創造綜合:論教育哲學研究的新方向

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ѿѕఀىᏰѐ! ಑έΪϲ෈! 3121ԑ9Т! ॲ2.33! !

ഺഅᆣӫȈ፣ఀى঱ᏰंـޟཱིПө!

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ᄢ! ौ!

! ! ఀى঱Ᏸհ࣏ఀى౩፣ंـޟஅᙃȂϚ༉ඪټ࡚ᄺȶఀىȷհ࣏டཾᏰ೚ሴ୿ޟ १ौЛ࢘Ȃи࢐ৱጒఀىޟ҆ौ፞แȄϧቄ࢐ఀىȉఀىޟҏ፴ȃҬޟȃཎဎȃೣྥ ࣏դȉϧቄ࢐ޣᜋޟܒ፴ȉϧቄ࢐ၾኈޟܒ፴ȉϧቄ࢐Ж᡹ޟܒ፴ȉϧቄ࢐Ρܒȉ ϧቄ࢐ఀৱޟڐጒȉ้้Ȃᄇܻ೻ٲఀى౩܈ڷᇄϞࣺᜰޟஅҏ྅܈ޟᇯᜋȂӔӔኇ ៪רঈԃդᒵᐅఀ؅ȃԊ௶፞แȃၼҢఀݲȃငᕊᏰਮಢᙑȃڙۡఀىࢇ๊ȃ௰ଢ଼ఀ ى՗ࢇ้้ఀىᄂ୛ώհȄά൷׉ᢎِϞȂఀى࢐Ρ᜸ᐌᡝޥོМϽࣀଢ଼ޟΙᕗȂആ ႆ঱Ᏸޟ၌ݙȂ౩၌ఀىհ࣏Ρ᜸М݂ᐠڙޟђ૖ᇄհҢȃఀىᇄޥོޟᜰ߽ȂΝՍ ആຜఀىᄇܻ௰ଢ଼୽ড়ޥོȃᐌᡝМ݂ี৤ޟᄂሬᇄዖӵኇ៪Ȃζ࢐ఀى঱Ᏸޟ१ौ ፞ᚠȄఀى঱Ᏸޟ१ौܒϚِՄൕȇՄϚӣޟंـПөȂོ౰ҡϚӣלᄘޟఀى঱ᏰȂ Ϛӣלᄘޟఀى঱ᏰོඪټרঈϚӣޟఀىຜഏȂ௃Մኇ៪רঈޟఀىᄂ୛ώհȄႆ ў୽ϱఀى঱ᏰޟंـȂσӻЕ໌ՌՙПȄՄΠΪжकȂဴᆎȶϷݙޟਢфȷȂՙП ঱ᏰоᇄऋᏰᡒᒮᜰ߽஝ϸޟϷݙ঱ᏰкࢺȂᄇܻ༈ಛડ঱ᏰᇄלΰᏰޟ׳ր࣏ࣥ஼ ੨ȂΝՍׇӒ֏ۡડ঱ᏰڷלΰᏰޟཎဎȄᐣแ঱Ᏸড়Dibsmft!IbsutipsofବᄇȶϷ ݙȷޟ྅܈ȂඪюȶഺഅᆣӫȷϞᇳȄԪᇳΙП७૖કଶϷݙܚഅԙٱސЛᚔક࿥ȃ ൊѶཎဎϞᄒȂѪΙП७ζԤϽ၌ӨᆍጒᛟΠϯᄇҳȃඁϚࣺৠϞђȄ঄ԪΠΪΙж कߑȂԃݎӵఀى঱Ᏸंـΰԃݎ૖оȶഺഅᆣӫȷޟ౩܈ڥфȶϷݙȷޟ౩܈Ȃ࿋ џ䇚ఀى঱ᏰޟंـѪ៦ཱིഊȄ! ! ᜰᗤຠȈఀى঱Ᏸȃഺഅᆣӫȃࠤ૭࣋ȃᐣแ঱Ᏸȃఀىंـ!

* 㜙㴟⣏⬠⒚⬠䲣㔁㌰

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Creative Synthesis:

A New Approach to the Philosophy of

Education

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Yih-hsien Yu

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Abstract

! ! Philosophy of education as one of the underpinnings of educational theory is an indispensable subject matter to teachers’ education that inquiries into the essence, end, criteria, meanings, and the function of education. It also has to do with the most significant questions with highly educational relevance: What is human nature? What is knowledge? What is true? What is virtue? What is the good? What is the nature of the world and man’s place in nature? Different responses to those questions will result in different strategies applied to such educational practice as the selection of subject matters, the arrangement of curriculums, the adoption of pedagogies, the formation of educational purposes, the management of school administrations, the stipulation and implementation of educational policies, etc. The importance of philosophy of education is evident and the research approach to it is vital for its construction and development. Different philosophies of education will provide us with different perspectives on education and largely determine our ways of educating. The twentieth century has been named an “Age of Analysis,” and the development of philosophy of education was greatly influenced by the analytic school which focuses on the method of analysis, i.e. conceptual, logical, and linguistic analyses and results in piecemeal and fragmentary understanding of realities. The philosophy of education of twentieth century was thereby misled, and our understanding of the educational reality was reduced to the analysis of educational conceptions and languages. With a view to providing a different perspective, the writer of the present paper is making an attempt to intro duce the approach of creative synthesis proposed by contemporary process philosophers, especially Charles Hartshorne, as an alternative to the analytic approach.

Key words: Education, Philosophy of; Creative Synthesis; Hartshorne, Charles; Process Philosophy; Educational Research.

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! ! ఀى঱Ᏸհ࣏ఀى౩፣ंـޟஅᙃȂϚ༉ඪټ࡚ᄺȶఀىȷհ࣏டཾᏰ೚ሴ୿ޟ १ौЛ࢘Ȃи࢐ৱጒఀىޟ҆ौ፞แȄϧቄ࢐ఀىȉఀىޟҏ፴ȃҬޟȃཎဎȃೣྥ ࣏դȉϧቄ࢐ޣᜋޟܒ፴ȉϧቄ࢐ၾኈޟܒ፴ȉϧቄ࢐Ж᡹ޟܒ፴ȉϧቄ࢐Ρܒȉ ϧቄ࢐ఀৱޟڐጒȉ้้Ȃᄇܻ೻ٲఀى౩܈ڷᇄϞࣺᜰޟஅҏ྅܈ޟᇯᜋȂӔӔኇ ៪רঈԃդᒵᐅఀ؅ȃԊ௶፞แȃၼҢఀݲȃငᕊᏰਮಢᙑȃڙۡఀىࢇ๊ȃ௰ଢ଼ఀ ى՗ࢇ้้ఀىᄂ୛ώհȄά൷׉ᢎِϞȂఀى࢐Ρ᜸ᐌᡝޥོМϽࣀଢ଼ޟΙᕗȂആ ႆ঱Ᏸޟ၌ݙȂ౩၌ఀىհ࣏Ρ᜸М݂ᐠڙޟђ૖ᇄհҢȃఀىᇄޥོޟᜰ߽ȂΝՍ ആຜఀىᄇܻ௰ଢ଼୽ড়ޥོȃᐌᡝМ݂ี৤ޟᄂሬᇄዖӵኇ៪Ȃζ࢐ఀى঱Ᏸޟ१ौ ፞ᚠȄᙏՄِϞȂѫौרঈད௃ᐌᡝȃලႇȃತྃޟᢎᘈᕣ၌ȶఀىȷȂ൷҆໸ؑ፝ ܻఀى঱ᏰȄఀى঱Ᏸޟ१ौܒϚِՄൕȇՄϚӣޟंـПөȂོ౰ҡϚӣלᄘޟఀ ى঱ᏰȂϚӣלᄘޟఀى঱ᏰོඪټרঈϚӣޟఀىຜഏȂ௃Մኇ៪רঈޟఀىᄂ୛ ώհȄ! ! ! ႆў୽ϱఀى঱ᏰޟंـȂσӻЕ໌ՌՙПȄณՄՙПМ݂ՌΪΜжकऋᏰᑹଔ Ϟ ࡣ Ȃ ڧ ڗ ऋ ׬ ี ৤ ޟ ᚾ ᘞ Ȃ ڏ ࡦ ད ॳ ዘ Ι ७ ই ө ᄂ ᜌ ፣ )qptjujwjtn*ȃ ୲ ސ ፣ )nbufsjbmjtn*ȃᐠడ፣)nfdibojtn*ȃՌณ፣)obuvsbmjtn*ȃᄂҢ፣)qsbhnbujtn*ȃ ᛄᅸ፣)tlfqujdjtn*ȂΝՍܻຎฒкဎ)ojijmjtn*ȄনԤޟ۠ఀΡМ༈ಛӰՄڧڗӒ ७׳րᇄፐᔞȂሳԤ཮཮భቪϞ༖ȄڗΟΠΪжकȂဴᆎȶϷݙޟਢфȷ)uif!Bhf!pg! Bobmztjt*ȂՙП঱Ᏸ؁оᇄऋᏰᡒᒮᜰ߽஝ϸޟϷݙ঱Ᏸ)bobmzujd!qijmptpqiz*࣏ кࢺȂᄇܻ༈ಛડ঱ᏰᇄלΰᏰޟ׳րРઉ஼੨ȂΝՍׇӒ֏ۡડ঱ᏰڷלΰᏰޟཎ ဎ Ȟ Ѫ Ι ዘ ࢺ ࠌ ࢐ Ԇ ӵ к ဎ )fyjtufoujbmjtn* ȃ ၛ ភ Ᏸ )ifsnfofvujdt* ȃ ౪ ຫ Ᏸ )qifopnfopmphz*้Ȃ೻ٲᏰࣂᗶо׳րऋᏰՌณкဎ)tdjfoujgjd!obuvsbmjtn*࣏ڏ кौວؑȂᇄऋ׬ዘࢺϚࣺᔖȂծᄇלΰᏰᇄડ঱ᏰӣኺϚ୅᜝ՓȟȄ ఀى঱Ᏸڧڗ ೻ॳዘޟኇ៪ȂଶΟኈ୽ఀى঱Ᏸড়ϫ१ຜࡣ೩ఀى౩፣ޟंـȞ྆౏֬ĭġIJĺĹĹȟȂق Ԥ፣Ѕડ঱ᏰᇄלΰᏰޱȄณՄડ঱ᏰᇄלΰᏰҏ࢐ՙП۠ఀΡМ༈ಛޟஅүȂζ࢐ ୲Ιоತྃᜰᛄȃලႇন౩ȃΡМ౩དȃᆠડቋ঄࣏ंـ፞ᚠޟᏰ୰Ȃᄂ࣏ӱ๎ఀى ತྃලႇ୰ᚠܚϚџܖીޱȄ! ! ! ७ᄇלΰᏰᇄડᏰ೎ܻѲ७ཿᅈϞሬȂᐣแ঱Ᏸড়)qspdftt!qijmptpqifs*!B/!O/! Xijufifbe!)2972.2:58*!ϫ஀ࡻՙПࡦᒱ঱Ᏸ)tqfdvmbujwf!qijmptpqiz*ޟ༈ಛȂ޻ ۡלΰᏰޟቋ঄Ȃٮ䇚छ୽ޟȶᐣแડᏰȷ)qspdftt!uifpmphz*ၼଢ଼ඪټΟ౩፣அᙃȄ

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ΙȃՙПఀى঱Ᏸี৤ӱ៫ᇄ৤ఖ!

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Πȃᐣแ঱Ᏸড়Charles Hartshorne

! ! ᗶณϷݙ঱Ᏸᄇܻఀى঱Ᏸଓᝦڟ๿ȂծڏܻࠬᡒᒮϷݙȃᇭِϷݙȃ྅܈Ϸݙ ޟПݲȂஅҏΰ֏ۡ༈ಛלΰᏰޟቋ঄ᇄཎဎȂά஠ఀى፞ᚠϽघ࣏ఀىᇭِᇄ྅܈ Ϸݙޟ୰ᚠȂٺϞൊѶΟҏ፴ܒޟཎဎȄӔޱϷݙПݲ࣏ؑᆠጂȂ܁܁஠ϚџܖϷޟ ᐌᡝٱސЛᚔ࣏ӨᆍϚࣺৠޟᄇҳ྅܈ȄՄϷݙϞࡣȂ܁܁ܢ๘஠Ⴍ࿥ޟഋϷᗙন࣏ ᐌᡝȂَᐙϚَݓȂٺுڎᡝׇᐌޟٱސѶўনᇼȄϷݙ঱Ᏸഅԙ࿋фՙПࡦདনυ Ͻ)bupnj{fe*ȃЛᚔϽ)gsbhnfouj{fe*ޟࡣݎȂЕี೨ӻԤסϞρޟ׳ຟȄछ୽࿋ф לΰᏰড়ڷડᏰড়Dibsmft!Ibsutipsof!)2:83*ෆ൷ԪඪюΙཱིޟ঱ᏰᢎȂтᆎϞ࣏ ȶ ഺഅ ᆣӫ ȷȄৱݲ I/!Cfshtpo!)296:.2:52*-!D/!T/!Qfjsdf!)294:.2:25*-!B/!O/! Xijufifbe!)2972.2:58*!้঱Ᏸড়Ϟཎ)Hsjggjo-!2::4*ȂIbsutipsof஼፡Ρ᜸ޟင ᡛڎԤȶഺഅᆣӫȷޟܒ፴Ȃ૖஠ፒᚕϞȶӻȷᐌӫ࣏ᄉཱིϞȶΙȷȂ஠Өᆍܒ፴Ϟ ΠϯᄇҳȂϽ࣏ࣺٷϣ၄ޟᜰ߽ȄஅܻငᡛޟϚᘞ؁ཱིए౪)fnfshfodf*Ȃٺுഺഅ )dsfbujpo*ԙ࣏џ૖Ȅ೻ȶഺഅᆣӫȷޟПݲ஼፡ٱސϞ໢ޟԤᐠᜰᖒȃᐌᡝᒊӫо Ѕഺഅ؁ཱིޟџ૖ܒȂϚӣܻϷݙПݲຜٱސ࣏۞ҳޟনυȂЛᚔඹᅞȂϣϚࣺϓȄ ΠΪжकϷݙПݲ౾՗ΙਢȂෆ௰ଢ଼ᎃྵޟϷݙఀى঱ᏰॳዘȄᙁ፝ΠΪΙжकȂԃ ݎIbsutipsofޟȶഺഅᆣӫᢎȷζ૖ڧڗ१ຜȂ࿋џᐭีཱིΙݰޟఀى঱ᏰॳዘȂ঄ ு֎Ρ෈࡟ȄӵԪӑᙏϭIbsutipsofڏΡڏᇳԃήȄ!

ȞΙȟHartshorneڏΡᙏϭ!

! ! Ibsutipsof!࢐᝷!XijufifbeϞࡣശ१ौޟᐣแ঱Ᏸড়ȂΙΤΞΜԑҡܻछ୽ᇽ ςγѻٳԎ)Qfootzmwbojb*ޟۉႳѻᑪ)Ljuuboojoh*ȂЮᒑ࢐ޏৱȂড়৳۠ఀ߬Ӊኇ ៪౏ࠔȄ಑Ιԩжࣨσᏽтෆள๿Ι጑঱Ᏸਪӵݲ୽୤ᏽȂᏽࡣоȶٱސϞಛΙȷ)Uif! Vojuz!pg!Bmm!uijoht*࣏ᚠȂڥுࠤգσᏰ঱ᏰിρᏰ՝Ȅӵࠤգ෈໢ȂIbsutipsof ڧఀܻᄂҢ፣ޱXjmmjbn!KbnftޟଽٗS/!C/!QfsszȂоЅKptjbi!SpzdfޟଽٗX/!F/! IpdljohȂΠΡ঍Іᄇᢎ܈፣)jefbmjtn*ȂᄇIbsutipsofሳԤኇ៪ȄΙΞΠέԑڗΠ Ϥԑ໢ȂтᕕுዩᏰߜ॓ኈ୽ڍԑȂ௃F/!IvttfsmڷN/!IfjefhhfsᏰಬȄծΠΡޟᏰ ᇳϚ૖ٺтᅖཎȇӵтࣼپȂIvttfsmޟᏰᇳк஻ᙤ๿ᔤည߬܈џоுڗȶೝ๝Ϡޟȷ )uif!hjwfo*!ٱސҏ፴Ȃоڥு఼඾݂ጂޟ๘ᄇᜌ݂Ȃᄂႆܻ҂࿵ȄՍܻᄇIfjefhhfsȂ

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IbsutipsofζؠԤԁӟຫȄтᇯ࣏IfjefhhfsᗶณϚԃIvttfsm҂࿵Ȃծтᖂ࢐ຎႺڏ ِȂϚᘞපѠ׻ϬȂᇳBsjtupumf!ौШϛжक঱Ᏸড়௥ߖઍ౩Ȃӑឃਿܜۻ঱Ᏸড়ά ШBsjtupumf௥ߖઍ౩ϡϡȄάIfjefhhfsӵڏӪ๿ȮԆԤᇄਢ໢ȯ)Tfjo!voe![fju* ΙਪܚौߒႀޟȂϚႆ࢐ᇳӵжԆԤ)cfjoh!jo!uif!xpsme*ጂᄂ࢐঱Ᏸޟஅҏᇄ؅Ȅ ծ ଶ Ԫ Մ Ѵ Ȃ Ifjefhhfs ޟ ᇳ ݲ ԃ դ ૖ ᇄ Kbnft-! Cfshtpo ้ Ρ ࣺ Ш ȉ )Ibsutipsof-! 2::2;!4.33*! ! ! ੼ ዉ ෈ ໢ Ȃ Ibsutipsof ζ ෆ ೤ Ᏸ ܻ ़ ୽ ᇄ ༹ Ӵ ց Ȃ ႇ ᐣ ๿ Ӫ ঱ Ᏸ ড় Tbnvfm! Bmfyboefs-!S/!H/!Dpmjohxppe-!H/!F/!Nppsf-!Nby!Tdifmfs ้ΡȄߕछϞࡣȂтڷ Qbvm!XfjttӫጡᄂҢкဎഺۖΡ Dibsmft!Tboefst!QfjsdfޟӒ໱ϲσы )Dpmmfdufe! Qbqfst!pg!Dibsmft!Tboefst!Qfjsdf-!Dbncsjehf!boe!Ibswbse!Vojwfstjuz!Qsftt-! 2:42.2:46*ȂӣਢᐊӈXijufifbeޟօ౩ȂՌ࢐౏ڧΠΡࡦདޟኇ៪Ȃܻࣥڏт঱Ᏸ ড়ȄڏਢXijufifbeϐюގȮऋᏰᇄ౪фжࣨȯ)Tdjfodf!boe!uif!Npefso!Xpsme-!2:36*ȃ Ȯלԙϛޟ۠ఀȯ)Sfmjhjpo!jo!uif!Nbljoh-!2:37*ȃȮຫ኉فಛȈڏཎဎᇄհҢȯ )Tzncpmjtn-!Jut!Nfbojoh!boe!Fggfdu-!2:38*้ਪȂхIbsutipsof౏ڧཐଢ଼Ȃҥܻ ڍΡࡦད௥ߖȂԪࡣIbsutipsof߯ϚᘞលපXijufifbeޟᏰᇳȂԙ࣏Xijufifbeࡦདޟ кौ᝷ܛΡȄ)Ibsutipsof-!2::2;!35.36*! ! ! ΙΞΠΤԑՍΙΞϤϤԑ໢ȂIbsutipsofӈఀܻ߀ёরσᏰ)uif!Vojwfstjuz!pg! Dijdbhp*঱ᏰفȂ࿋ਢEfxfzޟᄂҢ፣࢐ശڧ१ຜޟࡦዘȇEfxfz-!I/!Nfbe-!Kbnft!I/! Uvgut้Ρלԙܚᒝȶ߀ёরᏰࣂȷ)Dijdbhp!Tdippm*ȂծIbsutipsofխнٮҐᑖྃ ёΣȄ࿋ਢ߀ёরσᏰޟਮߝ࢐җ࡯кဎޱSpcfsu!Nbzobse!IvudijotȂтᇄNpsujnfs! K/!Bemfs-!Sjdibse!Q/!NdLfpo้Ѡڐ঱Ᏸড়Є๡ȂڷоEfxfz࣏ॶޟᄂҢкဎޱԙ࣏ σᏰޟڍσࢺࣂȄIbsutipsofᇄтঈ߳ࡻЄፗȂٮҐёΣӈդΙ᜞Ȅӣਢтӵ၎ਮડ Ᏸ଱)uif!Tdippm!pg!Ejwjojuz*ζР঍ኇ៪ΨȂٮиுڗKpio!Dpcc-!Ks/ޟၭᓍȄ2 ! Ibsutipsof ౏ ཐ ՙ П ડ Ᏸ Ռ Ϊ Μ ж क ऋ Ᏸ ᑹ ଔ о پ Ȃ ڧ ڗ ஼ ੨ ଢ଼ ཮ Ȃ Ѡ ڐ Ԥ ડ ፣

1

John Cobb, Jr.㗗伶⚳伶ẍ伶㔁㳦(the Methodist)叿⎵䘬䤆⬠⭞炻ḇ㗗⒚⬠⭞ˤṾ㕤 1947 ⸜军 1952 ⸜攻⛐剅≈ ⒍⣏⬠䤆⬠昊(University of Chicago Divinity School)㓣嬨⌂⢓⬠ỵ炻⚈侴奒䁁 Hartshorne炻⬠佺 Whitehead 䘬 ⒚⬠ˤ㖍⼴Ṿ⮯ Whitehead 䘬⒚⬠冯➢䜋㔁䤆⬠䳸⎰炻两 Hartshorne ᷳ⼴炻䘤⯽↢ˬ㬟䦳䤆⬠˭ˤJohn Cobb, Jr. ᶼ␴ David Griffin 㕤 1973 ⸜⛐伶⚳≈ⶆ⃳厲呁䤆⬠昊(Claremont School of Theology)ℙ⎴∝姕ˬ㬟䦳䞼䨞ᷕ ⽫˭ (Center for Process Studies)炻䘤埴⬠埻↲䈑˪㬟䦳䞼䨞˫(Process Studies)炻ẍ䞼䨞 Whitehead ␴ Hartshorne 䘬⒚⬠ẍ⍲㬟䦳⿅゛䁢姕䩳⬿㖐ˤ

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)dmbttjdbm!uifjtn*ϐฒݲᡘآΡЖȂ҆໸অօཱིޟ঱ᏰࡦዘоᙽϽϞȄਲ਼ᐃ Kpio! Dpcc-!Ks/!)3111;!4.5*ޟᇳݲȂIbsutipsofᇯ࣏ѠڐԤડ፣஼፡ȶડထׇछޟᢎ܈ȷ )uif!jefb!pg!ejwjof!qfsgfdujpo*Ȃк஻ડထׇछڎԤӒޣȃӒ૖ȃӒ๡ȃӒԤȃ җ࡯Ϛᡐᆍᆍ๘ᄇܒ፴Ȃѫ࢐ડထܒޟΙএቹ७ȄڧڗXijufifbeᐣแ঱Ᏸࡦདޟኇ ៪ȂIbsutipsofӰՄк஻ઍғޟׇछ҆໸֤ីׇछޟࣺᜰܒᇄᡐϽܒȇડޟϚᡐܒӵ ׇܻछӴӱᔖΙϸᡐ᎐ޟٱސȄάѠڐԤડ፣к஻ΰࡔޟӒޣӒ૖Ȃ֤ីΟΰࡔႱӑ ؚۡܚԤٱӇޟีҡȂӰՄᏲमܚԤഅސൊѶՌҥȃՄΰࡔά໸࣏ܚԤဌඌڷ٣ඌ॒ ೰ޟࡣݎȂՄ೻ғ࢐ՙПડᏰߝδฒ၌ޟᜲᚠȄIbsutipsofࠌඪដΰࡔ༉ඪټȶપו ᇄՌҥശσ३࡙ҁᒋȷ)uif!pqujnvn!cbmbodf!pg!psefs!boe!gsffepn*ޟనӇȂٺഅ ސӵڏϛுоՌ՗ؚۡܚԤޟಠ࿽ȄஅܻӨᆍϚӣᐠႄҺϣኇ៪ȂհюӨᆍϚӣޟؚ ۡ Ȅ Ibsutipsof ޟ к ஻ Ȃ Р ࡣ ԙ ࣏ т ܚ ี ৤ ޟ ȶ ཱི Ѡ ڐ ঱ Ᏸ ȷ )ofp.dmbttjdbm! nfubqiztjdt*ڷȶᐣแડᏰȷ)qspdftt!uifpmphz*ޟஅᙃȂӣਢζӵछ୽ЕีΟཱིޟ ડᏰၼଢ଼Ȅ)Dpcc-!Ks/!boe!Hsjggjo-!2:87<!Dpcc-!Ks/-!2::2*! ! ! ΙΞϤϤڗΙΞϲΠԑ໢ȂIbsutipsofӈఀܻՔೃցσᏰ)Fnpsz!Vojwfstjuz*Ȃ Ϟࡣάӈఀܻኈպᙡ඼Ԏ༹඼ΛσᏰ)uif!Vojwfstjuz!pg!Ufybt!bu!Bvtujo*Ȃޢڗ ΙΞΜΤԑଝӄȄӵ೻ࢲ෈໢ȂIbsutipsof๿क़ࣥᙴȂюގΟȮׇछᡒᒮȯ)Uif!Mphjd! pg!Qfsgfdujpo-2:73*ȃȮרঈਢфޟՌณડᏰȯ)B!Obuvsbm!Uifpmphz!gps!Pvs!Ujnf-! 2:78*ȃȮԊ࿄ޟี౪ȯ)Botfmn(t!Ejtdpwfsz-!2:78*ȃȮഺഅᆣӫڷ঱ᏰПݲȯ)Dsfbujwf! Tzouiftjt!boe!Qijmptpqijd!Nfuipe-!2:81*ȃȮᛄኈ੕঱Ᏸȯ)Xijufifbe(t!Qijmptpqiz-! 2:83*้ਪȄ೻ٲ๿հ঍឴לΰᏰڷડᏰޟ፣क़Ȃԟӵਲ਼ᐃXijufifbeޟ঱Ᏸี৤юཱི ޟડᏰ౩፣Ȅڏϛȶഺഅᆣӫȷޟ঱Ᏸ౩፣Ȃ߯࢐тӵȮഺഅᆣӫڷ঱ᏰПݲȯΙਪ ϛܚඪюޟȄӣਢтᄇգఀࡦདࣥߒ௰தȂෆ୤ё2:85ԑछ୽ёԎպ຀ᇌડᏰ଱ޟᐣ แंـϛЖ)uif!Dfoufs!gps!Qspdftt!Tuvejft!bu!Dmbsfnpou-!Dbmjgpsojb*ڷেࡄ ӼσᏰ঱Ᏸف)uif!Efqbsunfou!pg!Qijmptpqiz!bu!uif!Vojwfstjuz!pg!Ibxbjj*ӫᒲ ޟȶσॸգᏰᇄᛄኈ੕ȷᏰ೚ོដȂߴ໌գᏰᇄᐣแડᏰϞ໢ޟᄇၗ)Dpogfsfodf!po! ȸNbibzbob!Cveeijtn!boe!Xijufifbeȹ*Ȅ)Ibsutipsof-!2:86*!ଝӄϞࡣȂIbsutipsof ϫ๿क़ᖿᏰϚᎅȂޢڗΙΞΞΜԑтΙԻྑޟਢঐȂᗙюގΟȮႭᙲᇲڷڏтཱིѠڐ לΰᏰ፣Мȯ)Uif![fsp!Gbmmbdz!boe!Puifs!Fttbzt!jo!Ofpdmbttjdbm!Nfubqiztjdt-! 2::8*ΙਪȂџَڏՂՄᔔ஀ޟंـҡڼȄശࡣIbsutipsofԫܻΠɒɒɒԑȂுჰΙ

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ԻႭέྑȂџ૖࢐ԤѬоپശߝჰޟ঱Ᏸড়Ȅ!

ȞΠȟHartshorneޟкौᏰᇳ!

! ! ડᏰӵՙПন࢐לΰᏰޟΙഋϷȂਲ਼ᐃBsjtupumf!)2:95b*!ޟᇳݲȂડᏰ࢐಑Ι ঱ᏰȂζ࢐לΰᏰޟࠅୖȄॠஅ࿜ఀ༈ΣϞࡣȂڍνԑپՙП঱Ᏸড়ᇄડᏰড়Ϛᘞ஠ ડᏰᇄ঱Ᏸ๖ӫȂڏҬޟӵ䇚۠ఀ߬Ӊඪټ౩ܒޟஅᙃȄϛжक঱Ᏸέσ፞ᚠȈԃդ ᜌ݂ȶΰࡔԆӵȷȃȶ᡹ቀϚԥȷڷȶՌҥཎסȷȂࢋ࢐۠ఀޟஅҏ୰ᚠȂ؁࢐঱Ᏸं ـޟкᚠȄ೻ٲ፞ᚠਖ਼ЅΡᄇ຺ՌณȃᆠડᄂԤޟ߬ӉȂоЅᄇܻΡՌ٘Ԇӵᇄҏ፴ ޟᇯᜋȄડᏰᇄלΰᏰޟ๖ӫ࢐ՙП༈ಛᢎ܈ȃ౩དȃቋ঄ȃཎဎϞܚᛮȇоΡ᜸౩ ܒհ࣏۠ఀ߬ӉޟஅүȂ޻ۡԇۤՌณޟഺഅюܻડထཎყȂΡࠌ࢐ΰࡔ࢐ٷՌ٘ל ຫܚഅȂӴ՝தଽȂџᇳ࢐ՙП༈ಛМ݂ശ१ौޟЛ࢘ȄณՄ೻ડᏰᇄלΰᏰޟᓺ༖ Ӵ՝ڗΟΪΜжकऋᏰᑹଔϞࡣȂڧڗऋᏰ୲ސ፣)tdjfoujgjd!nbufsjbmjtn*ȃᐠడ ؚۡ፣)nfdibojtujd!efufsnjojtn*ȃฒડ፣)buifjtn*ȃᛄᅸ፣оЅᄂᜌ፣้ІડᏰ ڷІלΰᏰޟᏰᇳܚኇ៪Ȃ໠ۖ཮཮భቪȄڗΟΠΪжकȂӵӨᆍלԒޟ౪фкဎ )npefsojtn*ڷࡣ౪фкဎ)qptunpefsojtn*ࡦዘޟ௰ݰօᝢήȂડᏰᇄלΰᏰඁฒҳ ٗϞӴȄൊѶᆠડМ݂Л࢘ޟ࿋фՙПࡦዘȂѫԤө௰ᙚ༈ಛቋ঄౩དȃ֏ۡΡၾᆠ ડޟຎฒкဎ༊ఇȄӵ೻ਢړȂন࣏ኵᏰড়ޟ़୽঱Ᏸড়Xijufifbe஀ࡻՙПࡦᒱ౩ ܒޟђ૖ڷלΰᏰޟ༈ಛȂਲ਼ᐃᅋϽ፣)fwpmvujpo!uifpsz*ڷΠΪжकऋᏰޟཱིี౪ Ȟ ࣺ ᄇ ፣ ᇄ ໔ υ ސ ౩ Ᏸ ȟȂ ี ৤ ю Ι ৈ ᒊ ӫ ༈ ಛ ᇄ ౪ ф ࡦ ዘ ޟ ȶ ᐣ แ ঱ Ᏸ ȷȄ Մ Ibsutipsofܛ᝷XijufifbeϞᇳȂ໌Մ஠ϞᇄડᏰ๖ӫȂี৤юȶᐣแડᏰȷ)qspdftt! uifpmphz*پȂЕีՙП࿋фኇ៪ࣥኄޟડᏰၼଢ଼ȄӵԪҏМฒཎਖ਼Σ۠ఀଆ፣Ȃ༉ ஠ᙏϭIbsutipsofᏰᇳޟ঱Ᏸڷડ঱ᏰޟഋϷȈഺϽԇۤ፣ȃཱིѠڐלΰᏰȃݿЖ౩ ፣ȂоЅछཐቋ঄፣ȂоԤօܻᄇڏȶഺഅᆣӫȷϞᇳޟᕣ၌Ȅ! ! ! 2/ഺϽԇۤ፣)dptnpmphz!pg!dsfbujwjuz*Ȉ!Ibsutipsof!)2:76;!w.yyjj*ၭᓍ XijufifbeޟᏰᇳȂඪюоഺϽ࢐ತྃন౩)dsfbujwjuz!bt!uif!vmujnbuf*ޟԇۤ፣Ȅ ೻໶ԇۤ፣ᇯ࣏ԇۤՌณ࢐ΙഺϽᐣแ)dsfbujwf!bewbodf*ȂҡҡϚϐȂཱཱིིϚୄȂ ๘ߨԃऋᏰ୲ސ፣ܚк஻࢐ҥԫ஛ސ፴ܚᄺԙޟᐠడԇۤȄϚӣܻѠڐԤડ፣о࣏ѫ Ԥડ૖ഺഅȂIbsutipsofࠌк஻ӵ೻Ϛᘞᡐ᎐ޟԇۤϛȂܚԤഅސȂѓࢂΡӵϱȂ֯ ڎԤഺϽ੫፴)dsfbujwjuzĪȄ࿲ސӵՌณᐣแϛҡԙᡐϽ)cfdpnjoh*Ȃи܄ԪҺࣺᜰ

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ᖒ)joufssfmbufe*ȂฒϚڎԤՌרഺཱི)tfmg.dsfbujpo*ޟ૖ΨȄ೻Ռרഺཱིޟкᡝ ΙП७ڧڗࢋԤనӇޟ३ڙȂծѪΙП७ζོਲ਼ᐃՌ٘ԆӵޟҬޟȂഺഅཱིޟᐠོо ൶ ؑ Ռ ר ᅖ ٗ Ȅ ࢈ џ ᒝ ڏ ഋ Ϸ ڧ ڗ ؚ ۡ )efufsnjofe* Ȃ ծ ഋ Ӌ ࢐ Ռ ҥ ޟ )joefufsnjobuf*Ȅά೻ԇۤϚᘞҡԙี৤ȂϚѫ࢐ȶԤȷ)cfjoh*ڷȶҐԤȷ)opu.cfjoh* ޟ౅ڷȂи࢐ཱིޟٱސ౰юޟ౅ڷȄΙԙϚᡐ)qfsnbofodf*ѫ࢐ഺཱི)opwfmuz*ޟୋ Ԥቹ७ȂՄȶԤȷѫ࢐ȶҡԙᡐϽȷޟΙএቹ७Ȅ൷ՌณڎᡝٱސՄِȂѫԤᡐϽڷ ᐣแ࢐ڏᄂࣺ)sfbmjuz*ȄIbsutipsofޟ೻໶ுՌXijufifbeޟᏰᇳȂкौڧڗDibsmft! EbsxjoᅋϽ፣ޟኇ៪)Cjsdi-!2::2;!62.63*Ȅ฿ϚӣܻXijufifbeȂIbsutipsof؁१ ຜȶᐠႄȷ)dibodf*ޟ྅܈Ȅтᇯ࣏ȶᐠႄȷڷȶཎყȷ)qvsqptf*ޟ๖ӫȂ߯ٗо ၌ភΙϸȄ3 ඲ِϞȂ൷ҡސԤȶՌר߳Ԇȷȃȶᖅॊࡣфȷȃȶᒸ༈ȷڷȶएᡐȷ้ٱᄂ ࣼپȂՌณᅋϽϚ૖ᘛಳȶᐠႄȷڷȶཎყȷޟӰશȄ! ! ! 3/ཱིѠڐלΰᏰ)ofp.dmbttjdbm!nfubqiztjdt*ȈIbsutipsofஅܻડ঱Ᏸ๖ӫޟ ༈ಛȂζᆎϞ࣏ȶཱིѠڐડᏰȷ)ofp.dmbttjdbm!uifpmphz!ps!uifjtn*Ȅڏஅҏҳൟ ࣏ȶ຺ࣺᄇ፣ȷ)tvssfmbujwjtn*Ȃк஻ܚԤȶࣺᄇޟȷ)uif!ȸsfmbujwfȹ*ȃȶᡐϽ ޟȷ)dibohfbcmf*ޟٱސȂѫौ࢐ԤᒦܻӨᆍᡐϽޟᜰ߽Ȃܻ߯ڏՌ٘ϱ֤ٮ຺ູܚ ԤߨࣺᄇޟȃϚᡐޟȃᐿҳޟȃ๘ᄇޟٱސȄٽԃȶڎᡝȷ։ొࢂٮ຺ູȶܪຫȷȄ ඲ِϞȂܚԤᄇҳࣺІޟٱސȂਲ਼ᐃ຺ࣺᄇ፣ޟᇳݲȂӓӵ )dp.qsftfodf*ȃࣺԙ )nvuvbm!efqfoefodf*ȂϚོҭࣽϣҌ...ȶᄇҳࣺІȷϚӣܻȶҭࣽȷȂࠉޱџоӣ ਢٮԆȂԃࠒѕྃȇࡣޱϚџ૖ԆӵȂԃПޟ༫לȄIbsutipsof!)2:59;!y.yj*!੫տ ධЕNpssjt!DpifoᡒᒮᏰϛޟȶڍྃন౩ȷ)uif!qsjodjqmf!pg!qpmbsjuz*о၌ភԪ ᇳȈȶҭࣽࡡ)uif!mbx!pg!dpousbejdujpo*ؠԤ࿱Хࣺӣᄂᡝΰю౪ࣺІ)dpousbsz* ޟܒ፴Ȃѫ࢐ᇳڍޱ࢐ٱސࣺІޟϚӣቹ७ȄɃרঈ҆໸ωЖϚौࢺܻᙏϽ௑ცȂٮ ѫоڏϛΙএቹ७پϷݙࣺІޟ௑༖Ȅ೻ڍྃন౩࢐ंـޟϴ೩ɃȂܖџᆎϞ࣏҆ณ ӓԆন౩ȂоЅᄇҳጂۡܒޟࣺϣٷᒦ)uif!qsjodjqmf!pg!uif!ofdfttbsz!dp.qsftfodf! boe!nvuvbm!efqfoefodf*Ȅȷਲ਼ᐃ೻໶ন౩ȂܚԤ༈ಛלΰᏰޟᄇҳ྅܈Ȉࣺᄇᇄ๘ ᄇ ȃ ϱ ӵ )jnnbofodf* ᇄ ຺ ູ )usbotdfoefodf* ȃ ዖ Ԇ )qpufoujbmjuz* ᇄ ᄂ ౪

2

Darwin 䘬㺼⊾婾ᷣ⻝ˬ䈑䪞⣑㑯炻怑侭䓇⬀˭炻⍇㗗➢㕤ⓗ䈑㨇㡘婾䘬㰢⭂婾ˤỮṾ䘬䎮婾婒⍲ˬ䘤䓇嬲䔘˭ (genetic variation)㗪炻⍰⺽忚Ḯˬ㨇忯˭䘬㤪⾝ˤ䈑䧖嬲䔘炻䨞䪇㍉ỽ䧖⼊䉨冯㧉⺷炻㚱䃉旸䧖⎗傥ˤ㟡㒂 Birch (1991)䘬婒㱽炻Hartshorne 㗗ᾳ⽡⸽䘬㺼⊾婾侭炻Ṿ娵䁢 Darwin 㺼⊾婾㚨⣏䘬届䌣ὧ⛐㍸↢㨇忯ḳẞ (chance events)䘬㤪⾝炻᷎ᶼ娵䁢冒䃞䦑⸷⎒天啱叿ˬ㨇忯˭␴ˬシ⚾˭炻ὧ嵛ẍ妋慳ˤ

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)bduvbmjuz*ȃ҆ณ)ofdfttjuz*ᇄୋณ)dpoujohfodz*ȃڎᡝ)dpodsfufoftt*ᇄܪຫ )bctusbdujpo*ȃ ٷ ᒦ )efqfoefodf*ᇄ ᐿ ҳ )joefqfoefodf*ȃ Ռ ҥ )gsffepn*ᇄ પ ו )psefs*ȃএᡝ)joejwjevbm*ᇄලႇ)vojwfstbm*ȃܒ፴)rvbmjuz*ᇄ๖ᄺ)tusvduvsf* ้้Ȃ֯џٮԆӓৠȂϣϚࣺᛤȂ঍ᒊܻΙސϞϛȄ)Ibsutipsof-!2:59!-q/!39*!ᖞ ȶΰࡔȷِϞȂѠڐԤડ፣ޱᇯ࣏ΰࡔ๘ᄇதଽȃ҆ณׇछȃׇӒᄂ౪ȃ൐સҗ࡯ȃ ӒޣӒ૖ȂΙҍഺഅΟ೻এжࣨȂ߯ଽଽӵΰȂϚڧ೻এжࣨޟኇ៪ȄծཱིѠڐלΰ Ᏸࠌᇯ࣏ѠڐԤડ፣ѫජቸΟΰࡔȶ๘ᄇܒȷޟቹ७ȂؠԤኌЅΰࡔᗙԤڷжࣺࣨᄇ ϣଢ଼ȃ஝ϸ๖ӫޟΙ७Ȅΰࡔᇄ೻এжࣨϱӵࣺᜰ)joufsobmmz!sfmbufe*ȃڎԤዖԆ ܒȃୋณܒȃϱӵܒȃፒᚕܒȄΰࡔᗶഺഅжࣨȂծжࣨᇄഅސҏ٘ζՌ঍ഺഅΨȄ ࢐оΰࡔޟഺഅҏ٘ᗶ࢐҆ณޟȂծжࣨᄂሬีҡޟٱࠓ࢐ୋณޟȄΰࡔᗶԤӒޣȂ ծ҆໸ڧڗᡒᒮݲࠌޟ३ڙȄᗶԤӒ૖ȂծϚ૖䇚അސޟՌк՗ଢ଼॒೰Ȅᄂࠌΰࡔ։ ож࣏ࣨڏՈ٘Ȃᗶณҗ࡯ߝԆȂծϫငᐣ೻౪՗жࣨȂԤਢ໢ܒȃᡐ౴ܒᇄࣺᄇׇ छܒȄġ ! ! ፴ՄِϞȂฒ፣࢐ȶཱིѠڐלΰᏰȷܖޱȶཱིѠڐԤડ፣ȷȂڏҬޟӵएકѠڐ לΰᏰᇄડᏰᇧഅᄇҳΠϯȃϣϚࣺৠޟ֨ცȂ໌ՄϽ၌оȶ๘ᄇׇछȷ࣏ΰࡔ឴ܒ ܚഅԙޟҭࣽᇄ୰ᚠȄ4 ! ! ! 4/ݿЖ౩፣)qboqtzdijtn*ȈܚᒝȶݿЖ᡹፣ȷ࢐ᇄȶ୲ސ፣ȷ)nbufsjbmjtn*ҳ ൟࣺІޟ঱ᏰᏰᇳȄݿЖ౩፣к஻ܚԤޟԆӵ഍Ԥཐڧ)gffmjoh*ȃཎყ)qvsqptf*ܖ ޱЖ౩੫፴)b!qtzdijd!btqfdu*Ȅ։ٺலᜋΰΙૡΡо࣏ؠԤЖ᡹ቹ७ޟฒᐠސ፴Ȃ ԃনυȃϷυȃஅҏಖυȂ֯ڎԤЖ౩឴ܒȄਲ਼ᐃ୲ސ፣ޟᇳݲȂฒᐠސѫ࢐Ιஂᄛ ܒސ፴ޟಣᆹȂࢋฒཐڧȂζฒཎᜋȄծIbsutipsof!)2:61;!553.563*ᇯ࣏ٱᄂΰฒ ᐠސϫԤ੫ۡޟ๖ᄺȂџຜ࣏ശճแ࡙ޟ᡹ቀȄܚԤԆӵ֯ԤڏЖ౩ቹ७Ȃ࢐᏿Ԥ᡹ ቀȃкᡝܖငᡛޟ൐ϯȇՄܚԤٱސ഍࢐ҥӨᆍϚӣޟкᡝڷငᡛ൐ϯܚᄺԙȄкᡝ Ϟ໢ϣ࣏నӇȂ܄ԪࣺᜰȂלԙھۡޟಢᙑ๖ᄺȄݿЖ౩፣Ϛӣܻ୲Ж፣)jefbmjtn*ȇ ୲Ж፣к஻жࣨٷߣཎᜋՄԆӵȂӵਢުϞϛޟ౪՗жࣨ҆ሯആႆཐۢϗ૖ೝᇯᜋȂ

3 䳽⮵⬴伶ᶲⷅ奨⛐⁛䴙䤆⬠㇨忈ㆸ㚨⣏䘬⓷柴炻⌛㗗䓙婘屈屔恒ら(evil)冯伒忶(sin)䘬⬀⛐烎ẍ⍲Ṣ㗗⏎㚱冒 䓙䁢ら烎ᶾ䓴ᶲ⇘嗽⃭㺧伒ら炻Ṣ⇯㗗恒ら㚨⣏䤵㸸炻⤪㝄ᶲⷅ㗗䳽⮵⬴伶䘬炻䁢ỽ∝忈忁㧋䘬ᶾ䓴␴Ṣ烎 㗗⏎ㅱ䇚忁䧖䎦尉屈屔烎⁛䴙䤆⬠⮵㬌ᶨ暋柴䃉㱽䴎Ḱ⬴㔜妋䫼炻Hartshorne(1970, pp. 237-238)⇯娵䁢炻⤪㝄 ᶲⷅ℟㚱ˬ䚠⮵⬴伶˭炻㍸ὃᶾ䓴␴Ṣ⽭䃞䭬⚵冯㡅ẞ炻Ữ䔁ᶳ„䃞䳘䭨Ẍᶾ䓴冯Ṣ冒埴㰢⭂ἄ䁢炻恋ὧ䃉 枰䁢ṾᾹ䘬㇨䁢屈屔ˤ

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Մи༉૖Ͻघ࣏ΡЖܖޱડထЖ᡹ϛޟᢎ܈ȂӰՄીмᄂӵܒȄݿЖ౩፣ࠌϚณȂࢋ ܛ ᇯ Ѵӵ ж ࣨޟ ᄂӵ ܒȂζ ܛ ᇯശ ճ ้ޟ Ж౩ հҢȂ џ ᇳ࢐ Ι ᆍȶ Ж౩ ᄂӵ፣ ȷ )qtzdijdbm!sfbmjtn*ȄIbsutipsofԪᇳζ࢐ܛ᠛ՌXijufifbeȂᛄЪ)2:36;!8:.92* ෆ஠ฒ፣ӻቄཌಠޟএᡝȞԃႫυȃϷυȟᆎ࣏ȶᐠᡝȷ)pshbojtn*Ȃᇯ࣏Ѻঈ഍࢐ ڎԤȶՌк૖Ψȷ)tvckfdujwjuz*ȞЖ౩ȟޟԆӵȄтޟȶᐠᡝȷ྅܈ȂϚӣܻΙૡ ҡސᏰޟȶԤᐠᡝȷȂ຺ູΟԤҡڼᇄฒҡڼȃཎᜋᇄฒཎᜋޟࣨጣȂIbsutipsofᇯ ࣏೻ғ࢐ΙᆍȶݿЖ౩፣ȷȂڏҬޟӵ҈કՙП঱ᏰЖސȃкࡊΠϯᄇҳޟ༈ಛ䩤ՎȄġ ! ! 5/ छ ཐ ቋ ঄ ፣ )bftuifujd! wbmvf! bt! nbusjy! pg! wbmvf* Ȉ Ibsutipsof! )2:81;! 414.432*к஻ΙϸԤཐڧȃԤငᡛޟԆӵȂ֯ԤڏҏԤቋ঄ )jousjotjd!wbmvf*ȇՄ ڏቋ঄ࠌᄔᡗܻѓ֤Жࡦ௑ཎܚԤငᡛޟڷᒙܖछ๡ϞΰȄΙૡᇳپԤέᆍቋ঄Ȉད ޟғጂ։ȶઍȷȂ՗ޟғጂ։ȶ๡ȷȂငᡛڗᅖٗ۷ᆋ։ȶछȷȄӵIbsutipsofࣼپȂ ೻έᆍቋ঄၇Ȃȶछȷғ࢐ቋ঄ҔᡝȂȶઍȷڷȶ๡ȷ֯҆໸Ⴑ೩ȶछȷȄछཐቋ঄к ौߒ౪ӵڞ፡િᚕݢӻޟငᡛȂٺϞᘪܻڷᒙȂζ൷࢐ᇳȶछ࢐ӻᡐϞಛΙȷ)cfbvuz! jt!vojuz!jo!wbsjfuz*ȄIbsutipsofᖞBsjtupumfޟȶϛஷȷ)uif!hpmefo!nfbo*Ϟᇳ ࣏ٽȄϛஷ։Ϛ୑ϚᐭȂฒႆᇄϚЅȄӵڍᆍྃᆒϞ໢Ȃڥுശџభޟܒ፴Ȅԃӵࡨ នڷ܌ᔙϞ໢ȂᔖڥࠍමȄӣ౩Ȃछཐቋ঄ζ࢐ӵӨᆍݢӻፒᚕϞ໢ȂڥுҁᒋȄԇ ۤഺϽȂฒਢϚӵഺཱི׽ᡐȂӰՄϚོဣΣᐠడܒޟΙԙϚᡐȄೝؚۡޟٱސϚོछȂ छޟٱސ҆ԤഺഅܒᇄՌҥȄȶઍȷޟቋ঄џᇳഋϷ࢐ȶछȷޟΙᆍלԒȄӰ࣏Ρѫ Ԥޣၾູӻઍ౩Ȃϗ૖ູٺՌϏޟᢎ܈ϢณԤוȂᇄငᡛࣺಒᔖȄծད჋ငᡛϯશϞ ໢ζሯौڞ፡ȂӰԪȶछȷ឴ܻШȶઍȷ؁࣏ኄݿޟጒᛟȈȶछȷϚ༉ڞ፡ᇄȶઍȷ ԤᜰޟޣឈငᡛȂᗙौڞ፡Ϛӣܻޣឈޟȶད჋ȷȄӰԪȶछȷϚ૖հ࣏ȶઍȷޟΙ ᆍלԒȂІՄ࢐ӵרঈᇯᜋȶઍȷޟਢঐȂᡱȶઍȷ౰ҡώڎܒޟቋ঄)jotusvnfoubm! wbmvf*ĮĮĮ!ആႆȶઍȷޟώڎܒհҢȂ౰ҡȶछȷޟငᡛȄՍܻȶ๡ȷޟቋ঄ζߨင ᡛՌ٘ޟቋ঄ȇ᜸ӣܻȶઍȷޟհҢȂȶ๡ȷζ࢐πদቨ໌ҐپငᡛҏԤቋ঄ޟΙᆍ ώڎȄIbsutipsof໌Մ஼፡ȶ๡ཎȷ)hppe!xjmm*ҏ٘Ȃоලႇ஼ϽרঈҐپငᡛޟ ቋ঄࣏ҬޟȂ࢐ڷᒙϞछޟߒ౪Ȃগ౩Ᏸ҆Ⴑ೩ΟछᏰȄᖂϞȂฒ፣࢐ȶઍȷᗙ࢐ȶ๡ȷȂ ֯Ϛ૖ಳᚔȶछȷȄᄇΙ՝ऋᏰড়ՄِȂΙএԁޟ౩፣࢐छޟȂऋᏰҏ٘߯࢐Ιᆍ੏ ᅞޟࠃᓎȂΙᆍᘗ৤छޟຜഏޟഊ৷Ȅȶ๡ཎȷޟछཐቋ঄ζӵϚᘞලЅᘗσڏᎌҢ ጒ൜Ȉ௃ՌϏ٘᜞໠ۖȂΙޢᘗσڗӒΡ᜸ȄԃԪޟΡҡѓ֤Οȶ๡ཎޟछȷȂζѓ

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֤ΟȶؑઍޟछȷȄԃݎΡདौ؁Ο၌ՌϏȂ߯ᔖ؁ᕣ၌רঈЈܒᄇܻछޟ൉ԁȄՄ ೻Ιϸ֯ᘪܻ፝רঈ፭Ϡԇۤоቋ঄ȈԃݎԇۤؠԤቋ঄Ȃ٥ቄרঈζؠԤቋ঄ȇІ ϞȂԃݎԇۤԤቋ঄Ȃרঈ߯Ԥቋ঄ȄIbsutipsofӰՄࡇᆎΡҡޟछཐቋ঄ѫԤᄂ౪ ӵএΡᇄтΡڷԇۤϞ໢ޟᜰ߽ΰȄၾኈቋ঄ࠌᄂ౪ܻএΡ௴ڥ຺ູՌ٘ցઉޟҬޟ ϞΰȂٺΡޟҡڼհюߝδޟଓᝦȄՄ೻Ιϸ֯џᄂ౪ܻȶശತޟछȷ)gjobm!cfbvuz* ϞϛȂ٥ζ࢐ȶડထϞछȷ)cfbvuz!pg!ipmjoftt*Ȅ! ! ! ᐃԪᙏϭџޣIbsutipsofޟᏰᇳȂฒ፣࢐ԇۤ፣ȃלΰᏰȃЖ౩ҏᡝᗙ࢐ቋ঄፣Ȃ ֯оϽ၌Πϯᄇҳ࣏۠ԟȄоή஠ϭಝڏȶഺഅᆣӫȷϞᇳޟࡦདెྛᇄौဎȂо໌ Ι؏ᕣ၌ڏᇳȄ! !

έȃഺഅᆣӫޟ঱Ᏸᢎ!

! ! ٱᄂΰ ȶഺഅᆣ ӫȷ ޟ ྅܈Ȃϫ ࢐ Ibsutipsofܛ ᠛Ռ Xijufifbeޟ ᏰᇳȄ Մӵ XijufifbeϞࠉȂࠌԤݲ୽ҡᐠ፣ޱ)uif!wjubmjtu*Ifosj!Cfshtpo)2:55*!ඪюޟȶഺ ҡᅋϽȷ)dsfbujwf!fwpmvujpo*оЅᐬࢸཱིᄂӵ፣ޱ)ofp.sfbmjtu*Tbnvfm!Bmfyboefs ඪюȶഺഅᆣӫȷޟࡦད...೻࢐ȶഺഅᆣӫȷΙ᜝ޟଔྛȄ5 CfshtpoڷBmfyboefsϚ ᅖܻऋᏰ୲ސ፣ڷᐠడؚۡ፣஠Ռณࣼୈ࢐ᐠడӰݎᚇᜦᄺԙޟσᐠᏢȂڏϛีҡޟ ӈդٱӇ഍࢐ҥӑࠉޑᄘܚؚۡޟᏰᇳȂܻ࢐ϷտඪюӨՌޟ౩፣оІሻϞȄ! ! ! ॶӑCfshtpo)2:31;!24.32*ਲ਼ᐃҡސᅋϽޟٱᄂȂ஠Ռณࣼୈ࢐ϚᘞᡐϽҡԙޟ ȶഺҡᅋϽȷȄȶഺҡᅋϽȷϚ࢐юܻᐠడޟЈᐅȂՄ࢐ҥҡڼޟഺഅፐଢ଼)êmbo!wjubm* ܚ௰ଢ଼Ȅӵਢ໢ޟᐣแϞϛȂҡڼϚᘞଡཱིؑҬޟޟᄂ౪Ȅᐠడސ౩ݲࠌ༉૖၌ភฒ ᐠޟސ፴ԇۤȈ೻ސ፴࢐Ԥᄛܒ!)jofsujb*ȃџ໔ϽޟȃڧڗӰݎ҆ณࡡܚЛ଩ޟȇ ՄԤᐠޟҡڼࠌ࢐ԤཎᜋȃԤՌҥȃ૖ഺഅޟȄҡڼΙ໠ۖ൷ԆӵܻΙএȶਢࢲȷ )evsbujpo*ϞϛȂӵڏϛႆўȃ౪ӵڷҐپ܄ԪҺ᠒ȂᄺԙϚџϷസޟ೿៉ܒȄ௃Ռ ณᅋϽޟٱᄂџَȂҡڼΙ७ആႆጥᄚಣᑖ)tmpx!bddvnvmbujpo*Ռ٘૖໔ȂѪΙ७ एณភܹ)tveefo!ejtdibshf*Ռ٘ޟ૖໔Ȃܻ࢐౰ҡᡐϽȄ൷ཎᜋՄِȂ଄ᏹ࢐ಣᑖ ޟհҢȂՌҥȃᒵᐅᇄഺཱིࠌ࢐ភܹޟհҢȄՄؠԤ଄ᏹհҢޟސ፴Ȃࠌѫ૖ڧڗӰ

4 㚱斄 Alexander 䘬⒚⬠冯㔁做⿅゛炻⚳ℏ㛒㚦㚱Ṣṳ䳡ˤ㚱斄 Bergson 䘬⒚⬠冯㔁做⿅゛炻婳⍫夳湫⃱晬㔁㌰ 䘬叿ἄ(1998, pp.枩 289-305炸ˤ

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ݎ҆ณܒޟЛ଩ȂΙԙϚᡐӴܛ᠛ӑࠉޟޑᄘȄऋᏰᡗҰᐌএҡڼޟᅋϽ࢐ސᆍϚᘞ ᎌᔖᕗცޟ๖ݎȂծ೻ѫ૖၌ភդоҡڼࠁ३ܻϚӣޟלԒȂࠓฒݲᇳ݂դоҡڼל Ԓդоҥճ้өଽ้ᅋϽȄճ઻ҡސڷଽ઻ޟΡ᜸ΙኺџоᎌᔖҡԆޟᕗცȂӰԪᅋ ϽޟҬޟ҆ϚХܻᎌᔖᕗცȇ௃নۖҡڼלԒᅋϽڗΡȂᡗҰ೻࢐ȶཎᜋȷᄇתȶސ ፴ȷޟႆแȄCfshtpo)2:57!*ӰՄ޻ۡԇۤϛԤϚџႱกޟഺཱིࣀଢ଼Ȃӵࡻ៉ޟഺҡ ႆแϞϛϚᘞЕ໌ཱིޟҡڼלԒȂளپᡐϽȄ೻߯࢐ܚᒝޟȶഺҡᅋϽȷȄ୲Ԥȶഺ ҡᅋϽȷȂΡϗԤՌҥȄ! ! ! Bmfyboefs!)2:76*ӣཎCfshtpoޟᇳݲȂᇯ࣏ҡڼ౪ຫฒݲϽघ࣏ސ౩ϽᏰޟᐣ แȄᗶณҡڼϚ૖ಳᚔڧڗސ౩ϽᏰݲࠌЛ଩ޟᙼᡝȂծҡڼҏ٘ࠓ࢐Ӓཱིޟܒ፴Ȃ Ӱ࣏ڏϛޟȶҡᐠȷ)wjubmjuz*ׇӒϚӣܻސ౩ϽᏰݲࠌȄ൷ՌณᅋϽޟٱᄂࣼȂҡ ސҥճՄଽϚᘞөΰᅋϽȂ౰ҡཱིޟҡڼלԒڷސᆍȄ௃൐ಠफҡސڗӻಠफȂ௃ේ ސڗଢ଼ސȂΙӔᡗҰȶཱིޟᆣӫȷϚᘞีҡȄBmfyboefsܻ࢐לৠՌณᅋϽ࢐Ιȶഺ അᆣӫȷޟᐣแȇཱིޟܒ፴ᖂ࢐ҥᙟޟٱސܚ౰ҡȄٱᄂΰȶഺഅᆣӫȷ྅܈ӵՙП ΪΞжकήјဨڧڗԤᐠϽᏰ)pshbojd!difnjtusz*ޟኇ៪Ȃ౾՗ΙਢȄਲ਼ᐃϽᏰᄂ ᡛȂᆣӫᙟԤޟϯશོ߯౰ҡᄉཱིޟܒ፴Ȅٽԃ஠ฒᐠސᆇȃੌȃఱ้ӫԙԤᐠސȶ׍ શȷȂ஠Ԥࢳޟ෩ڷ໘ӫԙฒࢳ෩Ͻ໘Ȟᢄȟ้Ȃ֯џَᙟԤޟϯશആႆϽᏰӫԙȂ ོ౰ҡཱིޟܒ፴ȄᐃԪȂBmfyboefsӰՄк஻ӵՌณᅋϽϛԤΙȶҡڼΨȷ)ojtvt*ܖ ޱȶഺҡޟ༊өȷ)dsfbujwf!ufoefodz*Ȃ૖ᐭีཱིޟܒ፴Ϛᘞ෰౪Ȅ೻ٲȶएഺޟ ܒ፴ȷ)fnfshfou!rvbmjujft*ᗶپՌᙟޟԤᐠ዁ԒȂծࠓฒݲೝႱกȄนԃސᆍᅋϽ ᐣѬϛȂཱིޟҡސᖂ࢐ϚӣܻᙟޟҡސȂиၶϞ؁࣏ፒᚕȃᆠጝȄӵᐌএՌณࣨ㠰Ȃ ശԞԆӵޟܒ፴࢐ฒᐠސ፴Ȃڏԩ࢐౩Ͻ๖ᄺȂӔڏԩ࢐՗࣏Ȃ࢐ҡڼȄӵҡڼϞΰ ᗙԤЖ᡹ȂԤཎᜋȂԤӨᆍՓᖐॷڨޟܒ፴Ȅӵี৤ϛޟؐএ໦ࢲȂՌณ഍ོ౰ҡᜰ ᗤܒޟ׽ᡐȄՄȶҡڼΨȷғᡗ౪ӵ೻ٲᜰᗤܒޟ׽ᡐΰȄ! ! ! Xijufifbe!)2:31-!2:93*ӣཎCfshtpoڷBmfyboefsІᄇȶऋᏰ୲ސ፣ȷڷȶᐠడ ؚۡ፣ȷޟஅҏҳൟȂٮ஠Bmfyboefsȶഺഅᆣӫȷޟ྅܈ඪЀڗלΰᏰޟቹԩȂٺ Ϟԙ࣏ᐌএԇۤငᡛޟ੫፴Ȅтӵ๿ӪޟȮᐣแᇄઍሬȯ)Qspdftt!boe!Sfbmjuz*Ι ਪϛඪюέএತྃ౩܈ȈȶഺϽȷ)dsfbujwjuz*ȃȶΙȷ)pof*ᇄȶӻȷ)nboz*Ȃٮо ԪජቸԇۤഺϽޟᐣแȂ࢐ȶӻΣܻፒᚕϞΙȷ)uif!nboz!foufs!joup!dpnqmfy!vojuz* ޟᐣแȄζ൷࢐೨ӻࢋԤޟٱސᆹӫ࣏ΙᄉཱིޟٱސȂиቨઉڏཱིޟܒ፴)uif!nboz!

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cfdpnf!pof!boe!bsf!jodsfbtfe!cz!pof*Ȅ೻ҥݢӻ๖ӫ࣏ΙᡝޟႆแȂ߯࢐ഺഅޟ ႆแȂζ࢐ᆣӫޟႆแȄӻএᄂԤӵᆹӫޟႆแ၇ȂҥΙএᄂԤӵഋϷڧڗؚۡȃഋ Ϸ߳ࡻՌҥޟ௑ݷήհؚۡȂശࡣ౰ҡ຺ູՌϏ)tvckfdu.tvqfskfdu*ޟ๖ݎȂ೻߯ ࢐ᆣӫȄ)Xijufifbe-!2:89;!32-!39*!! ! ! IbsutipsofᄇܻXijufifbeޟ೻໶ਯЖᏰᇳȂ౏ߒ१ຜȂΝӵȮഺഅᆣӫڷ঱Ᏸ ПݲȯΙਪȂғԒඪюȶഺഅᆣӫȷޟᏰᇳȂհ࣏१ཱིࡦՃԇۤ፣ȃᇯᜋ፣ȃগ౩Ᏸ ڷડᏰޟஅᙃȄڏᇳਖ਼ЅᛁᚕȂӵԪඪюڏкौন౩ԃήȈ!

)Ι*ԇۤޟഺഅᆣӫȈ!

! ! Ibsutipsofܛ᠛ࠉक़XijufifbeоȶഺϽȷ࣏ԇۤޟತྃন౩ϞᇳȂ޻ۡԇۤޟ ᐣแ߯࢐ഺഅᆣӫޟᐣแȄтᇳȈȶӵרঈ೻এжक\ࡾΠΪжक^ȂϐԤ঱Ᏸড়\ࡾ CfshtpoڷXijufifbe^஠ഺϽຜ࣏࢐ತྃޟɃȄтঈᇯ࣏о࢚এཎဎՄِȂؐএএᡝ ഍ӵഺഅȂиѫौԆӵོ߯ΙޢԃԪୈȄԆӵ։ӵഺഅ )Up!cf!jt!up!dsfbuf*Ȅȷ )Ibsutipsof-!2:81-!q/!2*Մ೻ഺϽޟᐣแғԃXijufifbeܚජቸޟȂ࢐Ιӻϯᄂӵ )qmvsbmjtujd!sfbmjuz*ࡻ៉ಛΙ)vojgjdbujpo*ޟᐣแȄѫौԤݢӻޟᆹӫȂ൷ོϚ ᘞԤӻϯȃཱིޟٱӇีҡȂӔᆹӫཱི࣏ޟٱӇȂҗฒತ๖Ȅ)Cspxojoh!boe!Nzfst-!2:99;! ywjjj.yjy*!೻ഺഅޟઍᄂొဎӵՌҥޟܖޱՌרؚۡȶΙএȷཱིޟငᡛȂ௃ӑࠉޟ ȶӻȷϛ౰ҡȂиϚ҆ڧڗӈդӰݎᜰ߽ޟ३ڙȄIbsutipsof஼፡೻၇ޟȶഺഅȷ൷ ԃCfshtpoޟȶഺҡᅋϽȷΙૡϚџႱก)voqsfejdubcmf*ȂϚׇӒڧӑࠉޟӰݎనӇ ڷݲࠌܚЛ଩Ȅഺഅޟ๖ݎȂ࢐౰ҡȶए౪ޟᐌᡝȷ)bo!fnfshfou!xipmf*Ȅ೻Ϛџ Ⴑกޟഺཱིࣀଢ଼ᡗҰԇۤޟᄂࣺϚ࢐ᐠడܒޟȃϚ࢐஼ڙܒޟȃϚ࢐ᄛܒޟȇӰԪܖ ೨Ϛ឴ऋᏰंـޟጒ൜Ȅ)Ibsutipsof-!2:81-!q/!4*! ! ! ά஠೻ন౩ၼҢӵҏᡝ፣)poupmphz*ΰȂџоϽ၌ȶԤȷ)cfjoh*ڷȶҡԙᡐϽȷ )cfdpnjoh*ᄇҳޟ୰ᚠȄѠڐלΰᏰ஼፡ȶԤȷ)cfjoh*ޟᄂӵܒȂ֏ᇯȶҡԙᡐϽȷ )cfdpnjoh*ޟᄂӵܒȂഅԙ೨ӻ֨ᜲȄڏϛശσޟ୰ᚠ߯࢐֏ᇯרঈޟڎᡝᄂሬငᡛ ܚᄇޟжࣨ࢐ઍᄂޟȄIbsutipsofࠌк஻ȶҡԙᡐϽȷϚѫ࢐ȶԤȷޟΙএ੫੆לᄘȂ и࢐ȶԤȷޟஅҏ੫፴ȄٱᄂΰȂҡԙᡐϽҏ٘߯࢐ΙȶഺഅᆣӫȷȄԃݎԤڍᆍҡ ԙᡐϽޟלᄘȂΙ࢐Ԥഺഅܒޟ)dsfbujwf*ȂΙ࢐ߨഺഅܒޟ)opo.dsfbujwf*ᆹӫӵ ΙଔȂ٥Ιۡ࢐ȶԤഺഅܒޟȷ๖ӫಛΙȶߨഺഅܒޟȷȄԤԃΙএϚџႱกޟٱӇ

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ڷΙএџႱกޟٱӇ๖ӫӵΙଔȂלԙϚџႱกޟᐌᡝȂ೻߯࢐ȶए౪ޟᆣӫȷ )bo! fnfshfou!tzouiftjt*Ȅ)Ibsutipsof-!2:81-!q/!26*!

)Π*ငᡛޟഺഅᆣӫȈ!

! ! ԃࠉ ܚ क़Ȃ ԇۤ ޟഺഅ ᆣ ӫȂ ٱ ᄂΰ ࢐࡚ ҳӵင ᡛ ޟഺ അ ᆣӫ ΰȇ Ӱ࣏ਲ਼ ᐃ IbsutipsofޟᇳݲȂԇۤϛޟᄂԤฒϚ࢐ڎԤငᡛޟкᡝȂζғӰԃԪȂϗԤഺഅᆣ ӫޟџ૖Ȅ೻ငᡛޟഺഅᆣӫζ࢐ਲ਼ᐃࣺӣন౩ȈȶӻΣܻΙȷȄ೻এႆแџоആႆר ঈԃդלԙᐌᡝငᡛپёо౩၌ȄٽԃӵרঈငᡛϛԤ೨ӻȶޣឈȷ)qfsdfqujpo*ڷ ଄ᏹ)nfnpsz*Ȃ೻ٲೝޣឈڷೝ଄ᏹޟӨᆍٱӇ߯࢐ܚᒝޟȶӻȷȄौ஠೻ȶӻȷޟ ငᡛ๖ӫ࣏Ιএ൐ΙޟငᡛȂࠌ໸Ԥܚࣸ౱Ȃѫڥڏࣺᜰ१ौޟഋϷȂоלԙཱིޟ൐ Ιငᡛ)b!tjohmf!vojubsz!fyqfsjfodf*Ȅ೻ਢ౰ҡޟ๖ݎ࢐ȶΙȷȂծনӰ࢐ȶӻȷ ...џоᇳרঈσသ၇ޟඁԻቇএಠफ഍࢐ڏনӰȄծ೻ቄӻӰશࢺΣȂѫ౰ҡΙএ ཱིޟᄂԤȂζ൷࢐౪ࠉငᡛȄ࿋ณӑࠉޟږᐭџоඪټ೻ІᔖޟഋϷ౩ҥȂծϚ૖ඪ ټӒഋޟ౩ҥȄԤΙȶए౪ᆣӫȷӵ೻ؚۡـത঺ٲӰશᔖ࿋ᆣӫӵ೻ȶ൐Ιፒӫޟ ཐ ឈ ȋ ௑ ᆱȋ ౩ සᐌ ᡝ ȷ )b!tjohmf!dpnqmfy!tfotpsz.!fnpujpobm.!joufmmfduvbm! xipmf*ϞϛȄIbsutipsofܻ࢐ᇳȈȶǾ೻жΰଶΟഺഅޟငᡛ)dsfbujwf!fyqfsjfodf* ϞѴȂؠԤտޟɃȄᖂ࢐ԤΙۡแ࡙ޟՌҥȂՄ౪ࠉՌҥޟ՗ଢ଼ޟྃ३Ȃ߯࢐ѺܚІ ᔖޟႆў՗ଢ଼ޟᖂڷȄငᡛհ࣏ए౪ᆣӫȂڥ؅ܻՌ٘ӑࠉޟԙݎȂԪѴฒтȄ೻߯ ࢐ഺϽޟತྃܒ)uif!vmujnbdz!pg!dsfbujwjuz*Ȅȷ)Ibsutipsof-!2:81;!8.9*!

)έ*ငᡛޟܒ፴Ȉ!

! ! Ibsutipsof!)2:76;!yw*ޟငᡛ྅܈кौپՌXjmmjbn!KbnftڷXijufifbeȂ஼፡ င ᡛ ޟ ڎ ᡝ ܒ ȃ Ռ ี ܒ ȃ ഺ അ ܒ ڷ ᆣ ӫ ܒ Ȅ ਲ਼ ᐃ т ޟ Ϸ ݙ Ȃ င ᡛ Ԥ о ή ੫ ܒ )Ibsutipsof-!2:81;!86.93*Ȉ! 2/ڎᡝငᡛԤέԙӋȂ։଄ᏹȃޣឈڷད჋Ȅڏϛ଄ᏹӰ࣏ਖ਼ЅᄇܻႆўޟޣᜋȂџ ૖ौШޣឈ؁఼࣏඾Ȃџᇳ࢐ငᡛശ१ौޟԙϷȄ! 3/ڎᡝငᡛϛޟछཐᄘ࡙)bftuifujd!buujuvef*ौШհগ౩ؚۡȃ၌ؚᄂሬܖޱᇯޣ ୰ᚠȂ؁ڧڗרঈޟݧཎȄٽԃרঈӵݠ፬ॱዅڷᛲหਢȂฒϚӒડៀݧȂӰ࣏छ ޢ௥ཐࢗרঈޟ௑ཐȄծਖ਼ЅᇯޣϞٱࠌϚณȂרঈ༉൷ڏϛഋϷٱސհᒵڥȂฒ

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ݲඡණٱސޟӒ჋Ȅۢ૖Ж౩Ᏸ!)gbdvmuz!qtzdipmphz*к஻רঈ༉૖મӵቋ঄ϛ ҳޟҳൟᇯޣ೻এжࣨȂӈդຟቋܖޱཐ௑഍࢐ӵᇯޣᇄ؅ΰհкᢎޟ఺ёȂીм ࡊ ᢎ ܒ Ȅ ณՄ ᇯ ޣ ѫ࢐ רঈ ᕣ ၌ ٱ ސܒ ፴ ޟ Ιᆍ ПԒ Ȃ ж ࣨ ΰζ ؠ Ԥ ᇯޣ ϛҳ )dphojujwf!ofvusbmjuz*೻ᆍٱȄؠԤᐿҳޟᇯޣۢ૖Ȃרঈܚ೎ޟжࣨ࢐רঈЖ ޣ௑ཎӒ७ཐڧڗޟжࣨȄ! 4/ད჋Ψѓ֤ჲད)jnbhjobujpo!jodmveft!esfbnjoh*ȄܚԤငᡛџೝຜ࣏ڧڗސ፴ ٱސږᐭࡣޟІᔖȂѓࢂ٘ᡝڷѴӵжࣨޟސ፴ٱސȄฒ፣࢐ӵᆃჲϛȂᗙ࢐఼ᒺ ޟਢঐȂ࢐ޣឈᗙ࢐ད჋ȂӈդΡޟڎᡝငᡛΙۡԤ٘ᡝհ࣏ЛኤȄϚႆᆃჲϛᡗ ҰޟжࣨϚ࢐ސ፴жࣨȂζؠԤᇄϞࣺᔖޟٱᄂȂ೻࢐ད჋ޟհҢȄ! 5/ڎᡝငᡛѓ֤ཎဎȃ߬܈ڷ՗ଢ଼ޟቹ७ȄרঈՌឈ࢐кଢ଼՗࣏ޱȂήؚۡޱȄᄇר ঈՄِȂѫԤ૖ೝרঈࣺ߬ޟᢎ܈ϗԤཎဎȄ඲ِϞȂՃᡛઍᄂ߬܈ޟ኿ྥȂฒႆ ܻ೻߬܈࢐֏૖հ࣏רঈΡҡޟԈࠌȉԤٲ߬܈ϚΙۡ࢐ઍޟȂծџоհ࣏Ρҡޟ ٷଊȄծϚ૖հ࣏Ρҡٷଊޟ߬܈ΙۡϚ࢐ઍޟȂӰ࣏ѺঈીмӈդཎဎȄ! 6/ଶΟᄇܻՌϏޟڎᡝငᡛȂᗙԤᄇܻтΡޟڎᡝငᡛȂ٥߯࢐ҡڼڷԆӵޟޥོ๖ ᄺȄҡڼޟޥོ๖ᄺџَܻ೨ӻП७Ȅᇭِ࢐ޥོܒޟȂΡޟස૖࢐ޥོܒޟȂܚ Ԥ۠ఀ഍ᇯ࣏དྷԤശଽޟቋ঄ȂՄདྷζ࢐ޥོܒޟȄ೻ٲ഍࢐அܻרঈᄇܻтΡޟ ڎᡝငᡛȂӰ࣏ΡϚџ૖۞ҳӴԆӵȂ҆໸ԆӵܻޥོΡတϞϛȄ! ! ! ᖂΰܚᇳȂഺഅᆣӫޟԇۤᢎڷငᡛᢎ஼፡ٱސȃငᡛڷቋ঄ޟՌีܒȃഺཱིܒȃ ᐌᡝܒڷࣺᜰܒȄฒ፣ڏᇳ࢐֏ങដႆଽȂܖޱԤڏт౩፣ΰޟ֨ᜲȂࣱฒᛤܻڏጂ ᄂඪټΟΙএड़౴Ϸݙ঱ᏰޟຜഏȂ঄ு֎Ρ౏ࡦȄ! !

Ѳȃഺഅᆣӫޟఀى঱Ᏸ!

! ! ഺഅޟ྅܈ᄇܻᐣแ঱Ᏸড়ՄِȂԞϐ࢐Նዣ૖၏ȃਲ਼౏အھޟȄծᄇܻϷݙ঱ Ᏸড়ՄِȂࠌԤԃЈПۇᜍȂΙღଜࡦȄS/!L/!Fmmjpuu)2::9;!335.343*ӵڏȲഺഅ ޟގҏȳ)ȸWfstjpot!pg!Dsfbujwjuzȹ*ΙМၐყоȶϷݙޟПݲȷپ၌ភȶഺഅȷ ޟ྅܈Ȃڏ๖ݎѫ࢐ܛᇯ၎྅܈ߝ෈ڧڗ܇ຜȂഞܻ౅༄ȂхΡᜲоࣺ߬Ȅᗶณтζ ޣၾഺഅޟ྅܈ᇄՌҥȃഺَȃี౪ȃ໌؏ڷՌࡡ้ᢎ܈ᜰ߽஝ϸȂծтࠓؠԤඪю ӈդڎԤᇳ݈ܒޟ፣क़Ȅѫ࢐ЕҢΟЍኵԆӵкဎޱN/!Ifjefhhfs-!G/!X/!Ojfu{tdif-!

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H/!NbsdfmȶՌרഺഅȷ)tfmg.dsfbujpo*ޟ྅܈Ȃ߯ყ၌ភڎԤଽ࡙לΰᏰڷડᏰ֤ ཎޟȶഺഅȷȂџᒝጢУؑധȄҥ࢐џَȂϷݙ঱Ᏸӵ೎౩ȶഺഅȷ೻፞ᚠޟࠁ३ᇄ ϚٗȂζઉџَᐣแ঱ᏰڷIbsutipsofޟᏰᇳӵ೻এ፞ᚠΰޟଓᝦȄ! ! ! ൷ࠉक़џޣȂIbsutipsof้ΡޟȶഺഅᆣӫȷϞᇳȂڏᄂӵӱᔖऋᏰ୲ސ፣ڷᐠ డؚۡ፣ᄇ༈ಛડ঱ᏰޟࢅᏽȂ࢐ՙПΡၐყϽ၌ӰऋᏰᑹଔܚഅԙޟऋᏰᇄ۠ఀȃ ސ፴ᇄЖ᡹ȃՌณᇄᆠડȃࡊᡝᇄкᡝȃᐠడᇄҬޟȃؚۡᇄՌҥᆍᆍΠϯᄇҳޟΙ ᆍֆΨȄ೻ᆍֆΨҏ٘Ȃғ࢐ȶഺഅᆣӫȷޟᐣแȄમӵఀى঱ᏰޟҳൟȂרঈฒ໸ Ӓዺ௥ڧڏᏰᇳಠ࿽ϱৠȄ౳തڏϛԤᜰ۠ఀડᏰޟഋϷȂ࢐ӵՙПޥོߝ෈ڧڗஅ ࿜۠ఀޟኇ៪ȃо۠ఀ࣏ڏᆠડМϽਯЖЛ࢘ޟ௑ݷήȂᐣแ঱Ᏸড়ϚுϚӒΨϠо ᆰ៖ޟȄծᄇܻఀىড়ՄِȂϚڧӈդלԒ۠ఀኇ៪ޟఀىȂฒਖ਼ܻএΡ߬ӉȂѫี ৤Ρ᜸౩ܒᇄငᡛȂӰՄ؁ڎቋ঄ᇄཎဎȄѪΙП७ȂᗶณIbsutipsofޟȶഺഅᆣӫȷ ᇳ࢐࡚ҳӵડ঱Ᏸޟ૕๜ΰȂծζฒᛤܻڏጂᄂඪټΟΙএᐌӫΡ᜸ޟӒᡝငᡛȃϽ ၌ΠϯᄇҳޟཱིຜഏȄฒ፣ӵఀىޟ౩፣ᗙ࢐ᄂ୛ΰȂרঈငலႄڗӨᆍᄇҳΠϯȈ এΡᇄޥོȃڋ็ϛЖᇄԙΡϛЖȃႱҳҬޟᇄฒҬޟȃᑹ፸ᇄޣᜋȃՌҥᇄकࡡȃ ി໯ᇄடߞȃ౩དᇄ౪ᄂȃලႇᇄ੆տȃҏ፴ᇄώڎȃٱᄂᇄቋ঄ȃҬޟᇄЙࢲȃင ᡛᇄ౩ܒȃᇯޣᇄ௑ཎȃ౩፣ᇄᄂ୛ȃ༈ಛᇄ౪ф้้ᄇҳޟ྅܈Ȃఀىـതᔖڥդ ᏲөȂငலԙ࣏ఀى঱Ᏸᜲ၌ޟ፞ᚠȂԃӵEfxfzޟȮҕкᇄఀىȯϛ݂ᡗџَȄ൷ ࿋ࠉఀىޟี৤ᗍ༖ՄِȂܛ៉ΠΪжक੼ήپޟ୰ᚠȂרঈ؁ᝒ২Ӵ७ᖝ༈ಛᇄ౪ фȞ֤ࡣ౪фȟȃऋ׬ᇄΡМȃӒ౨ϽᇄҏπϽέσᄇҳޟ፞ᚠȂӣਢ७ᖝӒ౨ླྀϽȃ Ռณҡᄘᗍܻ஫ዛޟӠᐠȂߩሯఀى঱Ᏸඪټᐌᡝޟఀىᢎо௿ᔼϞȄԃݎΠΪжक ࢐ϷݙޟਢфȂרঈܖџ෈࡟ΠΪΙжक࢐ᆣӫޟਢфȄਲ਼ᐃ೻ȶഺഅᆣӫȷޟ঱Ᏸ ПݲȂఀى঱Ᏸ࿋џԤӒཱིޟंـПөȄ! !

୤ՃਪҬ!

ΙȃϛМഋϷ!

༁ӎ໰Ȟ2::9ȟȄՙࢷఀىࡦདѬंـȄᇃѕȈৱσਪीȄ! ྆౏֬Ȟ2:99ȟȄ౩፣Ȇၛភᇄᄂ፺ȈఀىᏰПݲ፣፣М໱ȄᇃѕȈৱσਪीȄ!!!

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ΠȃՙМഋӋ!

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Bsjtupumf/!)2:75*/!Qpmjujdt!boe!qpfujdt/!Usbot/!cz!K/!Cfokbnjo!'!T/!I/!Cvudifs/! OZ/;!Ifsjubhf/!

Bsjtupumf/!)2:95b*/!Nfubqiztjdt/!Jo!K/!Cbsoft/)fe/*!Uif!dpnqmfuf!xpslt!pg! bsjtupumf;!Uif!sfwjtfe!Pygpse!usbotmbujpo-!fejufe!cz!Wpm/3/!Ofx!KfstfzȈ Qsjodfupo!Vojwfstjuz!Qsftt/!

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參考文獻

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