中越關係正常化後之政治經濟發展

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(1)國立政治大學. 國際事務學院. 國家安全與大陸研究碩士在職專班碩士論文. 指導教授:陳陸輝. 立. 博士. 政 治 大. ‧ 國. 學 ‧. 中越關係正常化後之政治經濟發展. n. er. io. sit. y. Nat. al. Ch. engchi. i n U. v. 研究生:王萬義 中華民國九十九年六月.

(2) 摘要 中國與越南的關係源遠流長,自古就是山水相連的鄰邦,由於特殊的歷史、 文化和地緣等因素,自古以來,中國就是對越南影響最大的國家。中華人民共和 國成立後,從 1950 年到 1990 年的 40 年當中,中越關係經歷了從「同志加兄弟」 到「兵戎相見」的嚴重對立又走向改善這樣關係大幅度的改變和劇烈變化。「渡 盡劫波兄弟在,相逢一笑泯恩仇」,隨著 1991 年 11 月中越關係正常化以來,雙 方在各個領域的交往與合作日益發展。1999 年 2 月,兩國領導人確立了新世紀 中越關係的發展框架,即「長期穩定、面向未來、睦鄰友好、全面合作」的方針。 2002 年中共總書記江澤民訪越期間表示,兩國要永遠成為好鄰居、好朋友、好 同志、好夥伴。2008 年 5 月底,越共中央總書記農德孟應邀訪問中國大陸時, 中越發表《聯合聲明》宣示,雙邊關係提升為「全面合作戰略夥伴關係」。. 政 治 大 2010 年迎接中越建交 60 周年,雙方將今(2010)年定為中越友誼年,兩國關 立 係正常化後,在政治關係,領導人互訪頻繁,建立各種對話機制和管道;在經濟 ‧. ‧ 國. 學. 合作方面,雙邊貿易迅速擴大,與中共-東協自由貿易區依存日益加深。但在友 好合作關係下仍然存在有諸如民族主義興起、領土糾紛、台越關係的影響、貿易 不平衡、投資與政治關係不對稱、歷史華僑等,不利於兩國關係發展問題;整體 觀之,中越雖存在著矛盾,但可推測兩國未來的關係仍將持續深化,以維持和平、 穩定的周邊環境;雙方仍互相抱持高度警覺與戒心;越南將加強與東協及大國關 係,以提升對中共談判與對抗優勢;互藉地緣優勢,各取所得;進一步擴大雙邊 經貿等方向前進。. n. er. io. sit. y. Nat. al. Ch. i n U. v. 關鍵詞:中越關係、關係正常化、地緣政治、國家利益、相互依賴. engchi.

(3) Abstract Sino-Vietnam relations can be traced back to ancient times. They have been neighboring countries sharing the same border. Compared with other countries, China has imposed most influence on Vietnam due to their special historical, cultural, and geographical connections. After the founding of the People’s Republic of China (PRC), China and Vietnam relationship experienced dramatic change within years from 1940 to 1990. It started from the period of “comrades plus brothers”, then went to “resort to arms,” and finally improved to current benign relationship. The China-Vietnam relations can be described as “experiences disaster brothers, as soon as meet by chance, their smile vanishes the love and hate.” After the normalization in November 1991, the two countries’ interaction and cooperation in all aspects have been further strengthened. In February 1999, the leadership of two countries established the framework for bilateral relations in the new century, which is “long-term stability, facing the future, good-neighborly relations, and comprehensive cooperation.” In 2002, Jiang Zemin, Chairman of the Communist Party of China, visited Vietnam and noted that two countries would always be good neighbors, good friends, good comrades, and good partners. In the end of May 2008, Nông Đức Mạnh Chairman of the Communist Party of Vietnam, visited China. Two countries made Joint Statement and declared to elevate bilateral tie to ‘comprehensive strategic partnership.’ In 2010, for the upcoming 60th anniversary of Sino-Vietnam diplomatic relations,. 立. 政 治 大. ‧. ‧ 國. 學. sit. y. Nat. n. al. er. io. two countries define the year as ‘China-Vietnam friendship year.’ Since establishing two countries’ diplomatic relation, politically, the leadership of two countries has visited each other frequently. Economically, bilateral trades have expanded rapidly and further relied on China-ASEAN Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA) Zone. Nevertheless, several issues emerge and handicap their cooperation. These issues include the rise of nationalism, territory conflicts, impact from Taiwan-Vietnam relations, trade imbalance, the asymmetry of investment and political conditions, and influence from overseas Chinese. Overall, despite of existing contradictions, the development of China-Vietnam relationship will be continually enhanced so as to maintain a peaceful and stable environment. At the same time, two countries will still be highly cautious of each other. Vietnam will improve its connections with ASEAN and other major states in order to strengthen its advantage on negotiation table against China. Two countries will make the best use of their own geographic advantage and take what they need from their cooperation. Also, they will further expand bilateral economic and trade relations in the future. Keywords: Sino-Vietnam relations, normalization, geopolitics, national interests, mutual dependence.. Ch. engchi. i n U. v.

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