The Issue of the Past in Zen and Modernity

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教學與研究第 18 期 第 245- 264 頁,民國 85 年

The Issue of the Past in Zen and Modernity

Han-ping Chiu*

ABSTRACT

245

Zen Buddhism and modernity share an intense hostility toward the past. In Zen the

meddling factor of the past takes the form of obsession. Hence, the prima可 task of Zen

practitioners is to get rid of obsessions because they may allegedly 臼st a shadow over

bud-dhahood inherent in all living beings, thereby precluding its essence from shining forth.

Modernity also exhibits a strong impatience with the hold of the past because history or tradition represents dogmatic assumptions or biases which may hamper the use of reason.

In both cases, the battle against the past signals the end of universal and objective truth,

which is symbolized by the death of God, and the glorification of man and human

poten-tials, which is closely linked to the enthronement of buddhahood or reason.

This paper compares Zen and modernity to show how their hostility to the p品t

re-veals a fundamental assumption that behind the discontinuous and chaotic surface exists a

rational, efficacious, and unified subject. In that presumed everlasting essence of human

na-ture finds the anchor of reason or budddhahood. But with the so-called death of man, the

powerful subject is replaced by a decentered su吋ect. The efficacy of reason is ve可 much in

doubt. Accompanied by this change is the issue of the past. Since the subject is no longer

conceived as a being entire of itself, the past should not be dismissed as something that

blinds humankind, but rather as something that constitutes it. I use modernity and its

aver-sion to the past as a starting point to illustrate the evasive concept of buddhahood and its efforts to clear up obsession.

Key Words:

Zen, Modernity, Obsession, Subject, Hist。可, Past, Kant, Foucault,

Buddha-hood, Reason

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246 教學與研究 第十八期

It may sound strange,at the first sight,to bring Zen Buddhism and modernity together

in an article. For one is an Oriental religious sect while the other an Occidental form of

criticism of tradition. But, on closer examination, they display some common traits which

merit a thorough study. Both, above all, share an intense hostility toward the past. In Zen

the meddling factor of the past takes the form of obsession. Hence, the prima可 task of

Zen practitioners is to get rid of obsessions because they may allegedly cast a shadow over

the buddhahood inherent in all living beings, thereby keeping them befuddled. Obsessions,

thus, block the attainment of enlightenment or the ent可 of nirvana. Likewise, modernity

exhibits a strong impatience with the hold of the past on the present. We detect in it "a

de-sire to wipe out whatever came earlier, in the hope of reaching at last a point that could be

called a true present, a point of origin that marks a new departure" (de Man 148). To

for-get the past for the sake of capturing the true present represents a refusal to "rely on

as-sumptions and practices taken for granted in the past" (Pippin 10-11). It may be seen as

daring to be different from the past, an impulse of autonomy Kant links to enlightenment.

"Enlightement is man's release from his self-incurred tutelage. Tutelage is man's inability to make use of his understanding without direction from another" (85).

Tutelage hampers the use of understanding or reason just as obsession blocks the

manifestation of buddhahood. In both cases, the past plays the role of a villain,precluding

the attainment of enlightenment. But with the change in Western intellectual landscape,a

rational, efficacious and unified subject is replaced by a fragmented and decentered subject.

The efficacy of reason is ve可 much in doubt. Accompanied by this change is the issue of

the past. Since the subject is no loger conceived of as a being entire of itself, the past

should not be dismissed as something that blinds humankind,but rather as something that

constitutes it. But this does not mean that modernity and its aversion to the dictate of the

past can be simply laid to rest.! Certainly not. The implications of this movement are

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邱 j其平: The Issue of the Past in Zen and Modernity 247

communities. This paper studies the issue of the past in Zen and modernity by comparing their ways of seeking enlightenment in order to shed some light on the hypotheical and

evasive concept of buddhahood. Put in the new light, does buddhahhood become as

ques-tionable as reason or remain as inassailable as ever? The significance of Zen in Chinese way of life and literature gives all the more reason for the study of this issue.

To study Zen's attitude toward the past can start 叫th the multitudes of Zen stories

widely circulated in Chinese societies. An oft-cited Zen anecdote is about a wild goose

fly-ing over a placid lake without leavfly-ing any trace behind. An undistorted reflection is made

possible while the bird is flying over the lake simply because the body of water retains no trace of prior impressions. This tale speaks volumes for the significance of freedom from

the sway of the past. A person not bound by any fixed idea, according to Zen, is one who,

with a mind mirroring things as they are, can effectively respond to eve可 new situation and

see things as they are. But what are things as they are? The story of detecting wood in the statuetts of Buddha provides a glimpse of Zen's idea toward this question. In a freezing

cold winter,so goes the story,a Zen master asks an acolyte to pick up some wood to start

a fire. The novice comes into the shrine in which buddha's wooden statuette is worshipped

but finds no other wood. He returns to his master empty-handed. The master,disappointed

at the result, leads him back into the shrine and points to the Buddha statuette,

reprimand-ing the junior monk for failreprimand-ing to see wood in the statuette. To monks,a Buddha statuette

represents something supremely holy. The idea of something holy constitutes a kind of

ob-session,thereby blinding him to other aspects of the statuette.

These two stories have a lot to tell about the issue of the past. The wooden statuette

of Buddha,if seen as an undistorted reflection on the lake, may present itself as an object

with innumerable aspects. The holy idol in the eyes of Buddhists may appe訂 to art

collec-tors as a precious antique while an innocent child, if given it, may view it as a fascinating

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248 教學與研究 第十入期

they are does not mean to see them in all their possible aspects, but rather to d臼αy 臼r­

tain aspects as befitting the context. When put within the context of looking for wood, the

enlightened Zen master spots it even in a holy object like a Buddha statuette. But the

acolyte,bound by the idea of holiness,cannot detect wood in the wooden object placed just

in front of him. Therefore, enlightenment depends on the capacity to steer clear of

obses-sions 肘, to be more precise, to subvert the authority of the past.

This idea is suggested repeatedly in Buddhist sutras. In the Diamond Sutra, Buddha so

instructs his disciples: "One shouldn't stick to anything so that wisdom can grow

unhindered" (18).2The Platform Sutra of the Sixth Patriarch, a sutra which marks the peak

of Chinese Zen, records how Master Huinen, Zen's sixth patriarch in China, is spell-bound

at hearing the chanting of this passage as an uninitiated woodcutter. It wouldn't be an ex-aggeration to say that this idea is the centerpiece of these two sutras.The Diamond Sutra explicitly imparts the message of "Don't get stuck" but The Platform Sutra of the Sixth

Pa-型型企 is devoted to its illustration. In The Diamond Sutra, the quoted passage expresses

the idea that one shouldn't even stick to the supreme laws of Buddhism. A more radical

idea contained in this sutra declares,"What are called Buddhist tenets are those that at the

same time deny Buddhist tenets" (14). It is an unmistakable way of saying that even

Bud-dha's words can serve only as a temporary guidance. Here we see a rise against the

authori-ty of itself and of its past, a rebellion in the form of a constant subversion. As a further

elaboration of this idea, I would like to quote one of Buddha's instructions to his disciples.

"As you know, I draw an analogy between laws and ferryboats. Laws should not be adhered

的, let alone non-laws" (12). A ferryboat is designedωride passengers across a body of

wa-ter. Once it reaches the other side, passengers should disembark from it to move forward

on. Likewise, the law applicable to one context should be abandoned in a di旺'erent cirωm­

stance. One should not stick to laws in keeping with Buddhist tenets, not to mention those

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邱;其平: The Issue of the Past in Zen and Modernity 249

against obsession.

The image of ferryboat lends itself admirably to the inte中retation of obsession as

fail-ure to get off the hold of the past. Each ride of a ferryboat should end with the arrival at a destination. A refusal to leave the boat behind can spell blockage of a forward movement.

Put in this light, a law's application expires with a change in context. The passage ·of time,

strictly speaking,brings with it an ever-changing circumstance which should be dealt with in

an ever-new way. In his "On the Uses and Disadvantages of History for Life," Friedrich

Ni-etzsche expresses a similar idea, "the dice-game of chance and the future could never again

produ臼 anything exactly similar to what it produ臼d in the past" (70). When put to the 位­

treme,the dice-game chance develops into what is currently called the against theory trend.

As theory is evolving from a fixed perspective imposed on selective phenomena of the past,

its application to an ev甘﹒changingsituation should be questioned and even opposed.

Ob-session is in a way like theory. It can be knowledge or ideas derived from one's past experi-ence. To allow obsession to linger on is to provide the past a chance to intervene in the

perception of the pr的:ent.

One of the ∞nsequen臼s of obsession is the loss of instincts to ∞pe adequately with

new situations. In The Platform Sutra, Master Hungren bids each of his disciples to submit

a poem about the ultimate nature of the Mind. 百Ie one who is enlightened will be ac∞吋­

ed the title of the Sixth Patriarch. Before the disciples retire to write their poems,Hungren

pointedly tells them: "Thinking won't work. The one who attains enlightenment sho啊 it

outright" (4). In Zen, instincts are clearly valued above reasoning. And instincts are fading

away as obsession gains ground. History is to Nietzsche what obsession is to Zen. In

re-counting the adverse effect of an excess of history, Nietzsche sees modern man as draging

around with him "a huge quantity of indigestible stones of knowledge" (78). With his head

crammed with a tremendous number of ideas derived from a highly indirect knowledgβof

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250 教學與研究 第十八期

watches him from outside, one sees how the expulsion of the instincts by history has

trans-formed man almost into mere abstracts and shadows" (84). Nietzsche's observation provides an apt illustration of how obsession can deprive humankind of instincts and direct contact with life.

The ravaging effect of obsession is illustrated in various Zen stories. Monk Chuchi of

Tang Dynasty (A. D. 618-907), for example, attains epiphany when seeing Master Tieman

raise one finger in his presence. Thereafter,whenever sought for advice, Chuchi raises one

finger for answering. A boy follows his example to show that he is also enlightened. After

getting the 前nd of this, Monk Chuchi hides a sharp knife for use in one of his sleevl的 be­

fore summoning the boy to his presence. Challenging the boy for the idea of buddhahood,

the Master cuts off his finger as soon as he raises it as an act of answer. The boy storms out of the room screaming. Chuchi calls him back to his side again and asks him the same

question. As the boy habitually raises the finger, he finds it no longer there. At that

mo-ment,the boy is enlightened. In this story,obsession shields the boy first from getting direct

knowledge of the signal and then from responding adequately to every new situation. He was the slave of a past perception until brought to see it at the moment of enlightenment.

The stroy of boxing a crown prince's ear reveals the damaging effect of obsession from

another aspect. Master Huangpo, also of Tang Dynasty, salutes the statuette of Buddha

while visiting a temple where the then crown prince serves as an acolyte, a practice quite

common then. The prince blames him for worshipping the idol of Buddha beacuse a monk

in prusuit of truth should not be obsessed 前th budd恤, enlightened monks, or their

teach-ings. Huangpo rejects this accusation, asserting that he is doing that just in accordance with

the common practice. The prin臼 pursues, "Then why do you worship the idol of Buddha?"

In response to this, Huangpo boxes his ear. The prince of Tang cries out, "How insolent

you are!" Master Huangpo replies, "Where on earth do you think you are that you talk

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邱 j莫平: The Issue of the Past in Zen and Modernity 251

The acolyte/prince questions the appropriateness of Master Huangpo worshipping the idol

of Buddha beωuse he cannot get rid of the obsession that obsession is no good. There

cer-tainly are bad consequen臼s of obsession. But insistence On dispelling it can pose another

obsession. In addition, the junior monk allows himself, consciously or unconsciously, to be

swayed by his worldly status as a crown prince. That is why he, as an acolyte, presumes to

challenge a master monk. When Huangpo gives him a boxing, the novice is once again

。可erwhelmed by his worldly perception that a prin臼 should be politely treated and,

there-fore,complains about his insolence. This story 時confirms the idea that to allow the past to

linger On is to be blocked from direct contact with life,thereby gradually losing the instincts

to confront new situations squarely.

While these two stories3 and others testi布 to the blinding effect of the past,they also

demonstrate ways to stay clear of obsessions and to attain enlightenment. Db個ssion can

keep one befuddled. In the terms of Buddhism,a person bound by obsession is kept in the

state of "woo-ming," or being unilluminated, which is the sour臼 of all evils. Buddhism is

meant to overcome all the evils deriv它d from "woo-ming." Through the ways prescribed or

implied by Zen Buddhism, an individual is supposedly able to achieve self-knowledge and

develop potentials to the full. Similar views are seen in modernity. Pre-modern thought is

considered to be "dogmatic,insufficiently self-conscious,unable to explain or account for its

own possibility" (Pippin 11). Modernity claimsωpo啞巴ss the tool to clear up all the

mysti-fying factors embodied by history.

If treated as an all-embracing, lumped-together ∞n臼阱, moderni句 reveals itself in

var-ious ways of rising against history. In George Eliot'sMiddlemarch(1871-72), for instance,

Dorothea Brooke resolves to marry Edward Casaubon, a historian 25 years her senior,but

her illusions are shattered during their honeymoon in Rome when she finds him unable to

bring his intellectual labors to ∞mpletion in the present. In the end, she gives up her

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his-~52 教學與研究 第十入期

t。可. This is not an isolated case. "In the decade before the First World War this hostility

towards the historical consciousness and the historian gained wide cuηency among

intellec-tuals in every country of Western Europe" (White 35). The shared sentiment in the literary landscape then is voiced by James Joyce's Stephen Dedalus: history is the nightmare from

which Western man must awaken if humanity is to be served and saved.4Here humanity is

a key word to notice. The damaging effect of history is also a major issue in the filed of

philosophy. In "On the Uses and Disadvantages of History for Life," Nietzsche cautions,"it

is possible to value the study of history to such a degree that life be∞mes stunted and

de-generate" (59). For illustration, he gives as an example the cattle which is happy because it

is fettered to the moment and forgets the past. Nietzsche denounces history mainly because

he cherishes the plastic power of life. Form the view of artistic recreation, too much ∞L

cern for the past may hamper attempts to capture the presentness of the moment. 官:y

im-mersing himself too deeply in it (antiquity),he will no longer have the present in his mind's

eye," in the words of Baudelaire,"he throws away the value and the privileges afforded by

circumstance; for nearly all our originality comes from the stamp that time impresses upon our sensibility" (405). It is about history being an impediment to artistic creation.

To give these anti-history impulses a serious treatment, there is the need to explore

the source and ramifications of modernity. Modernity has its sour臼 in the Enlightenment

(Aufklarung) and is used interchangeably with it. In his epochal article, "What is

Enlighten-ment?" Kant condenses the spirit of the Enlightenment into the motto: "Sapereaude! 吋It·

is followed immediately by this interpretation: "Have courage to use your own reason!" (85). This is somewhat different from its original meaning: "Dare to know!" Both share the

courage to be different from tradition and authority, but the former specifies the use of

one's own reason, instead of reliance on others, while the latter is vague about it. This

seemingly minor difference is actually a key point. It locates the sour臼 one can turn to

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254 教學與研究 第十入期

tion allied to natural science under the aegis of the Enlightenment. Formulated in the 18th

∞ntu可 by the philosophers of the Enlightenment, the project of modernity consists in their

efforts to develop objective sci閃閃, universal morality and law, and autonomous art,

ac-cording to their inner logic. The original perspective of the Enlightenment thinkers is "That

the art and the scien臼 would promote not only the control of natural forces, but would

al-so further the understanding of the world and the self,would promote moral progress,the

justice of institution, and even the happiness of human beings" (Haberm 蹈, "Modernity

ver-sus Postmodernity" 的. The air of optimism as revealed in modernity's pictu時 of the new

world displays an attempt at control and maste句, instead of "the pea∞ful ∞ntemplation of

the order of the cosmos and the pIa臼 of human being within such a cosmos" (Pippin 5),as

seen in antiquity. It marks a new deification of man and human power.

Similar glorification of human po明白 is manifested in the celebration of aesthetic

ex-perience in literary modernity. In Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man, for

ex-ample, Stephen Dedalus is seized bγan artistic e臼tasy in which he dreamily se臼 a

crane-like girl standing before him in midstream, alone and still. "Her image had passed into his

soul for ever and no word had broken the holy silence of his e臼tasy. Her eyes had called

him and hissoul had leaped at the call" (171-72). It firms up the young artist's resolve "[t]o

live, to err, to fall, to triumph, to recreate life out of life!" (172). Conceived of as a

sepa-rate sphere from that of tradition, art evokes the image of a crane,free from the bondage

of such things as home,church,or fatherland. Taking these worldly obligations as a barrier

to artistic recreation, Stephen is determined to make a clear break with his nativeIreland,

which he calls "the old sow that eats her farrow" (203). He chose exile and a lonely life so that he could express himself in some mode of life or art as freely and as wholly as he

could. In this modernist classic,we see attempts to avoid interferences from the past, and

we see the celebration of aesthetic experience,too.

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258 教學與研究 第十入期

aesthetic experience, each is indebted to an efficacious subject. To ensure that each of them

can be at its best,obsession,or history,or tradition is regarded as something which must be

dispelled. That is why Zen and modernity exhibit a strong hostility toward the past. But,

with the dissolution of a unified and rational subject,or the death of man,9 the situation is

changed. Reason and aesthetic experience are discredited now as a potent entity. Possibly

for religious reasons, however, buddhahood still remains unquestioned. What will become

of this concept or entity? will the issue of the past remain much the same as it ever was?

To answer these questions, I will first turn to Michel Foucault's "What is

Enlighten-ment?" an essay written in response to an identically titled one by Immanuel Kant about

two centuries earlier. In it Foucault re∞gn泣es the significance of the issue of

Enlighten-ment since it was frrst raised in the eighteenth ∞ntury. It is an issue that has been

defend-ed or questiondefend-ed by a glittering array of scholars. 中rom Hegel through Nietzsche or M缸

Weber to Horkeimer or Haberm品, hardly any philosopher has failed to confront this same

question, directly or indirectly" (32). He also cautions not to mix the theme of humanism

with the question of the Enlightenment. Together they serve as a basis of our discussion.

Reason, which is the central issue of the Enlightenment, clearly does not vanish with the

death of man. Pure reason and subject-centered reason have irreparably lost their effica可­

Reason as the distinctions between truth and falsity, right and wrong, however,still exists,

at least so it seems to Frankfurt School scholars. Since reason is, as Foucault argues

else-where,a "可thi旭ng of this worldι"1叩o i扯t should be rethought "in line with our essential

finitude--t由ha剖t is, with the historical, social, embodied, practical, desirous, assertive nature of the

knowing and acting subject" (McCarthy x). As a m吋or constitutive factor of resaon and

sub-ject, history should not be treated, as Stephen Dedalus declares, as the nightmare from

which Western man must awaken if humanity is to be served and saved. Hence,modernity's

intense hostility toward the past should be reconsidered.

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邱 j莫平: The Issue of the Past in Zen and Modernity 259

modernity to explore the possibi1i可 of forgetting the past. In Budelaire's writings, "the

hu-man figures that epitomize modernity are defined by experien 臼s such as childhood or ∞L

valescence,a freshness of perception that results from a slate wiped clear,from the absence

of a past that has not yet had time to tarnish the immedia句 of perception" (de Man 157).

According to de Man, all these experiences of immedia句 strive to combine a present

sev-ered from the weight of the past with a sense of totality that could not be achieved unless

with a more extended awareness of time. In other words, an experien臼 of the present

mo-ment cannot be treated by a mind deprived of the sense of the past. Inevitably the past will

intervene in the delineation of the present.

Foucault proposes that modernity be envisaged as an attitude,rather than as a period

of history. By "attitude," he means 市 mode of relating to contemporary reality; a voluntary

choice made by certain people; in the end, a way of thinking and feeling" (39). Based on

the new perspective, Foucault depicts modernity not in terms of consciousness of the

dis-continuity of time, nor a break with tradition,but rather a certain attitude it adopts. "For

the attitude of modernity, the high value of the present if indissociable from a desperate

eagerness to imagine it …otherwise than it is, and to transform it not by destroying it but

by grasping it in what it is" (41). In this reformulation, modernity becomes an

archaeologi-cal and genealogiarchaeologi-cal critique:

Archaeological--and not transcendental--in the sense that it will not seek

to identi句 the universal structures of all knowledge or of all possible

moral action, but will seek to treat the instances of discourse that 盯tiω­

late what we think, s呵, and do as so may historical events. And thisα1­

tique will be genealogical in the sense that it will not deduce from the form of what we are what it is impossible for us to do and to know; but

it will separate out,from the contingency that has made us what we are,

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260 教學與研究 第十八期

think" (46).

Foucault's version of modernity denies the existence of an efficacious and unified subject

who can be exempt from the system of ∞ntemporary reality and produ臼 the overall

pro-grams of another society. The interpenetration of the past and the present is something that has to be accepted.

Back to our attempt to answer the two questions about Zen, the above discussion can

serve as a basis to reflect on the entity of buddhahood and the issue of the past. What will

become of buddhahood? Will it vanish with the death of man? The concept of buddhahood

certainly can and should exist, but not again as a transcendental entity. Like the

subject-centered reason that has irretrievably lost its effica句, buddhahood should no longer be

treated as what Master Huinen claims for it as "the source of all the principles and laws" (

Platform Sutra, 13). For this claim pIa臼s buddhahood as an entity outside of material ∞n­

tingency. Like reason that has been rethought as a "thing of this world," buddhahood

should find its grounding in "the historical, social, embodied, practical, desirous, assertive

natu自 of the knowing and acting subj削" (McCarthy x), instead of 阻isting 品 an everl副­

ing essence dusted over and thus imprisoned,by anterior elements.

Such a reformulation no longer sees the p品t as something that has to be dispelled

be-fore buddhahood can shine forth as unencumbered instincts. The new picture dose not

evisage instincts as foreign to a socializaion pro臼ss dominated by the forces of history.

In-stead,the past is considered a constitutiv它 part of instincts, making them exercise the way

they do. So instincts are not to be as inherent or transcendental. In above discussions,We

already see how Buddhism induces instinctual responses from a set of ascetic rules. This practice reconfirms the idea that instincts are never beyond the influence of historical forces and a series of other factors. Such a view stops seeing the past as an evil spirit that

has to be exorcized. All of these changes stem from the perception that buddhahood is not

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262 教學與研究 第十入期

consciousness by suggesting the essential contemporaneity of all significant human 位pe­

rience. Virginia Woolf,Proust,Robert Musil, Italo Svevo,Gottfried Benn, Ernst Jiinger,

Val至可, Yeats,Kafka, and D. H. Lawrence. . . " (31).

5. Kant quotes this phrase from Roman lyric poet and satirist Horace's Ars Poetica.In a

footnote, Kant explains that it means "Dare to Know!" It was the motto adopted in 1736

by the Society of the Friends of Truth, an important circle in the German Enlightenment.

在 Walter Benjamin raises the idea of the writer as aflaneur in Charles Baudelaire: A Lyric

Poet in the Era of High Capitalism. He attributes this phenomenon ultimately to the

popular use of trams, trains, and buses. These mass transportation means put people for

the first time in a situation where they sit opposite strangers face to fa臼 for a

consider-able period of time without talking to each other. To look at each other without talking

stirs up suspicions of each other. To ward off possible dangers,there is the need to know

more about eve可 walkof life. To satisfy this need,daily newspapers introduce the

feuil-letion for sketches of manners and for the portrayal of bourgeois life. Writers 缸e

as-signed to idle along like a flaneur on the str它et, ready to capture aspects of the life.

7. To give a sense of how it feels to be among the crowd,I would quote a passage from an

article by Robert H. Byer:

The mid-nineteenth-century city and its crowd seemed to countless observers

the incarnation of unprecedented incoherence and disorder, "A landscape

whose human, social and natural parts" appeared "related simply by accidents,

a random agglomeration." Having自cently returned from a trip to New York in

1842,Emerson noted in his journal that "In New York City lately, as in cities

generally, one seems to lose all substance, and become surface in a world of

surfaces. Everything is external, and I remember my hat and ∞at, and all my

other surfaces,and nothing else." (221-22).

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266 教學與研究 第十八期

與過去為敵:談禪與現代性的時間觀

丘13;莫平 提要 禪與現代性都排斥過去。禪視執著早已前一念,對當下的干擾,人心因而無法如明鏡般反映現 況。現代性也對過去充滿敵意,因為歷史或傳統代表著武斷、偏見,會妨礙人使用理性。這兩者 對過去的排拒,象 f拉客觀真理的結束,套用流行術語,就是土帝之死,另一方面,是對人及其潛 能的頌揚,亦即對佛性及理性的摳歌。 本論文比較與現代性對歷史的拒斥,以彰顯兩者的一項基本觀念,在混亂的表象下存在著永 恆人性。佛性與理性的存在,都以永恆人性為基礎。但隨著人之死觀念的散佈,人性永恆之說已 不攻自破,理性的威力遭殺嚴重質疑。在這種情況下,時間觀需要重新檢討,歷史與傳統不應再 被視為遮蔽人性的事物。 關鍵詞:禪,現代性,絮,主體,歷史,過去,佛,性,理,性,康德,傅科

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