轉換型領導對員工工作績效之影響:以員工正向心情為中介變數

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行政院國家科學委員會專題研究計畫 成果報告

轉換型領導對員工工作績效之影響:以員工正向心情為中介

變數

計畫類別: 個別型計畫 計畫編號: NSC94-2416-H-004-048-SSS 執行期間: 94 年 08 月 01 日至 95 年 07 月 31 日 執行單位: 國立政治大學企業管理學系 計畫主持人: 蔡維奇 計畫參與人員: 陳鉉文研究生;江欣瑩專任助理 報告類型: 精簡報告 處理方式: 本計畫可公開查詢

中 華 民 國 95 年 10 月 31 日

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一、摘要 過去已有許多相關研究,證實轉換型 領導與員工工作績效及幫助同事行為之間 的正向關係。然而,在過去的研究中卻很 少探討轉換型領導與員工工作績效及幫助 同事行為之間的中介機制,也缺乏相關的 實證研究加以支持。有別於過去研究引入 主管情緒作為轉換型領導與工作績效之間 的中介變數,本研究擬於真實組織情境 中,探討員工正向心情(positive moods)的中 介效果。問卷資料包括了十家保險公司 282 位業務人員及其直屬主管參與問卷的填 寫。研究者在第一個工作週結束後,請保 險業務員回憶過去一週直屬主管的轉換型 領導與員工自己的正向心情,並填答相關 問卷。而在三週後,再請其直屬主管填答 該保險業務員過去一個月的工作績效與幫 助同事行為。本研究的結果不僅對轉換型 領導與員工正向心情的理論發展有所貢 獻,在實務上也將有助於主管瞭解轉換型 領導如何透過影響員工正向心情,進而提 高員工工作績效與幫助同事行為。 關鍵詞:轉換型領導、員工正向心情、工 作績效、幫助同事行為 Abstract

Past leadership research has demonstrated that transformational leadership has a positive influence on employee task performance and helping coworker behavior. However, among the research on the mediating mechanisms linking transformational leadership and employee work outcomes, few has been done empirically to examine the variable of employee positive moods. This study extends previous research by examining the mediating role played by employee positive moods. Data were collected longitudinally

from 282 employees and their immediate supervisors in ten insurance companies in Taiwan. Results showed that transformational leadership both directly influenced employee task performance and helping coworker behavior and indirectly through employee positive moods.

Keywords: Transformational leadership; Employee positive moods; task performance; Helping coworker behavior.

二、緣由與研究目的

Some past research proposed several mediators (e.g. leader-member exchange, core job characteristics, intrinsic motivation, goal commitment, etc.) to explain the mediating process between transformational leadership and employee outcomes (Wang, Law, Hackett, Wang, and Chen, 2005; Piccolo & Colquitt, 2006). However, the leader-member exchange theory of leadership may not fully explain how to build quality relationships; furthermore, the social function of moods may play a potential role in building strong relationships between leaders and members (Sy, Cote, & Saavedra, 2005). Since 1980, the importance of employees’ moods toward the leadership process has emerged. As reviewed by Isen and Baron (1991) and George and Brief (1992), employees experiencing positive moods have been found to be more helpful, more creative, and more persistent in certain tasks. Actually, the leader and the employee will express and be influenced by each other’s moods, and the interaction between them will affect employees’ behaviors in the workplace (Kelly & Barsade, 2001). However, leadership theory and research

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seldom examine how leaders influence their employees’ moods (George & Brief, 1996).

Some of the past research had indicated that transformational leadership might be an important antecedent that influences their employee’s moods. However, little field research has actually been done. An empirical study of McColl-Kennedy and Anderson (2002), consisted of 121 sales representatives of a pharmaceutical company in Australia, They found that the leader’s moods was a mediator between transformational leadership and employee performance. However, as opposed to the leaders’ moods, employees’ moods may is centrally to understand how workers apply their efforts, the magnitudes of those efforts, and how long they persist (George & Brief, 1996). As Brief and Weiss (2002: 292) argued, “Empirical research on how leaders may affect the feeling of their followers is embryonic; however, it exhibits tremendous promise on theoretical grounds.” George (2000: 1047) took a symbolic interactionist perspective and argued that “It would be interesting to explore how interactions between leaders and followers result in the creation and management of emotions in a work setting.” Thus, the present research is intended to examine employee positive moods as a mediating variable between transformational leadership and employee work outcomes.

The purposes of this study is to extend past research of transformational leadership and mood at work theory, and develop a mediating model to illustrate how and why transformational leadership influences employee positive moods, task performance,

and helping coworker behavior. Specifically, in contrast to using leaders’ moods as a mediator in McColl-Kennedy and Anderson (2002), we treated employee positive moods as a mediator of the relationship between transformational leadership and task performance and helping coworker behavior based on suggestions by past research (Brief & Weiss, 2002; George, 2000; Yukl, 1999; Bass, 1999).

三、研究方法

To test our model, the data collection was obtained from 282 sales agents with at least six months job tenure and their immediate supervisors from ten insurance companies in Taiwan. Among sales agents, 97 of them (34.4%) were men. The leaders' (N=156) mean age was 41.03 years (SD = 7.13), and 65 of them (41.7%) were men. Thus, on average, each leader rated the task performance and helping coworker behavior of 1.81 sales clerks.

To enhance the clarity of the casual relationship among the variables of the present study and to reduce the common method variance caused by data collection. Thus, the data were collected from independent sources at two different time points. Larsen (2000) and Watson (2000) argued that people’s mood states might last for a few days or weeks. George (1991) proposed that the data would be properly to record the characteristics of employee positive moods status to reveal the positive moods of sales clerks to predict their task performance at the end of month. Furthermore, Wright and Staw (1999) argued that only if the time period is partially

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overlapping, the change of performance could be said caused by the change of the moods. Hence, it is proper to evaluate the positive moods and performance with one week overlapping and a three weeks interval in the present research. Thus, we referred the time frame from George (1991) and Madjar, Oldham, and Pratt (2002) by asking sales to rate how they felt during the past week. The data collecting time interval was set at three weeks to understand whether positive moods can be a state to foster ongoing effect on employees’ task performance. That is, the transformational leadership and positive affect data were collected from insurance sales agents during the first week. After three weeks, the task performance and helping coworker behavior data was collected from the sales clerks’ immediate supervisor.

Of the 512 sales clerks contacted, 282 accepted to participate in this survey, yielding a response rate of 55.1%. By participating, they would receive a gift worth approximately US$1.00. However, they did not actually see what the gift was until they completed the survey. This was to minimize the possibility that gift might have influence on employee positive moods.

四、結果與討論

Research in leadership theory has emerged focusing on how the transformational leadership enables the leaders to increase the employee task performance and helping coworker behavior. However, little research has examined the mediating mechanism through employee positive moods. In the present research, we extend McColl-Kennedy and Anderson

(2002), George (2000), and Brief and Weiss (2002) research by drawing the mood theory to enhance our understanding of how transformational leadership influence employee task performance and helping coworker behavior. Consistent with the hypothesis, the results of this study showed that transformational leadership could increase employee task performance and helping coworker behavior indirectly through employee positive moods.

The results suggested that transformational leadership could influence employee task performance and helping coworker behavior by arousing their employee positive moods. It has been well accepted in past research that employees in positive moods typically engage in high task performance and more helping coworker behavior. Our results extend mood theory by suggesting that transformational leadership may influence their employee task performance and helping coworker behavior indirectly through employees’ positive moods. Combining past research on positive moods with the present findings, it suggests that employees’ positive moods is one of the important variables in leadership that should not be ignored. 五、計畫結果自評 本研究成果的學術或應用價值,可 包括下列幾方面:(1)延伸過去轉換型領 導與正向心情的相關研究,並且發展一 個理論模型以說明轉換型領導究竟如 何 影 響 員 工 工 作 績 效 與 幫 助 同 事 行 為;(2)本研究也納入員工幫助同事行 為,以同時探討轉換型領導、員工正向

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心情、工作績效、幫助同事行為之間的 因果關係。本研究所得之結果,將有助 實務界更重視轉換型領導對員工工作 績效與員工幫助同事行為的影響,及員 工正向心情在組織管理中所扮演的角 色。整體來說,本研究結果極適合在學 術期刊上發表。 六、參考文獻

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