碩 士 論 文
Effect of Extreme Ultra-Violet Radiation on
Advanced Non-volatile Memories
研 究 生：顏志展
Effect of Extreme Ultra-Violet Radiation on
Advanced Non-volatile Memories
研究生:顏志展 Student: Chih-Chan Yen
指導教授:崔秉鉞 Advisor: Bing-Yue Tsui
Submitted to Department of Electronics Engineering & Institute of Electronics College of Electrical and Computer Engineering
National Chiao Tung University in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement
for the Degree of Master in
Electronic Engineering 2010
Hsinchu, Taiwan, Republic of China
研究生: 顏志展 指導教授: 崔秉鉞
國立交通大學 電子工程學系 電子研究所
摘要在本論文中，我們研究極紫外光對非揮發性記憶體照射產生的傷害進行研究， 主要分為在薄膜電晶體(TFT)基板上的矽/氧/氮/氧/矽(SONOS)記憶體與多閘極 氮化鈦奈米晶粒（TiN NC）記憶體兩類。 這兩類記憶體元件的臨界電壓值皆隨著照射時間增長而逐漸地減少，顯示在 極紫外光照射時，閘極介電層中有少量的正電荷產生。 在 TFT-SONOS 記憶體中，寫入狀態的臨界電壓值在記憶窗口特性中稍微的 上升，表示有一些新的補陷產生。經過長時間的室溫存放，寫入及抹除狀態的臨 界電壓可回復至照射前的值，顯示輻射產生的補陷可以隨著時間自我修復。我們 擷取補陷密度的能量分佈，其結果可支持補陷密度增加又回復的解釋。照射後寫 入速度提昇但抹除速度減緩，不過這些現象同樣地經過長時間存放後可以回復。 在高抹除電壓時可觀察到抹除飽和現象，推測是由於照射傷害到阻擋層所造成。 受照射元件在儲存資料持久性的表現上沒有明顯的劣化。耐久度的測試則嚴重劣 化，特別在抹除狀態的部份，顯示劣化的阻擋層造成強烈的背向電子注入發生。 這個劣化現象在經過攝氏六百度退火後仍無法回復。
在多閘極氮化鈦奈米晶粒記憶體中，幾乎所有記憶體特性皆未被極紫外光輻 射影響，顯示奈米晶粒記憶體相對於 SONOS 記憶體擁有較好的輻射抵抗能力， 這主要是因為兩者儲存電荷機制的差異。此研究顯示極紫外光微影技術對於先進 奈米晶粒記憶體的進一步微縮是一個可能的解決方法並且不會有可靠性的問題 發生。SONOS 記憶體則需要進一步的研究，以改善對 EUV 輻射損傷的抵抗能 力。
Effect of Extreme Ultra-Violet Radiation on
Advanced Non-volatile Memories
Student: Chih-Chan Yen Advisor: Bing-Yue Tsui
Department of Electronics Engineering
Institute of Electronics
National Chiao Tung University
In this thesis, the effects of extreme ultra-violate (EUV) irradiation on the characteristics of the thin film transistor (TFT) Silicon-Oxide-Nitride-Oxide-Silicon (SONOS) non-volatile memory (NVM) and multi-gate TiN nano-crystal (NC) NVM are investigated.
Both memory devices exhibit a gradually reduction of threshold voltage (Vt)
with irradiation time, which indicates that a small amount of the net positive charges are generated in the stacked dielectric during EUV irradiaiton.
On the TFT-SONOS memory, The Vt values in the program state increase
slightly after EUV irradiation, which implies that a few new traps are generated. After long-term storage at room temperature, the Vt values in both program and erase states
recover to the pre-irradiation values, which indicates the EUV irradiation generated traps can be self-annealed with time. The extracted energy distribution of trap density in the Si3N4 charge trapping layer confirms the above explanation. Erase saturation is observed at high erase voltage operation because the blocking layer is damaged by EUV irradiation. The program speed increases but the erase speed decreases. However,
these phenomena can also be recovered after long-term storage. The charge retention characteristic does not degrade significantly. The endurance degrades severely, especially in the erase state, which implies the strong electron backside injection occurs due to the degradation of blocking layer. This degradation cannot be recovered after 600C annealing.
On the multi-gate TiN NC memory, almost all the memory characteristics are not affected by the EUV irradiation. It exhibits the NC memory has much better EUV radiation immunity than the SONOS memory due to the difference in the charge trapping mechanisms. This work suggests that the EUV lithography could be a potential solution for advanced NC memories to further scaling-down without reliability issue. Further study on the SONOS memory is required in order to improve the EUV radiation damage immunity.
誌謝光陰似箭，豐富的兩年碩士研究生涯即將邁入尾聲。此篇論文能順利的完成， 承蒙許多人的幫助及鼓勵，使我有信心去克服各種困難，自己也成長很多。謹以 此文來表達我無限的感謝。 首先，感謝我的指導教授 崔秉鉞老師。在培養學生研究的能力上盡心盡力， 從實驗的規劃到進行，甚至碰到瓶頸都耐心的指導我並詳加討論，讓我從一個原 本對做研究懵懂無知的人蛻變成能獨立的構思實驗。更重要的是老師剛正嚴謹的 研究態度，對於任何事情要追根究底，不能得過且過，這對於我日後的思考有莫 大的幫助，受用一生。 其次感謝國家同步輻射中心及交通大學奈米中心和國家奈米實驗室提供優 良的實驗環境及設備，以及幫助過我的工程師與技術員們，使我實驗能順利完成。 感謝賴瑞堯和盧季霈學長提供先進的元件讓我進行實驗的研究。也要感謝一起同 甘共苦的李勃學同學，從實驗儀器的建造到實驗順利進行一起奮鬥努力，渡過艱 苦但富有收穫的歲月。 感謝實驗室的盧季霈、李振銘、賴瑞堯學長在實驗上的幫助，不管是機台的 訓練、實驗問題的協助或是珍貴的實驗經驗與知識都熱心與我分享。感謝實驗室 同屆李勃學、羅子歆同學在修課及機台訓練上互相的協助，也感謝王培宇、鄭嶸 健、陳璽允、張克勤學弟及蘇婷婷學妹的陪伴，增添了實驗室的歡笑。 最後，我要感謝長久以來一直支持我的家人。謝謝父親 顏榮華先生與母親 黃麗玉女士多年的栽培及照顧，讓我可以後顧無憂的專心投入在學業上。謝謝我 的姊姊及哥哥，從小就十分的照顧我，在我人生的不同階段都給予我寶貴的經驗， 使我順順利利的成長。 再次由衷的感謝以上諸位的幫忙，此論文才得以完成。在此將這篇論文獻給 對我付出的你們。
Abstract (English) ……….III
Chapter 1 Introduction……….1
1-1 Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography Technology………….………….….1
1-2 Engineering for TFT memory device……….…4
1-3 Evolution of Non-volatile Memory……….8
1-5 Thesis Organization………...12
Chapter 2 Experimental procedure………...17
2-1 Instrument Setup and Environment……….17
2-2 Device Fabrication……….18
2-2-1 TFT- SONOS Non-volatile Memory………..18
2-2-2 Multi-gate TiN Nano-crystal Non-volatile Memory…………...20
2-3 Electrical Characterization Techniques………...21
2-4 Total Dose Calculation………...24
Chapter 3 Extreme Ultra-violet Radiation on Non-volatile Memory
3-2 TFT-SONOS Non-volatile Memory………..37
3-2-1 Basic Electrical Characteristic………37
3-2-2 Memory Window………38
3-2-3 P/E Speed………41
3-2-4 Retention Performance………...43
3-2-5 Endurance Performance………..44
3-3 TiN NC Non-volatile Memory………...48
3-3-1 Basic Electrical Characteristic………48
3-3-2 Memory Window………49
3-3-3 P/E Speed………49
3-3-4 Retention Performance………...50
3-3-5 Endurance Performance………..50
Chapter 4 Conclusions and Future Works………80
4-2 Future works………...82
Table 2-1: Total dose with various EUV irradiation times at BL08A and BL21B beam line………..28
Fig. 1-1: Pictures of the ASML Alpha Demo Tool at two research centers. (a) IMEC in
Leuven, Belgium. (b) CNSE in NewYork, US………14
Fig. 1-2: Schematic cross-sectional configurations of the ASML Alpha Demo Tool………..14
Fig. 1-3: Schematic energy band diagram of ionizing radiation induced electron/hole pairs in the MOS device with a positive gate bias………...15
Fig. 1-4: The basic concept of floating gate non-volatile memory………...15
Fig. 1-5: The basic concept of SONOS non-volatile memory………16
Fig. 1-6: The basic concept of nano-crystal non-volatile memory……….16
Chapter 2Fig. 2-1: The main chamber for irradiation experiment at NSRRC………29
Fig. 2-2: (a) A memory IC chips on the loaded plate which is ready for irradiation……….30
Fig. 2-2: (b) The shape of the light source of the BL08A beam line………...30
Fig. 2-3: Process flow and cross-sections of the TFT- SONOS non-volatile memory. (a) TFT structure, (b) after dielectric stack deposition and gate patterning, (c) after spacer formation, (d) after S/D ion implantation, S/D activation, and gate hard mask removal, (e) after silicide formation………33 Fig. 2-4: Process flow and cross-sections of the multi-gate TiN nano-crystal
non-volatile memory. (a) SOI material, (b) after dielectric stack deposition and gate patterning, (c) after spacer formation, (d) after S/D ion
implantation, S/D activation, and gate hard mask removal, (e) after silicide formation………..36
Fig. 3-1: The Id-Vg curves of the TFT-SONOS memory before EUV irradiation and
experienced 1 min EUV irradiation………..53 Fig. 3-2: The Id-Vg curves of the TFT-SONOS memory before EUV irradiation and
experienced 2 min EUV irradiation………..53 Fig. 3-3: The Id-Vg curves of the TFT-SONOS memory before EUV irradiation and
experienced 3 min EUV irradiation………..54 Fig. 3-4: Program and erase windows of the TFT-SONOS memory experienced three times P/E operations with pulse width of 1 s………...54 Fig. 3-5: The energy distribution of the charge trapping density in the CTL of the
TFT-SONOS memory after 1st and 3rd time P/E operation………..55 Fig. 3-6: Program and erase windows of the TFT-SONOS memory. The pulse width
is 1 s and the EUV irradiation time is 1 min………55 Fig. 3-7: Program and erase windows of the TFT-SONOS memory. The pulse width
is 1 s and the EUV irradiation time is 2 min………56 Fig. 3-8: Program and erase windows of the TFT-SONOS memory. The pulse width is
1 s and the EUV irradiation time is 3 min………56 Fig. 3-9: The energy distribution of the charge trapping density in the CTL of the
TFT-SONOS memory before and after EUV irradiation, and long-term storage after EUV irradiation………...57 Fig. 3-10: Program speed of the TFT-SONOS memory at Vg = 14V by three times
program speed operations……….57 Fig. 3-11: Erase speed of the TFT-SONOS memory at V = -18V by three times erase
speed operations………...58 Fig. 3-12: Program speed of the TFT-SONOS memory at Vg = 14V. The EUV
irradiation time is 1 min………...58 Fig. 3-13: Erase speed of the TFT-SONOS memory at Vg = -18V. The EUV irradiation
time is 1 min……….59 Fig. 3-14: Program speed of the TFT-SONOS memory at Vg = 14V. The EUV
irradiation time is 2 min………...59 Fig. 3-15: Erase speed of the TFT-SONOS memory at Vg = -18V. The EUV irradiation
time is 2 min……….60 Fig. 3-16: Program speed of the TFT-SONOS memory at Vg = 14V. The EUV
irradiation time is 3 min………...60 Fig. 3-17: Erase speed of the TFT-SONOS memory at Vg = -18V. The EUV irradiation
time is 3 min……….61 Fig. 3-18: Retention characteristic of the TFT-SONOS memory. The EUV irradiation
time is 1 min……….61 Fig. 3-19: Retention characteristic of the TFT-SONOS memory. The EUV irradiation
time is 2 min……….62 Fig. 3-20: Retention characteristic of the TFT-SONOS memory. The EUV irradiation
time is 3 min……….62 Fig. 3-21: Endurance characteristic of the TFT-SONOS memory before EUV
irradiation. The gate voltage is +17V for program and -20V for erase with 10 msec pulse width……….63 Fig. 3-22: The Id-Vg curves of the endurance characteristic before EUV
irradiation……….63 Fig. 3-23: Endurance characteristic of the TFT-SONOS memory after 1 min EUV
10 msec pulse width……….64 Fig. 3-24: The Id-Vg curves of the endurance characteristic after 1 min EUV
irradiation……….64 Fig. 3-25: Endurance characteristic of the TFT-SONOS memory after 2 min EUV
irradiation. The gate voltage is +17V for program and -20V for erase with 10 msec pulse width……….65 Fig. 3-26: Endurance characteristic of the TFT-SONOS memory after 3 min EUV
irradiation. The gate voltage is +17V for program and -20V for erase with 10 msec pulse width……….65 Fig. 3-27: The Id-Vg curves of the endurance characteristic after 2 min EUV
irradiation……….66 Fig. 3-28: The Id-Vg curves of the endurance characteristic after 3 min EUV
irradiation……….66 Fig. 3-29: Endurance characteristic of the TFT-SONOS memory after 30 min EUV
irradiation. The gate voltage is +17V for program and -20V for erase with 10 msec pulse width……….67 Fig. 3-30: Endurance characteristic of the 30 min EUV irradiated TFT-SONOS
memory performed at 600C annealing. The gate voltage is +17V for program and -20V for erase with 10 msec pulse width………67 Fig. 3-31: Retention characteristic of the TFT-SONOS memory after endurance
test………68 Fig. 3-32: Retention characteristic of the 1 min EUV irradiated TFT-SONOS memory
after endurance test………...68 Fig. 3-33: Retention characteristic of the 2 min EUV irradiated TFT-SONOS memory after endurance test………...69 Fig. 3-34: Retention characteristic of the 3 min EUV irradiated TFT-SONOS memory
after endurance test………...69 Fig. 3-35: The Id-Vg curves of the multi-gate TiN NC memory before EUV irradiation
and experienced 2 min EUV irradiation………...70 Fig. 3-36: The Id-Vg curves of the multi-gate TiN NC memory before EUV irradiation
and experienced 30 min EUV irradiation……….70 Fig. 3-37: Program and erase windows of the multi-gate TiN NC memory experienced
three times P/E operations with pulse width of 1 s………..71 Fig. 3-38: Program and erase windows of the multi-gate TiN NC memory. The pulse
width is 1 s and the EUV irradiation time is 2 min………..71 Fig. 3-39: Program and erase windows of the multi-gate TiN NC memory. The pulse
width is 1 s and the EUV irradiation time is 30 min………72 Fig. 3-40: Program speed of the multi-gate TiN NC memory at Vg = 12V by three
times program speed operations………...72 Fig. 3-41: Erase speed of the multi-gate TiN NC memory at Vg = -12V by three times
erase speed operations………..73 Fig. 3-42: Program speed of the multi-gate TiN NC memory at Vg = 12V. The EUV
irradiation time is 2 min………...73 Fig. 3-43: Erase speed of the multi-gate TiN NC memory at Vg = -12V. The EUV
irradiation time is 2 min………...74 Fig. 3-44: Program speed of the multi-gate TiN NC memory at Vg = 12V. The EUV
irradiation time is 30 min……….74 Fig. 3-45: Erase speed of the multi-gate TiN NC memory at Vg = -12V. The EUV
irradiation time is 30 min……….75 Fig. 3-46: Retention characteristic of the multi-gate TiN NC memory. The EUV
irradiation time is 2 min………...75 Fig. 3-47: Retention characteristic of the multi-gate TiN NC memory. The EUV
irradiation time is 30 min……….76 Fig. 3-48: Endurance characteristic of the multi-gate TiN NC memory before EUV
irradiation. The gate voltage is +12V for program and -9V for erase with 10 msec pulse width………..76 Fig. 3-49: Endurance characteristic of the multi-gate TiN NC memory after 2 min
EUV irradiation. The gate voltage is +12V for program and -9V for erase with 10 msec pulse width……….77 Fig. 3-50: Endurance characteristic of the multi-gate TiN NC memory after 30 min
EUV irradiation. The gate voltage is +12V for program and -9V for erase with 10 msec pulse width……….77 Fig. 3-51: Retention characteristic of the multi-gate TiN NC memory after endurance
test………78 Fig. 3-52: Retention characteristic of the 2 min EUV irradiated multi-gate TiN NC
memory after endurance test………78 Fig. 3-53: Retention characteristic of the 30 min EUV irradiated multi-gate TiN NC
memory after endurance test………79
Fig. 4-1: The observed phenomena of the TFT-SONOS memory after EUV irradiation……….84 Fig. 4-2: The observed phenomena of the multi-gate TiN NC memory after EUV
1-1 Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography Technology
The development trend for semiconductor industry follows the Moore’s law continuously in the past several decades, that is, the number of transistors on an integrated circuit (IC) chip doubles approximately every 18 months. To scale down device geometry, fine pattern technology is strongly demanded. Currently, immersion lithography with 193nm argon fluoride (ArF) excimer laser as light source is the main technology to fabricate IC chips at 45nm or even 32nm nodes by combining various methods such as double patterning, immersion fluid, and higher refractive-index lens to enhance resolution. However, 193nm immersion lithography has been faced the physical limitation, it is hard to support patterning further down beyond 22nm. In order to keep pace with the demand for the patterning of ever smaller dimensions, the direct solution is to use a shorter wavelength light source. Thus, extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) technology attracts more and more attention recently. [1-5].
According to the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) 2009 report , EUVL and maskless lithography like E-beam writing are the two most promising mainstreams for the next generation lithography (NGL) technology with a resolution down to 22nm and beyond, the other is imprint lithography. The advantages of E-beam writing are high resolution, maskless, diffraction-free, high design flexibility, and relatively mature instrumentation. However, low throughput is still a big issue because of its long writing time; therefore,
E-beam writing is suitable for production of multiple but low volume of logic ICs. In contrast to E-beam writing, EUVL can mass-produce IC chips with mask by adapting conventional optical lithography principle, so it is suitable for production of simple but high volume of memory ICs. Thus, the most attraction over the other candidates is that EUVL is an optical lithography technology which has many similarities with conventional optical lithography, this means that many years of industry learning on optical lithography can be applied directly to EUVL; so it is in reality an extendible technology that can support resolution down to 16nm node by using binary masks and to 11nm node by using more advanced mask types. Other advantages of EUVL such as use of 4X reticles are easier to write than 1X reticles, lower numerical aperture (NA) optics which provides good depth of focus (DOF) can eliminate the need for optical proximity or phase shift correction of masks and so on. [2-3]
However, EUVL has some significant differences compared with conventional optical lithography; all of these differences are owing to the extremely short wavelength light used in EUVL. The wavelength of EUV light is 13.5nm which would be strongly absorbed in all materials. For the purpose of minimizing EUV absorption, a number of constraints have been emerged on the design of EUV lithography tools. There are typically four points at which the design of EUV lithograph tools differ significantly from conventional deep ultraviolet (DUV) tools .: The first point is EUV light source. Compared with conventional DUV tools using excimer laser as light source, EUV light is produced by hot plasma of suitable materials like tin, xenon, or lithium , mainly two types of mechanism which materials excited are either by laser produced plasma (LPP) sources or by discharge produced plasma (DPP) sources. The second point is reflective optics. Optical systems are the core of an exposure tool which determines the performance of lithographic technology. Since EUV radiation is strongly absorbed in all materials, EUV optical
systems must be designed as completely reflective instead of employing conventional refractive optical systems. Nevertheless, the EUV reflectivity at near-normal incidence is too low for singular materials. In order to achieve superior reflectivity, surfaces must be coated with multilayer thin films which consist of a number of alternating layers of molybdenum and silicon (MoSi), called “pseudo-Bragg reflectors”. By applying the optimum of multilayer in the range between 11 and 14 nm, EUV reflectivity of up to 70% can be achieved. The third difference is reflective reticles. EUV light is not penetrated by any optical materials as mentioned previously, so EUV reticles are also reflective same as optical systems. Reflective reticles are made by coating MoSi multilayers stack on an ultra low thermal expansion glass substrate, followed by a series of buffer, absorber, and anti-reflecting layers. The absorbing layers are then patterned by using conventional mask-manufacturing technology to define required features. Moreover, defects in any coating layer is a critical issue should be prevented. Reticles must be essentially defect-free in order not to deform the printed pattern on the wafer. The last difference is vacuum environment. Wafers must be exposed under high vacuum environment in EUV exposure tool to prevent EUV intensity losses by gaseous absorption and contamination or oxidation of the optical elements.
EUVL developments have been investigated nearly thirty years. The first concepts regarded for applying EUV light to all-reflective projection lithography were proposed by groups of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories (LLNL)  and Bell Laboratories  in 1988. Thereupon most of researches and developments were performed during the early 1990s. The EUV Limited Liability Company (EUV LLC) was formed in the US in 1997 to provide funding and development, this consortium is composed of six semiconductor manufacturers (AMD, Intel, etc.) and three national laboratories. In 2001, EUV LLC constructed the first full-field EUV exposure tool
which called Engineering Test Stand (ETS) to demonstrate the feasibility and capability. Other leading countries of semiconductor industry have also paid many efforts to develop EUVL. Especially in European Union, ASML built the world’s first 0.25NA EUV full-field step-and-scan systems with automated wafer and reticle handling, Alpha Demo Tools (ADT) [10-12] in 2006, two of the ADTs have been shipped to two research centers, IMEC in Leuven, Belgium  and CNSE in NewYork, US. Fig. 1-1 shows pictures of ASML ADT at the two research centers . The typical ADT structure consisting of source module, illuminator, projection optics box, wafer and reticle stages, material handling module is shown in Fig. 1-2 . In addition, a joint association of EUVA was founded in Japan in 2002. In Korea, SAMSUNG purchases the first pilot EUVL beta-tool in 2008. Recently, TSMC will take delivery of a TWINSCAN NXE:3100 EUVL system which is one of the six same-type systems for ASML’s customers in the world. Hence, in spite of EUVL still has some issues to be optimized including power, optics, mask, resist, and metrology, many of efforts until today show that EUVL can be implemented by semiconductor manufacturers for mass-production later in this decade.
1-2 Radiation Damage Effects
In the past, the driving force on the study of radiation damage effects on semiconductor devices is that in order to develop the radiation-hardened devices which can function appropriately in certain radiation-rich environments. It is because when MOS devices are exposed to an ionizing radiation environment, various radiation sources with high energetic photons or particles such as gamma-ray, X-ray, electrons, protons, alpha-particles, and heavy ions, will lead to several degradations of the device performance or shrink the operating lifetime. Moreover, the most serious of
all, MOS devices may be failed with the increase of exposed time.
The common requests for better radiation tolerance devices in a radiation-rich situation are including artificial satellites revolution and spacecraft exploration in outer space, nuclear weaponry and radio detector in military or light source with high energetic particles physical experiments. However, radiation damage takes place not only in the above environments, the semiconductor industry manufactures, for the sake of scaling down the devices to get ever higher density and performance IC chips for the next generation technology nodes, utilizes advanced processing techniques such as reactive ion etching (RIE) and high density plasma RIE (HDP-RIE) in dry etching process, lithography with X-ray or E-beam light source, and other plasma processes. These techniques contain potential radiation sources which may cause significant radiation damage to the devices being fabricated. Today, EUVL is one of promising candidates for the NGL technology, the wavelength of EUV light source in the range of soft X-ray could also degrade the device performance that should be avoided. Since integrated circuits are the foundation stone of the semiconductor industry, it is necessary to understand the basic mechanisms affected on the alteration of electrical characteristics of MOS devices, and then the methods for improvement and the elimination of radiation damage effects can be achieved to ensure normal functionality of the IC chips after finishing the fabrication.
A useful, comprehensive, understandable study on the radiation damage was published by T. P. Ma for realizing deeply in this field . The basic concept of ionizing radiation is that radiation sources which have enough energy to break atomic bonds and generate a large amount of electron/hole pairs in materials; as for the structure of MOS devices, the most sensitive to ionizing radiation is gate dielectric layer because of its weak radiation tolerance. Fig. 1-3 shows a schematic energy band diagram of ionizing radiation induced electron/hole pairs in the MOS structure, with
the case of positive bias applied to the gate . In the first picosecond (ps) behind carrier generation, a small portion of the electrons and holes will recombine which depends on the type of incident particles and the applied field and the energy, but most of the other electrons are swept to the gate rapidly on the order of 1 ps and the holes that escape initial recombination are relatively motionless because radiation induced electrons possess much high mobility in comparison to holes. As a result, the significant concept for ionizing radiation is that electrons do not play an important role in determining the alteration of electrical characteristics of MOS devices. This event typically results from two key factors. First, electrons are more mobile than holes in the oxide layer which has been mentioned above; the mobility of electrons is probably 20 cm2V-1s-1 at room temperature and gradually increase to 40 cm2V-1s-1 at lower temperature. Instead, the mobility of holes is simply about 10-4 to 10-11 cm2V-1s-1. Second, long term trapping rate of hole is three to six times greater than electron trapping rate, so hole trapping dominates the whole effect with respect to the long term charges trapping caused by radiation in the oxide layer. Consequently, the holes prefer to stay behind and are adjacent to their generation center, transforming into net positive charges and then leading to negative threshold voltage shifts in MOS devices. Over a period of time, approximately one second, the relatively movable holes proceed a irregular trap-hopping transport through the oxide to the SiO2/Si
interface; of course, some holes may also be trapped within the oxide during this process. In addition, it is worth noting that the hole transport is a temporarily process, will give rise to a transient annealing in the threshold voltage shift. As holes arrive at the SiO2/Si interface, a portion of them are captured in deep-level trapping sites for a
long time, causing a permanent threshold voltage shift unless devices undergo a relatively high temperature annealing process for the purpose of detrapping the holes which are captured in deep sites. The last process is a radiation-induced buildup of
interface traps at the SiO2/Si interface. Once hopping of holes move to the interface
then they may capture electrons and create interface traps within silicon bandgap. Interface traps can be charged as positive, negative or neutral depending on the silicon surface potential.
MOS devices exposed to a radiation environment could exhibit threshold voltage shift, subthreshold swing degradation, high gate leakage current, gain decrease, and speed slow-down or even devices breakdown. Recently, most of the studies regarding the radiation damage on MOS devices typically investigated the dependence of different total dose and oxide thickness  with a variety of gate dielectric materials, especially in high-k dielectrics [18-22]. Another researches studied the reliability issue that combine the bias temperature instability measurement and irradiation effect [22-24]. In addition, annealing effect is a significant factor to increase the radiation tolerance in dielectrics [20, 25] or on the recovery of radiation-damaged devices [19, 25-26], whether it proceeds during the process or after the radiation. However, not only logic ICs, memory ICs also suffer from ionizing radiation that could be severely damaged the memory characteristics such as the degradation of memory window, program/erase (P/E) speed, retention, endurance, and disturbance. Several works in the literature have shown that conventional floating gate non-volatile memories exhibit poor tolerance against ionizing irradiation [27-29]. Compared to floating gate non-volatile memories, nano-crystal non-volatile memories possess higher tolerance to radiation effects because of the different trapping mechanism of discrete charge storage centers [30-33]. Nevertheless, to our knowledge, no works have been devoted to investigate the EUV radiation damage affects on the different type of advanced non-volatile memories.
1-3 Evolution of Non-volatile Memory
In a modern life, we can find everywhere the novel of portable electronic products bringing the convenience and practicality for people. For instance, cellular phones, digital still camera, notebook, USB flash drive, iPod, and even gaming like PSP, etc . The successes of all of them as mentioned above are attributed to the applications of memory technology. There are two typical types of memory: volatile and non-volatile. The former means a memory that requires power supply to maintain the stored information and data lose while the power is turned off. Instead, the latter has a capability to retain the storage data for a long time even without power supply. Today, flash is the mainstream of the non-volatile memory technology [35-36]. The evolution of flash memory mainly can be classified into three types: floating gate (FG), Silicon/Oxide/Nitride/Oxide/Silicon (SONOS), and nano-crystal (NC) type in sequence.
In history the first FG non-volatile memory was published by D. Kahng and S. M. Sze at Bell Labs in 1967 . The stack-structure FG memory used a conductive layer as a charge stored layer, which is sandwiched between two insulated dielectrics. The current FG memory device structure is shown in Fig.1-4. Despite the conventional FG memories have widely applications in non-volatile memory market share, they face some crucial constraints while the device is scaling down. First, the issue of reducing the operation voltage, it will degrade memory performance since the read and program/erase (P/E) speeds are related to the operation voltage. Second, much thinner tunneling oxide is required for continuous scaling the device structure. Although the thinner tunneling oxide would speed up the operation speed, the retention characteristics of charges stored in FG may degrade severely. Thus there is a trade-off between reliability and speed for determining the tunneling oxide thickness.
Third, the quality of tunneling oxide degrades via tens of thousands of P/E cycles, generated defects form leaky path will result in the whole charges stored in the FG losing. It is because that conventional FG memory uses conductor as a charge trapped layer, as long as one leaky path generates, all of charges would leak through the path to the silicon substrate.
Therefore, in order to improve the way of charge storage, SONOS-type memory has been developed [38-39]. In 1967, Wegener et al. invented the first metal gate nitride memory device  with stack of Metal/Nitride/Oxide/Silicon (MNOS) structures. However, charges stored in the nitride trapping layer would leak to the top gate directly. Therefore a method to improve the retention was introduced the silicon dioxide as a blocking layer between the top gate and the nitride charge trapping layer. The Oxide/Nitride/Oxide (ONO) gate dielectric stack is shown in Fig. 1-5. The basic charge storage mechanism of SONOS-type memory is storing charges in discrete traps of the silicon nitride layer. When defects are generated by several P/E operations in the tunneling oxide, only portion of charges which are proximal to the defect will lose. Hence, SONOS-type memories exhibit better retention characteristic with respect to the conventional FG memory and have other advantages such as good compatibility with standard CMOS process, lower operation voltage and power consumption, and the importance of scaling feasibility. Nevertheless, they still have some problems to be solved. First, erase can operate in the long pulse width only when the erase voltage is small. Once erase voltage is large, threshold voltage may saturates owing to the counteract of electron current tunneling through blocking layer and hole current tunneling through tunneling layer, which is called “erase saturation” , is a poor characteristic for SONOS-type memories. Second, charges stored in the trapping layer may migrate to the nearest trapping nodes, called “charge migration” . It will lead to the change of memory characteristics. In addition, the disturbance
effect on SONOS memory cell array is also an issue that stored charges may transfer to the other memory cell due to the sharing of the same word-line or bit-line.
For the sake of further modifying these problems mentioned above, a novel structure of NC non-volatile memory has been proposed and is view as a good potentiality for next generation non-volatile memories. The main attraction is its charge stored mechanism. As shown in Fig. 1-6, every isolated nano-dot can store few electrons and each of them is surrounded by insulated dielectrics in the trapping layer. Besides, the surrounding dielectric and nano-dots possess higher potential barrier to prevent stored electrons from escaping. Consequently, NC memories exhibit better retention characteristics than SONOS type memories. When leak paths are generated by defects, only few electrons stored in specific nano-dot which connects with leaky path will be lost while most of the others are remained. In addition, the disturbance effect can be eased up since the charge migration is suppressed by good isolation between any two nano-dots. Another advantage is the increasing of gate coupling effect when vertical electric field across nano-crystals, the work function of nano-crystals can be tuned to optimize the device performances by using variety of metal materials to form nano-crystals [43-45]. Due to these merits, the thickness of tunneling oxide in NC memories can be decreased without degrading the retention performance, and then the P/E speed and power consumption can be improved. For optimizing memory performances of the NC memory, higher density, uniform distribution and suitable size  of nano-crystal should be achieved.
As mentioned in Section 1-1, EUVL is one of the most promising next generation lithography technologies for sub-22nm technology nodes. In the recently
years, many semiconductor manufacturing companies have installed full-field EUV lithography systems showing the possibility for substituting present lithography technology. However, the wavelength of EUV light is 13.5nm which is strongly absorbed in all materials. The relative energy is 91.8eV which is much higher than the chemical bonding energy in dielectrics and the band gap of gate dielectric layers. Once MOS devices are exposed to EUV, such high energy radiation may cause some problems including the generation of electron-hole pairs in dielectric, interface states at dielectric/silicon interface, and traps or defects due to broken bonds in bulk dielectric. These phenomena will severely degrade the performance of electrical characteristic in MOS devices.
On the other hand, because EUVL can mass-produce IC chips by adapting mask sets, it is recognized more suitable for memory ICs rather than logic ICs. For this reason, the impact of EUV irradiation induced damages on the characteristics of memory devices being fabricated should be investigated. Although the EUV light is prone to be absorbed in all materials which is mentioned above, indicating that gate dielectric layers will not be damaged at the back-end-of-line process owing to the protection by gate electrodes and inter layer dielectrics. Nevertheless, if the protected layer is not thick enough, EUV will penetrate the gate electrode to damage the gate dielectrics at the back-end-of-line processed and of course at the front-end-of-line process.
Among non-volatile memories, SONOS and NC memories are two of the most promising candidates for next generation non-volatile memories. Therefore, they will face the lithography process with EUVL systems absolutely. Only when we investigated the degree of EUV radiation damage affected on the electrical characteristics of these memory devices, the improved methods for prevent from damaging can be achieved to confirm normal functionality of memory ICs after
process fabrication. Some literatures have been reported that the radiation damage on the FG [27-28, 47-48] and NC [28, 30-33] non-volatile memories with different radiation source such as X-ray, heavy ion, and protons. However, according to our knowledge, the EUV irradiation induced damage on the SONOS-type and NC non-volatile memories have not been reported.
In this work, we will investigate the radiation damage of EUV on advanced thin film transistor (TFT) -SONOS and multi-gate NC non-volatile memories with different dosage. After EUV irradiation, memory characteristic measurement such as memory window, P/E speed, charge retention, and endurance will be performed to observe the total dose dependent device damage. Besides, post-irradiation annealing will also be implemented to investigate whether the memory performances could be recover or not.
1-5 Thesis Organization
This thesis is divided into four chapters and the contents of each chapter are described as follows.
In chapter 1, the development of EUVL technology has been introduced, the effect of radiation damage on MOS devices has been explained, and the evolution of non-volatile memory has been reviewed. The motivation of using EUV as a radiation source exposing on advanced non-volatile memories has been illustrated.
In chapter 2, the experimental procedure and instrument setup will be described. The fabrication process of SONOS memory based on TFT structure and multi-gate TiN NC memory on SOI wafer will be illustrated. Besides, the considerations of memory characteristic measurement before and after EUV irradiation are also mentioned. Last, the method to calculate total dose will be
In chapter 3, the memory characteristics of TFT-SONOS memory and multi-gate TiN NC memory before and after EUV irradiation, and long-term storage at room temperature after EUV irradiation will be demonstrated. For the TFT-SONOS memory, we will show that the threshold voltage of memory window increases gradually with irradiation time and recovers to the pre- irradiation value nearly after long-term storage. P/E speed and endurance performances degrade after EUV irradiation. However, charge retention does not seem to change significantly. In contrast with TFT-SONOS memory, multi-gate TiN NC memory exhibits much better EUV radiation tolerance.
In chapter 4, summary and conclusions are presented and some future works are suggested.
Fig. 1-1: Pictures of the ASML Alpha Demo Tool at two research centers. (a) IMEC in Leuven, Belgium. (b) CNSE in NewYork, US .
Fig. 1-2: Schematic cross-sectional configurations of the ASML Alpha Demo Tool .
Fig. 1-3: Schematic energy band diagram of ionizing radiation induced electron/hole pairs in the MOS device with a positive gate bias 
Fig. 1-5: The basic concept of SONOS non-volatile memory.
Fig. 1-6: The basic concept of nano-crystal non-volatile memory.
2-1 Instrument Setup and Environment
To investigate the EUV radiation damage on non-volatile memories, experimental equipment and system must be established. EUV irradiation experiment in this thesis was implemented at the National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center (NSRRC). The principle of the radiation produced is that electrons are accelerated in the linear accelerator and then are sent through the transport line into the storage ring, they emit synchrotron radiation after circulating in vacuum pipes for several hours. The emitted light passed through beam lines to the experimental stations and then experiments can be performed. We used both BL08A beam line and BL21B beam line as the EUV light source, the former has the energy in the range of 15-200 eV and the later has the energy in the range of 5-100 eV, both are suitable for the study of EUV radiation damages. To access more information on these beam lines, readers can refer to the website of NSRRC.
As the experimental station, our experimental system mainly consists of a main chamber, a loaded plate, a dry mechanical pump, two turbo pumps, and an ion gauge. Fig. 2-1 shows the photograph of the main chamber for irradiation experiment at NSRRC. We can see from this photograph that the main chamber has several view poles in different directions; they are used to inspect devices in the chamber to make sure the position of EUV light is directed on the device. Besides, for the sake of preventing devices from direct irradiation during alignment, a dumpy level must be
utilized which is an optical instrument used in surveying to set the horizontal levels. The cross in the telescope of dumpy level is used as the light source target instead of directly irradiation to device when alignment. Fig. 2-2 (a) shows a memory IC chips on the loaded plate which is ready for irradiation. A block plate with holes in the figure is used to avoid exposing on the whole chip. The loaded plate is placed on the top of main chamber and can be adjusted in vertical direction by a mechanical axis. Fig. 2-2 (b) shows the shape of the light source of the BL08A beam line. As seen from this figure, the light source is smile-shaped and its area is about 0.016cm2. It is noticed that the light source in Fig. 2-2 (b) is white light instead of EUV light since the EUV light is not visible but their shapes are the same. In addition, in order to prevent the EUV light source from hitting on molecules in the air, the beam line must be maintained at ultra-high vacuum. Therefore pumping system is an important factor for this irradiation experiment which decides the time spent on each run. We utilized two turbo bumps installed on the front-end and back-end of the main chamber to speed up the pumping rate. An ion gauge is used to detect the pressure inside the chamber, generally a pressure less than 5x10-8 torr is required to start experiments.
2-2 Device Fabrication
In this study, the TFT-SONOS memory and multi-gate TiN nano-crystal memory are used to investigate the effect of EUV radiation damages. The TFT-SONOS memory sample is provided by J. Y. Lai  and multi-gate TiN nano-crystal memory sample is provided by C. P. Lu . The device fabrications will be described briefly here and the detailed process conditions can refer to their theses.
Fig. 2-3 shows the main process flow of the TFT-SONOS non-volatile memory. The devices were fabricated on 6” p-type Si wafers with TFT structure. For the TFT structure, wet oxide was first grown to 150-nm-thick in a lateral furnace system. Then, a 50-nm-thick amorphous-Si was deposited in a low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) system followed by a two-step annealing process. The first step was performed at 600C for 24 hours for solid phase crystallization and the second step was performed at 900C for 30 minutes to make sure that the grain structure would not change in the remaining thermal budget. The device structure at this step is shown in Fig.2-3(a). Active regions were then patterned by i-line lithography and etched by a poly-Si plasma etcher of model TCP 9400. After active regions patterning, 4-nm-thick TEOS oxide as tunneling oxide, 7-nm-thick Si3N4 as
trapping layer, and 20-nm-thick TEOS oxide as blocking layer were deposited in sequence in a LPCVD system, followed by a deposition of 150-nm-thick amorphous-Si gate in the same LPCVD system. Then, the gate was heavily doped to p-type by BF2+ implantation at 50 keV to a dose of 5x1015cm-2, and the gate dopant
activation was performed by RTA annealing at 900C for 20 seconds in nitrogen ambient. Before gate patterning, an 80-nm-thick TEOS oxide was deposited as hard mask to avoid unwanted anti-doping during n+ S/D ion implantation. The gate patterns were transferred from i-line photo resist to hard mask by dry etching. Then, the photo resist was stripped and the gate was continuously etched by using the TEOS oxide as etching mask. Fig. 2-3(b) shows the schematic cross-sectional structure after gate patterning. Next, 10-nm-thick TEOS oxide and 50-nm-thick Si3N4 were deposited in a
LPCVD system to form the composite spacer, as shown in Fig. 2-3(c). Then, P31+ ions
were implanted into the S/D region at 20 keV to a dose of 5x1015cm-2 and activated at 900C for 20 seconds in nitrogen ambient. The gate hard mask and native oxide on S/D region were removed by dipping in dilute HF solution, as shown in Fig. 2-3(d). A
Ni film of 30-nm-thick was deposited by E-gun evaporation followed by a two-step Ni-salicide process. After first step annealing at 300C for 30 minutes in a vacuum system to form Ni2Si phase, unreacted Ni was removed by H2SO4/H2O2 = 3:1 solution.
The second step was performed at 500C for 30 seconds to transform Ni2Si phase to
NiSi phase. The finished device structure is shown in Fig. 2-3(e).
2-2-2 Multi-gate TiN Nano-crystal Non-volatile Memory
Fig. 2-4 shows the main process flow of the multi-gate TiN nano-crystal non-volatile memory. The devices were fabricated on 6” SIMOX SOI wafers with a lightly boron doped SOI layer. The doping concentration of Si layer is 1x1015 cm-3, the Si layer was 40nm thick, and the buried oxide was 150nm thick as shown in Fig. 2-4(a). At first, fin-type active regions were patterned by E-beam lithography and plasma etching. Then, the tunneling oxide was thermally grown to 4-nm-thick at 800C in a vertical furnace system. TiN (0.5 nm)/Al2O3 (1.0 nm) nano-laminate with
5 periods were deposited as trapping layer in the PEALD/ALD system and a 20-nm-thick Al2O3 was then deposited as blocking layer in the same ALD system
followed by a deposition of 150nm thick poly-Si gate in a LPCVD system. The deposition condition of TiN and Al2O3 used TiCl4 as precursor at 350C and Al(CH3)3
as precursor at 300C, respectively. Post-deposition annealing was performed at 900C for 10 seconds in nitrogen ambient to form TiN nano-crystals. Next, the poly-Si gate was heavily doped to p-type by BF2+ ion implantation at 40 keV to a dose
of 5x1015 cm-2 and the gate dopant activation was performed by a RTA annealing at 900C for 20 seconds in nitrogen ambient. An 80-nm-thick TEOS oxide was then deposited on the poly-Si gate as hard mask; the reason has been explained in the previous subsection. During gate patterning, gate patterns were transferred from E-beam photo resist to hard mask by dry etching, stripped the photo resist, and used
the hard mask to continue finishing the remaining etching steps. The structure after gate etching is shown in Fig. 2-4(b). Then, spacer with 10-nm-thick SiO2 and
40-nm-thick Si3N4 was formed as shown in Fig. 2-4(c). Next, P31+ ions were
implanted into the S/D region at 20 keV to a dose of 5x1015 cm-2 and were activated at 900C for 20 seconds in nitrogen ambient. The gate hard mask and the native oxide on S/D region were removed by dilute HF solution as shown in Fig. 2-4(d). Last, Ni-salicide was formed, the process step has mentioned previously with slightly different conditions. The first step annealing was executed at 300C for 45 minutes and the second step annealing was executed at 600C for 30 seconds. Then, the S/D region was converted to fully silicide structure and the gate electrode became Ni-polycide structure, the finished device structure is shown in Fig. 2-4(e).
2-3 Electrical Characterization Techniques
To extract the characteristics of the TFT-SONOS and multi-gate TiN NC non-volatile memories used in this thesis, the measurement conditions are introduced in this section. The static current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of the memory device were measured by a semiconductor parameter analyzer of model Agilent 4156C. Program and erase operations utilized an Agilent 41501A pulse generation expander to generate pulse signals. The definition of threshold voltage (Vt) in this thesis uses
constant drain current method, which is commonly applied to non-volatile memories. The threshold voltage was defined as the gate voltage at which the drain current is 0.01 μA for the TFT-SONOS memory and 0.1 μA for the TiN NC memory, both drain voltage is at 1V. In addition, the sweeping range of gate voltage should be chose carefully during I-V measurement to avoid unexpected Vt shift. It is better to measure
the data of memory characteristic.
In order to compare the differences of memory characteristic before and after EUV irradiation in the same device, the memory characteristics should be measured in advance and the Vt value must be adjusted to the initial value before EUV irradiation.
Incidentally, the Vt value of every measured device has to be checked again when
ready for irradiation experiment. The definitions of memory characteristics and methods to measure these memory devices before EUV irradiation, after EUV irradiation, and recovery after irradiation are described as follows:
(A) Memory window and P/E speed
Fowler-Nordheim (FN) tunneling was used for charge injection, so both the source and drain terminals were grounded during program and erase operations. The memory window is defined as the Vt difference between program state and erase state.
To characterize the P/E speed, Vt should be measured immediately after each program
or erase operation at different pulse voltages and pulse widths to obtain the correct Vt
value. The “Vt shift” is defined as the change of the Vt value after each program or
erase operation. It should be noted that the Vt must be adjusted to the original state
before applying the next P/E signal. In other words, when measuring the program speed, Vt must be returned to the same erase state after each program pulse, otherwise
the program speed will be overestimated.
In order to compare the memory performance before and after EUV irradiation, the characteristics of memory window and P/E speed should be measured on the same memory cell. The sequence of measurements is firstly P/E speed and then memory window because the measurement of memory window uses much stronger pulse conditions than that of P/E speed. This sequence can avoid the operating conditions to affect the properties after irradiation. In addition, for the measurement of memory window, the initial V will vary after irradiation. This post-irradiation V value must be
recorded in advance. After measuring the P/E speed characteristic, Vt should be
adjusted to the post-irradiation value as the initial state to continuously measure the memory window characteristic. For measuring the P/E speed after irradiation and its recovery phenomenon, the selected program state for erase speed and erase state for program speed should be adjusted to almost the same value before irradiation.
Charge retention is a significant reliability issue for the non-volatile memory product. Retention characteristic is defined as the variation in the program state and erase state as a function of storage time at specified storage temperature. There are many ways to express the performance of retention characteristic such as Vt, Vt shift,
and charge loss rate. The charge loss rate can be calculated from the variation of memory window with storage time. In addition, when detecting the Vt during storage,
a small gate sweeping range should be used to avoid changing the existing memory state. For measuring the retention characteristic after EUV irradiation and its recovery characteristic, the Vt in both program state and erase state should be chose at the same
values before irradiation as possible because retention performance is related to the P/E state.
Endurance is to evaluate if a memory cell after numbers of P/E cycles that could still have sufficient memory window. The typical standard is 105 P/E cycles for the non-volatile memory. A sequential pulse signals with fixed pulse width and rise/fall time were pulsed into memory devices. For measuring the endurance characteristic after irradiation in this thesis, there is one thing differs from previous memory characteristic measurement. Since the endurance test could cause permanent damage to the memory cell, therefore, different memory cells must be used before and after EUV irradiation. Besides, it is essential to select memory cells with similar
properties of P/E performance in advance.
2-4 Total Dose Calculation
Radiation dosimetry is an important indicator for the study of radiation damage on any kind of devices since it is in general hard to measure the real energy deposited per unit mass at the location which we concern, that is, in the gate dielectric layer of a MOS device. Radiation dosimetry is defined as the calculation of the absorbed dose in matter resulting from the irradiation to ionizing radiation. The customary unit of dose is the “rad”, and 1 rad = 100 ergs/g. In addition, “Total dose” is generally used to express the total amount of dosage absorbed by the MOS device in radiation literature.
Both BL08A and BL21B beam line at NSRRC are linear EUV sources; therefore the dose absorption rate calculation should be based on the linear source model, which slightly differs from the point source model [17, 49]. The method to derive the total dose is introduced in the following. At first, we define the particle flux, which is given by
, where N(E) is the number of photons that emitted per unit time by the source as a function of energy E, A is the area of the light source. The radiation beam
the material may decay as a function of distance, so the attenuation of the flux
Φ(x)is defined as the following equation:
μis the linear attenuation coefficient and it follows the relation
μm is the mass attenuation coefficient and
ρis the material density. Utilizing
the above three equations, the dose absorption rate DR of gate dielectric layer in a
MOS device can be expressed as
, the approximate condition is because that generally the thickness of gate dielectric layer
dox is much less than the attenuation length
μ-1. Besides, since 1 rad = 6.24×1013
eV/g, it can substitute Eq. (2-4) into
6.24 × 1013
, and then use Eq. (2-5) with our experimental conditions to determine the value of dose absorption rate. It is worthy to mention that the expression of dose depends on the material due to
μm in the equation. The particular material should be referenced in
parentheses all the time such as rads(Si), rads(SiO2), rads(GaAs), etc.. Because dose is
similar for different oxide dielectrics and silicon at the same radiation source, the commonly used unit rads(SiO2) can be utilized in this thesis when irradiating different
structure of devices. The value of
μmcan be referred to the NIST .
Take the BL08A beam line as an example, E= 91.85eV, N(E)~ 1012 photons/s, A~ 0.016cm2, and
μm= 3.636×104 cm2/g for silicon dioxide, the dose
absorption rate DR is about 3.345×106 rads(SiO2)/s. Before calculating the total dose,
an attenuation factor should be considered since NiSi layer of 40-nm-thick and poly-Si gate of 110-nm-thick are stacked above the gate dielectrics. The intensity of radiation beam decays after penetrating the two layers and approximately 16% of the flux really irradiates on the gate dielectrics according to the calculation. The value of attenuation length can be referred to the CXRO . Thus, the total dose can be determined by the dose absorption rate multiplied by the irradiation time and the
attenuation factor. The experimental conditions for EUV irradiation are 10, 20, and 30 minutes, the total doses are probably 321, 642, and 963 Mrads(SiO2), respectively.
For the BL21B beam line, the flux is about 6 ×1012 photons/s according to the experimental result since the flux is not clear at that moment, therefore the total dose are 193, 386, and 579 Mrads(SiO2) at 1, 2, and 3 minutes irradiation, respectively.
Table 2-1 lists the total dose with various EUV irradiation times at BL08A and BL21B beam line.
2-5 Trapped Charge Energy Distribution
In chap 3, the energy distribution of the charge trapping density in the SONOS memory will be discussed. To derive these data, the method based on Frenkel-Poole model to extract the silicon nitride trap density is used . In fact, some measurement methods for the extraction of nitride trap density have been proposed in the past such as estimation by direct tunneling model, the low-frequency (<1 kHz) charge pumping technique, and a reverse model of Vt retention loss by trapped
electrons. However, the above methods only can be applied to ultrathin tunneling oxides of memory cell (1.5 - 2.5 nm). Nowadays, as our memory sample, the SONOS-type memory generally utilizes thicker tunneling oxide to achieve better charge retention, an analytical model of Frenkel-Poole emission is available for these cells. The derivation is introduced briefly as follows:
At first, we define the nitride charge detrapping time τ, which is given by
Φt is the corresponding nitride trap energy and E is the electric field, other
variables have their usual definitions. The theoretical value of β = 2.77 (eVcm1/2V-1/2) and τ0 = 10-13s. The electric field E can be obtained by the following equation:
, where V0 is the programmed Vt value, Vg is the stressed gate voltage, and dnitride is
the equivalent nitride thickness of the ONO layer. Take our TFT-SONOS memory as an example, dnitride = 53.15 nm. According to these extracted parameters, the nitride
Φt can be achieved and we rearrange Eq. (2-6) for convenience as
, next, the nitride trap density N(
Φt) can be expressed as the following equation:
Φ · Φ (2-9)
, and it can be rearranged as
Consequently, by utilizing the Eq. (2-8) and Eq. (2-10), the nitride trap density corresponds to its trapped charge energy can be profiled. Our measurement steps are illustrated in the following. First, the memory cell was stressed with Ig = -500 nA for
1000s, its purpose is to create sufficient traps in the tunneling oxide, therefore the blocking effect can be neglected. Second, the memory cell was programmed with Vg=
+14V for 1s by FN injection to store electrons. Third, the detrapping Vg was stressed
from Vg = -4V to Vg = -24V with 4V intervals to measure the Vt values at each
detrapping time, these measurement results were then substituted into Eq. (2-8) and Eq. (2-10), the energy distribution of the charge trapped density can be obtained.
Table 2-1: Total dose with various EUV irradiation times at BL08A and BL21B beam line.
Beam line Flux (photons/s) Total dose (EUV irradiation time)
BL08A 1 ×1012 321Mrads (10 min) 642Mrads (20 min) 963Mrads (30 min) BL21B 6 ×1012 193Mrads (1 min) 386Mrads (2 min) 579Mrads (3 min)
Fig. 2-1: The main chamber for irradiation experiment at NSRRC.
Fig. 2-2: (a) A memory IC chips on the loaded plate which is ready for irradiation.
Fig. 2-3: Process flow and cross-sections of the TFT- SONOS non-volatile memory. (a) TFT structure, (b) after dielectric stack deposition and gate patterning, (c) after spacer formation, (d) after S/D ion implantation, S/D activation, and gate hard mask removal, (e) after silicide formation.
Fig. 2-4: Process flow and cross-sections of the multi-gate TiN nano-crystal non-volatile memory. (a) SOI material, (b) after dielectric stack deposition and gate patterning, (c) after spacer formation, (d) after S/D ion implantation, S/D activation, and gate hard mask removal, (e) after silicide formation.
Extreme Ultra-violet Radiation on
Non-volatile Memory Characteristics
In this chapter, we discuss the memory characteristics of the TFT-SONOS and multi-gate TiN NC non-volatile memory devices before and after EUV irradiation. Basic memory characteristics including memory window, program/erase (P/E) speed, charge retention, and endurance of the memory devices are evaluated carefully. The effect of post-irradiation annealing at high temperature on endurance characteristic is also discussed. In addition, the energy distribution of the trap density in the Si3N4
charge trapping layer (CTL) of the TFT-SONOS memory before and after EUV irradiation is extracted. The device dimensions for different irradiation times are the same for the sake of easy comparison.
3-2 TFT-SONOS Non-volatile Memory
3-2-1 Basic Electrical Characteristic
Fig. 3-1 shows the Id-Vg curves of the TFT-SONOS memory before EUV
irradiation and experienced 1 min EUV irradiation. Since the memory characteristics of every memory cell should be measured before EUV irradiation, they must be tuned to the initial states and be checked again when ready for irradiation, as shown in Fig. 3-1. After 1 min EUV irradiation to a dose of 35 Mrads(SiO2), the Id-Vg curve
exhibits a small negative threshold voltage (Vt) shift of 0.035 V. The Vt is defined as
the gate voltage at which the drain current is 0.01 μA. This phenomenon indicates a small amount of the net positive charges generated in dielectrics caused by EUV irradiation. Although EUV irradiation generates electron-hole pairs, electrons are more mobile than holes in dielectrics and then more holes would be trapped in dielectrics and contribute to net positive charges. This process has been illustrated in section 1-2.
More apparent Vt shifts toward negative voltage direction are observed on the
2 min and 3 min EUV irradiated TFT-SONOS memories as shown in Fig. 3-2 and Fig. 3-3, respectively. The values of Vt shift are 0.438V for 2 min irradiation and 0.55V for
3 min irradiation, which can be understood by a relatively large amount of radiation induced electron-hole pairs. The longer irradiation time, the more electron-hole pairs are generated, so the Vt shift is dose-dependent. In addition, compared with other
radiation studies [27, 30], our memory devices exhibit relatively smaller Vt shift at an
even higher total dose. Nevertheless, the radiation source and memory-type are different.
3-2-2 Memory Window
In order to identify the difference in the memory window characteristic before and after EUV irradiation, the basic characteristic of memory window of the fresh TFT-SONOS memory should be examined firstly to avoid mistaking some phenomena as the cause of EUV irradiation. Fig. 3-4 shows the program and erase windows of the TFT-SONOS memory experienced three times memory window measurements with pulse width of 1 s. The initial Vt is at Vg = 0V and FN tunneling is
used for both program and erase operations. The P/E voltage pulses from Vg = ±8 V to
the range of Vg = 10V to Vg = 18V after P/E operations increase obviously with
respect to the 1st operation. This phenomenon can be explained by the imperfect bonding in the Si3N4 CTL. The memory effect on SONOS is due to the charge
trapping by the defects induced traps in the CTL. The residual hydrogen in the Si3N4
CTL may passivate some defects and then reduce the trap density. During P/E operations, the applied high voltages may break the hydrogen bonds and/or break the other bonds in the Si3N4 CTL and generate defects or traps as new charge storage sites,
causing the increase of Vt shift in the program state. The third P/E operations exhibits
even lager memory window but the generated trapping sites are gradually saturated and relatively stable. Fig. 3-5compares the energy distribution of the trap density in the CTL after the 1st and 3rd times P/E operation. It is obvious that the trap density after three times P/E operations is much higher than that only performed one P/E operation, which proves that more defects or traps are generated during high-voltage P/E operations. The trap density is about 1x1011 - 2x1011 eV-1cm-2 after one P/E operation and about 5x1011 - 8x1011 eV-1cm-2 after three times P/E operation. Thus, to record the memory window characteristic before EUV irradiation, memory devices must receive P/E operations for at least three times in advance.
Fig. 3-6 shows the P/E windows of the TFT-SONOS memory before EUV irradiation, experienced 1 min EUV irradiation, and 264 hrs after EUV irradiation. Some important phenomena are observed in Fig. 3-6. First, a slightly reduction of the initial Vt at Vg = 0V after EUV irradiation indicates that a small amount of the net
positive charges are generated, which has been explained in section 3-2-1. Second, the Vt values in the program state at higher program voltage (14V ~ 18V) increase
slightly, which implies a few new traps were generated during EUV irradiation. It is postulated that EUV has sufficient energy to break bonds in the dielectrics, causing some traps produced in the Si3N4 CTL. Third, the Vt values in the erase state show an