ҳσᏰҡӵᙛൟ૖Ψޟ߬ЖȄ ! ! ѪѴ࡚ដӵடཾᏰߞџоས଩ఀᏰօ ౩ȂඪټᏰҡӵᏰಬΰޟ၌උᇄࡾᏲȂоඪ ଽᏰҡᄇடཾऋҬޟ౩၌ᇄᔖҢȄٮᎌ࡙ඪ

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ټڎώ᠞ᐠོޟዩօᏰߜ๝ϠճޥငӴ՝ ޟᏰҡȂоڞօЮҔᒑఀىแ࡙ၶճޟᏰҡ Ԥ؁஼ޟᏰಬཎ᜹ᇄᄂ୛ငᡛȂঅо௃Ᏸཾ ԙᕼޟඪЀᇄώ᠞ငᡛϛȂඪЀᄇՌϏҡి ૖Ψޟ߬ЖȄ Ȟέȟড়ߝᇄޥོσಀᔖܹᄚယ؏Ȃ๝Ϡσ ᏰҡՌҥ௤ષҡిПөޟਢ໢ ! ! ंـี౪ȂҡిҐۡөޟσέᏰҡᄇڏ σѲਢ࢐֏ᒵᐅ൷ཾٮؠԤޢ௥ޟኇ៪Ȃσ Ᏸ࢐௃ᏰਮᗚΣᙛൟޟ௤ષ໦ࢲȂσᏰҡ௃ ܚᒵऋفޟ፞แஉᎴடཾ૖Ψȃ೽ᜋ፞แஉ Ꮄᜰᗤ૖ΨȂоЅᏰϱѴޥღࣀଢ଼ȃώ᠞င ᡛϛ௤ષՌϏޟᑹ፸ᇄ૖ΨȂငႆшϷޟՌ ҥ௤ષਢ໢ᇄު໢ȂԤօܻᏰҡᄇҐپᙛཾ ޟᒵᐅϚོӰ৛ܐკၐᇄ׽ᡐՄଝᕻȄ೻൷ ԃӣ Erickson ඪюޟЖ౩ޥོ۽ጥ෈໢Ȃ࢐ ட឴ܻߧЍԑޟΙࢲ࣢ິਢ໢Ȃтঈџоӵ ҡࣀϛܹ໌Ιٲ኷ୄਢ໢Ȟtime outȟȂၼ Ң೻ࢲਢ໢ўਡၽȂܖ᜝௬ώհў܈ਪȂܖ ӄᏰўώհȄᡱՌϏؖᐦΙήȂԁԁўᇯᜋ ՌϏȄΙૡΡ഍הఖູפԙђູԁȂ࡞Ѝ߆ ਢ໢ўࡦՃԙђᄇרঈޟཎဎ࣏դȞGeorge, 1997ȟȂծ Erikson ᇯ࣏Ж౩ޥོ۽ࡣਢ໢ ࢐ߧЍԑี৤ႆแϛ१ौޟႆแȂߧЍԑӵ ೻ࢲਢ໢џоငҥՌҥӴᡝᡛϚӣޟԙΡ ُՓўײюശᎌӫՌϏޟ՝ညȞKroger, 2005ȟȄӰԪȂ࡚ដড়ߝڷޥོσಀܹᄚယ ؏Ȃ๝ϠσᏰҡՌҥ௤ષҡిПөޟਢ໢ٮ ඪټᎌਢޟᒚၚᇄڞօȄ ΠȃҐپंـ࡚ដ! ! ! ҏंـӰڧ३ܻ፡ࢥᄇຫ࣏ᔖ۩౳ཾ ҡԤռמޟဎ୛Ȃኇ៪ҏंـӵ൷ཾΡኵڷ ܒտޟڥኺȂᏲमџٺҢϞظσᏰҡኺҏΡ ኵႆճȂฒݲ౏Σ௤ଆظσᏰҡӵҡిҐۡ өȃҡిՌרਝ૖ᇄ൷ཾཎ᜹ޟࣺϣኇ៪ᜰ ߽ȂԪѴȂҏंـٺҢଟᘪЅ logistic ଟᘪ ้ПݲϷտᔮຜҡిҐۡөȃҡిՌרਝ૖ ᇄ൷ཾཎ᜹໢Ϟᜰ߽ȂծٮҐ૖஠೻ٲᡐ໶ ܹΣӣΙ዁࠮࢜ᄺϱᆣӫϷݙᔮۡȂӰԪȂ Ґ૖ጂҳ೻ٲᡐ໶໢ޟϛϭᜰ߽ܖኇ៪ᐠ ڙȂ࡚ដҐپंـџоቨё೻ٲഋϷޟंـ ᇄଆ፣ȄѪѴȂҏंـี౪׬ᙛᡝفޟσέ ҡӵҡిҐۡөޟுϷᡗ๿ଽܻΙૡσ ᏰȂӰՄ࡚ដҐپቨё፴ܒ೤ፙȂоᕣ၌ӵ ᖿؑఀᏲᙛཾ׬૖ޟᏰਮϛȂኇ៪Ᏸҡҡి Ґۡөޟড়৳ȃᏰਮܖএΡӰશᇄΙૡσᏰ σᏰҡޟ৯౴࣏դȄ

୤ՃМᝦ!

ԧకཏȞ2007ȟȄᇃᢊӴୢσᏰ౳ཾҡҡి ᒵᐅࣺᜰӰશϞ௤ଆȄжཱིσᏰငᔼᏰ ंـܚᆈρ፣МȂҐюގȂᇃѕѿȄ Ҥ҄๼ȃҤ޿๼Ȟ2008ȟȄ። Ѐ Ᏸ ȉ ። ൷ ཾ ȉ ። Ѷ ཾ ȉ σ Ᏸ ౳ ཾ ҡ ю ၯ Ϟ ௤ ଆ Ȅ ఀ ى ࢇ ๊ ፣ Ꮻ Ȃ 11Ȟ 4ȟȂ 33-62Ȅ ӈᑽ࣡Ȟ2004ȟȄंـҡҡిؚ๊Ռרਝ૖ ᄲҡిߢᛤᄇҐپᙛཾᒵᐅᎌ଩ܒϞ ंـȄ୽ҳҺ೽σᏰఀىंـܚᆈρ፣ МȂҐюގȂཱིԼѿȄ ؃ࡦተȞ2005 ԑ 4 Т 11 РȟȄ۽౳ҡᛇЀȯ ࣏դौ۽౳ȉȄᖒӫཱིᆸᆩȂடᚠൢ Ᏺ Ȅ 2009 ԑ 12 Т 10 Р ᘝ ڥ Ռ

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http://mag.udn.com/mag/campus/ ؃ພऍȞ2001ȟȄᇃᢊσட౳ཾߧԑ൷ཾΨ Ϟ፡ࢥϷݙȄ୽ҳཱིԼৱጒᏰ଱୽ҕఀ ىंـܚᆈρ፣МȂҐюގȂཱིԼѿȄ ֔ኈཾȞ2001ȟȄҡిఀىޟཱིПө—൷ཾ Ψఀىߑ௤ȄఀىၥਟᇄंـȂ39Ȃ 53-58Ȅ ݓ࿅নȞ2006ȟȄᇃᢊӴୢσட౳ཾҡ൷ཾ ᐠ౥ޟϷݙȄ୽ҳݍ๼σᏰ୽ሬငᔼं ـܚᆈρ፣МȂҐюގȂ߆ጸѿȄ ߙљᆫȞ2004ȟȄଽϛҡҡిؚۡ֨ᜲȃҡ ిՌרਝ૖ᇄฐኌ኏᢮௑ᆱϞࣺᜰं ـȄ୽ҳᇃᢊৱጒσᏰఀىЖ౩ᇄሄᏲ ंـܚᆈρ፣МȂҐюގȂᇃѕѿȄ ഌڃ๻Ȟ2006ȟȄҡిೣგ፞แᄇଽΙظҡ ҡిؚۡ֨ᜲȃҡిՌרਝ૖Ѕؚ๊࠮ ᄘϞᄂᡛਝݎȄ୽ҳᇃᢊৱጒσᏰఀى Ж౩ᇄሄᏲᏰفᆈρ፣МȂҐюގȂᇃ ѕѿȄ ଀סਥȞ202ȟȄҡిҐۡσᏰҡҡిี৤ ߢΨӰશϞ௤ଆȄᄔϽৱσሄᏲᏰൢȂ 23Ȃ109-130Ȅ ೅ਏ୤Ȟ2005ȟȄଽৱσώཾऋ׬ఀىᏰف ᏰҡܒտُՓᇄҡిᒵᐅϞࣺᜰंـ ୽ҳଽ໰ৱጒσᏰώཾऋ׬ఀىᏰف ᆈρ፣МȂҐюގȂଽ໰ѿȄ ጽ୽ཏȞ2004ȟȄҡిؚ๊Ӱશኇ៪σᏰҡ ᒵᐅ۽౳ϞϷݙंـȄ୽ҳᄔϽৱጒσ ᏰሄᏲᇄᒚ୦Ᏸفܚᆈρ፣МȂҐю ގȂଽ໰ѿȄ ඇි݂Ȟ2008ȟȄᇃᢊଽ้ఀىᐌӫၥਟ৲Ȉ 95 Ᏸԑ࡙ᔖ۩౳ཾҡࢺө፡ࢥ–σட ҡȪ፡ࢥ୰ڢȫȄఀىंـᇄຟᠦϛЖ Ȫᆓ౩ȃភю൐՝ȫȄ ങీวȞ1998ȟȄσᏰ౩ώऋفᏰҡҡిՌ רਝ૖ȃ๖ݎႱ෈ȃᙛཾᑹ፸ᇄᙛཾᒵ ᐅϞࣺᜰंـȄ୽ҳଽ໰ৱጒσᏰሄᏲ ंـܚᆈρ፣МȂҐюގȂଽ໰ѿȄ ങ᜷ԇȞ2007ȟȄσᏰ౳ཾҡᏰਮᏰಬငᡛ ᄇڏ൷ཾΨϞኇ៪Ȅ୽ҳҺ೽σᏰငᕊ ᆓ౩ंـܚᆈρ፣МȂҐюގȂཱིԼ ѿȄ ೨ీᕬȃ஻ኈᄸȞ1999ȟȄҡిՌרਝ૖Ѕ ڏࣺᜰӰશᄇσᏰҡҡిᒵᐅኇ៪Ϟ ৷ၯϷݙȄߝᄸᏰൢȂ3Ȟ1ȟȂ117-137Ȅ ೨໯൹Ȟ2007ȟ׬ᙛਮ଱ᔖѴفᏰҡώհቋ ঄ᢎȃҡిՌרਝ૖ᇄҡిۡөϞࣺᜰ ंـȄ໴ݓऋ׬σᏰ׬೚Ѕᙛཾఀىं ـܚᆈ፣МȂҐюގȂ໴ݓȄ ෬ऍܑȞ2007ȟȄᇃᢊӴୢσட଱ਮ౳ཾҡ ᜌྱࡻԤᄇߑᙛᇄᖠၥϞኇ៪Ȅգӎσ ᏰޥོᏰفंـܚᆈρ፣МȂҐюގȂ ۣ៌Ȅ ቓж፱Ȟ2007ȟȄএΡᇄᏰਮԤᜰ੫ܒᄇσ Ᏸҡҡిᒵᐅޟኇ៪Ȉо୽ҳ A σᏰ ࣏ٽϞᐠᄺंـȄжཱིσᏰငᔼᏰंـ ܚᆈρ፣МȂҐюގȂᇃѕѿȄ ༁ؾᕬȞ2007ȟȄоᇃᢊଽ้ఀىၥਟ৲௤ ଆσᏰҡҡిؚۡϞᙽᡐȄ୽ҳԙђσ Ᏸఀىंـܚᆈρ፣МȂҐюގȂᇃࠒ ѿȄ ༁શ໴Ȟ2003ȟȄড়৳ᕗცȃΡਿȃՌרਝ ૖ᄇσடᏰҡҡిҐۡϞኇ៪Ȅᒚ୦ሄ ᏲМᆞȈଽৱሄᏲܚѐȂ8Ȃ155-190Ȅ

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ጾᆵৗȞ2006ȟȄᇃᢊσட౳ཾߧԑ൷ཾΨ Ϟ፡ࢥϷݙȄ୽ҳҺ೽σᏰငᕊᆓ౩ं ـܚᆈρ፣МȂҐюގȂཱིԼѿȄ ጾ໷يȞ2008ȟȄߧЍԑӻө࡙Ռרਝ૖໔ ߒጡᇧᇄᡛᜌȄఀىЖ౩ᏰൢȂ39Ȃก ᡛᇄຟ໔டѐȂ105-126Ȅ ᗂ׉ඏȞ1989ȟȄσடҡܒտُՓȃൟӴᐿ ҳܒȃؚ๊࠮ᄘȃҡిՌרਝ૖ᇄҡి ϚጂۡϞࣺᜰंـȄ୽ҳᇃᢊৱጒσᏰ ఀىЖ౩ᇄሄᏲंـܚᆈρ፣МȂҐю ގȂᇃѕѿȄ ᗂڃ࣡Ȟ2006ȟȄҡిϚጂۡᄇσᏰᔖ۩౳ ཾτҡޟҡి௤ષϞኇ៪—о୦Ᏸ଱ Ᏸҡ࣏ٽȄ୽ҳࢇݽσᏰЖ౩Ᏸंـܚ ᆈρ፣МȂҐюގȂᇃѕѿȄ ᗂहೇȞ2003ȟȄኇ៪ᇃᢊࠒഋӴୢτσᏰ ҡҡిϚጂۡཐӰશϞ௤ଆȄᒚ୦ሄᏲ МᆞȂ8Ȃ35-60Ȅ ஻ኋ߀ȞឍȟȞ2001ȟȄΡ᜸ี৤-ڋ็Ж ౩ᏰȞ3 ގȟȄȞনհޱȈDiane E. Papalia , Sally Wendlos Olds & Ruth Duskin FeldmanȟȄᇃѕѿȈ਴ࠅყਪ޶ӋԤ ३ϴѧȄȞন๿юގԑȈ1978ȟ Cunningham, G. B., Bruening, J., Sartore, M.

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