The Relationship between Training and Development and Organizational Commitment of Private Service Companies in Mongolia: Job Satisfaction as the Mediator

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(1)The Relationship between Training and Development and Organizational Commitment of Private Service Companies in Mongolia: Job Satisfaction as the Mediator. by Abai Murat. A Thesis Submitted to the Graduate Faculty in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Major: International Human Resource Development. Advisor: Chih-Chien Steven Lai, Ph.D.. National Taiwan Normal University Taipei, Taiwan July 2019.

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(3) ACKNOWLEDGEMENT “We keep moving forward, opening new doors, and doing new things, because we're curious and curiosity keeps leading us down new paths.” - Walt Disney Firstly, I would like to thank the Taiwan International Cooperation and Development Fund (ICDF) for supportive of my career goals and provide me with the protected academic time to pursue those goals and spend amazing 2 year in Taiwan. This MBA project would not have been possible without the financial support of this organization. Secondly, I would special thank my thesis advisor Dr. Chih-Chien Steven Lai for his valuable and constructive suggestions during the planning and development of this research work. Also, very thanks to my committee members, Dr. Lee, Pai-Po and Dr. Allen Lu for their such a helpful recommendations and suggestions. Thirdly, I am using this opportunity to express my gratitude to Graduate Institute of International Human Resources Development for providing me new knowledges during the study and assisting me improve my personal and skills. Lastly, I would like to express my very great appreciation to my parents and my amazing friends (Salomon, Nut, Barbara, Lilly, Melissa, Hellen, Teera, Tracy) for providing me with unfailing support and continuous encouragement throughout my years of study and through the process of researching and writing this thesis. This accomplishment would not have been possible without them..

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(5) ABSTRACT In this permanently and aggressive developing marketplace, training and development and organizational commitment are focused on those essential and important factors in an organization. There are many researchers have been investigated the factors in the organization such as training and development and organizational commitment. Also, there are several studies found that job satisfaction positively related to training and development as well as organizational commitment. This study proposed to investigate the relationships among training and development, organizational commitment and job satisfaction as a mediating role within the private service companies in Mongolia. The data collected via online survey, 250 full time employees was analyzed with SPSS and AMOS. The results of the hypotheses test confirmed that training and development is positively related to organizational commitment. Results also showed that job satisfaction mediated the relationship between training and development and organizational commitment. The findings of this study also provided knowledge in the practical way to the private companies in Mongolia with perception of training and development, organizational commitment, and job satisfaction. Keywords: training and development, job satisfaction, organizational commitment. I.

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(7) TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT………………………………………………………………………...I TABLE OF CONTENTS …………………………………………………………III LIST OF TABLES ………………………………………………………………...V LIST OF FIGURES……………………………………………………………...VII CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION…………………………………………………...1 Background of the Study………………………………………………………………….1 Statement of the Problems………………..…………………………………………….….3 Purposes of the Study……………………………………………………………………...4 Research Questions…………………………………………………………………….4 Significances of the Study……………………………………………………………….4 Delimitation of the Study.…………………………………………………………………5 Definition of the Key Terms.…………………….……………………………………..5. CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW…………………………………………...7 Training and Development……………………………………………………………….7 Organizational Commitment ......………………..……………...………...……………...10 Job Satisfaction…………………………………………………………………………..14 Relationship among the Variables……………………………...………………………..17. CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHOD…………………………………………..23 Research Framework…………………………………………………………………….23 Research Hypotheses…………………………………………………………………….24 Research Procedure………………………………………………………………………24 Participants and Data collection……………………………………………………..…25 Measurement…….……………………………………………………………………….25 Reliability and Validity Analysis.......…………….……………………………………...27 Data Analysis ………………………………………………………………………….33. CHAPTER IV RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS……..………………………...35 Descriptive Statistic Results…………………………………………………………….35 The Relationship among Variables………………………………………………………44 Hypothesis Tests………………………………………………………………….…….46 III.

(8) Hierarchical Regression ………………………………………………………….……...49 Summary of the Results.…………………………………………………………………51. CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS…………..…….53 Conclusions………………………………………………………………………………53 Limitations……………………………………………………………………………….55 Recommendations………………………………………………………………………..55 Implications…………………………………………………………………………….56. REFERENCES…………………………………………………………………....59 APPENDIX A: ENGLISH LETTER AND QUESTIONNAIRE.…………….…...67 APPENDIX B: MONGOLIAN LETTER AND QUESTIONNAIRE.……….…..75. IV.

(9) LIST OF TABLES Table 2.1. Definitions of Training and Development…….………………………………………..8 Table 2.2. Definitions of Organizational Commitment…….…………………………………….12 Table 2.3. Definitions of Job Satisfaction……………….………………………………………..15 Table 2.4. Brief Description of the FIVE Facets of Hackman Job Description Index Satisfaction..17 Table 3.1. Reliability Results of the Pilot Study……………………………………...…………..28 Table 3.2. Confirmatory Factor Analysis Results for Training and Development….…………….30 Table 3.3. Confirmatory Factor Analysis Results for Organizational Commitment………….31 Table 3.4. Confirmatory Factor Analysis Results for Job Satisfaction……….…………..……….32 Table 4.1. Descriptive Statistics for Employees………...…………….………………………….36 Table 4.2. Mean, Standard Deviations and Correlations ………………………….…………….37 Table 4.3. Descriptive Statistics for Training and Development Dimensions ……………...…...38 Table 4.4. Descriptive Statistics for Training and Development ……………..…………............39 Table 4.5. Descriptive Statistics for Organizational Commitment Dimensions………...……….40 Table 4.6. Descriptive Statistics for Organizational Commitment……..…………..………...……..43 Table 4.7. Descriptive Statistics for Job Satisfaction……………………………………………45 Table 4.8. Linear Regression Analysis of T&D and Organizational Commitment………….……46 Table 4.9. Linear Regression Analysis of T&D and Job Satisfaction…………………………….47 Table 4.10. Linear Regression Analysis of Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment…48 Table 4.11. Hierarchical Regression for Job Satisfaction Mediator Effect between Training and Development and Organizational Commitment…………………………………50 Table 4.12. Summary of the Hypotheses Analysis Results………………………………….……51. V.

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(11) LIST OF FIGURES Figure 2.1 Hackman and Oldham’s Job satisfaction characteristics model….……………………16 Figure 3.1 Research framework………………………………………………………………….23 Figure 3.2 Research procedure…………………………………………………………………..24 Figure 3.3. CFA test results ……………………………….…………………………………….30 Figure 3.4. CFA test results……………………………………………………………………...31 Figure 3.5. CFA test results……………………………………………………………………...32. VII.

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(13) CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION This chapter explains the background of this study, statement of the problem, the purpose of this study, research questions, significance of the study and lastly presents the delimitation of the study. Also, this section presents the definitions of key terms which are a comprehensive understanding of this study to readers and provides researchers with a diversity of ideas for their future research studies.. Background of the Study Mongolia is a country with steady growth in the recent years, which has a population approximately 3.2 million. The Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita in Mongolia was around 4.026 USD 2018 (Asian Development Bank, 2018). Mongolia is landlocked country in East Asia and to the north border with Russian Federation and to the south border with People’s Republic of China. After the democratic elections were held in 1992, Mongolia has been making the transition to a full market economy. The Mongolian private sector has grown considerably since 1991, now generally more than 90% of all enterprises are privately owned (Asian Development Bank, 2018). Especially, most of the companies in Mongolia are private service company which is playing as a main role in Mongolian’s economy and impacts local people’s life. Those Mongolian private service companies and businesses need to continue to explore the sets of services and human resource practices which constitute of a basic support package for company sales and customer support. Therefore, nowadays Mongolia’s private service companies focus on company’s development and trying to understand the perception of human resource management practices. According to Arthur Jr, Bennett Jr, Edens, and Bell (2003), they mentioned that multitudinous factors impact individuals and organizational development, these are a competitive advantage in the markets, to adapt to change the situations, to improve employees’ skills and knowledge, to increase employee’s communication skills and organizations productivity. For example, the success of an organization largely relies on its training and development (T&D) and organizational commitment. Thus, Mongolian private service companies and organizations need to provide their employees perception of organizational development within training activities, better job satisfaction, promote organizational commitment, those impacts can help improve organizational development and increase their competitive advantage in the market. Also, in the organization and company, human resource development is one of the important roles of training development and 1.

(14) organizational commitment. According to Dias and Silva (2016), the competitive advantage can lead to the commitment, loyalty of the employees and it even to its organizational success. In the workplace, internal and external factors influence job satisfaction as well as employee’s commitment. Thus, it is very important for the organization and human resource professionals to be aware of these factors. This study focused on T&D and organizational commitment as well as influence of each variables. Many researchers have found that T&D and organizational commitment has a positive correlation with job satisfaction and organizational commitment. This field has not been studied extensively in Mongolia. Gamble and Huang (2008) explained that, most of the studies in this field come from Western researchers and researches from Asia. In Mongolia not many researchers are focused on this field or important branches of local research. Moreover, the Mongolian private companies and organizations need to consider their T&D and organizational human resource development. Tannenbaum, Mathieu, Salas, and Cannon-Bowers (1991) mentioned that “employees may view an effective training experience as an indication that the enterprise is willing to invest in them and cares about their career development; thus, training may enhance their commitment.” Especially, since these are the important factors that strongly impact organization success and process. Regarding to Ndulue (2012), training is considered as an indispensable human resource function as well as to impact the organizational objectives. Moreover, nowadays Mongolian organizations and companies are investing more in human resource development and human resource management. As Gammie (1996) stated that organizations, which have properly selected their employees and provided effective training for them and better training methods to improve employee’s a competitive advantage. Therefore, T&D has strongly affected employees and organizational performance and it also important role in the organization (Gavino, Wayne, & Erdogan, 2012). Additionally, this research firstly explores the companies’ training motivation, benefits from training, perceived support of training from co-workers and how those factors influence employee’s commitment private companies in Mongolia. Secondly, what is the influences of T&D that has the impact on the satisfaction of employee in the private companies in Mongolia. Thirdly, what influences of job satisfaction has on T&D of organization and its commitment to Mongolian private companies. Mongolian economy still needs to be improved because of the fact that most of the companies in Mongolia are small and they are lacking of investment and do not have a human resource department especially human development. 2.

(15) Statement of the Problem In recent years, Mongolia’s economic growth slowed down to 2.4% in 2015. The crisis continued in 2016 as economic growth dropped to -1.6% in the third quarter (National Statistical Office of Mongolia, 2016). This situation has created pressure on many Mongolian private companies and organizations to come with proactive measures to face these challenges, through the human resource development. The Mongolian private companies’ basic problem is human resource management and their T&D activities, which may have an impact on the employee's satisfaction and their commitment. In addition, job satisfaction and employees commitment are the impact factor in the organization. Bhatti, Shar, Shaikh, and Nazar (2010) divided it into 2 factors, which are external and internal. External factors are climate, economy, and family and internal factors are organizational policy, organizational strategy, Leadership competencies and workplace condition. As stated by Allen, Shore, and Griffeth (2003) described the human resource management practices were strongly correlated with job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Although Human Resource Development practices have been established to be correlated to organizational commitment (Conway & Monks, 2009), some studies have recommended that the association is indirect. Ahmad and Bakar (2003) claimed that T&D impact on organizational commitment has been studied in some industries in recent years and the outcomes of the researches have provided some indication suggesting that T&D have effects on organizational commitment. In addition, research conducted by Meyer and Smith (2000) found that employee job satisfaction played an important role in among the T&D and organizational commitment. Also, T&D and organizational commitment strongly impact in private companies’ financial condition. Moreover, they need to understanding the perception of the T&D, job satisfaction and commitment of employees as well as relationship of those variables. In order to fill these issues, this research of the aims to investigate the relationship between T&D and organizational commitment and examine the mediator role of job satisfaction in private companies in Mongolia.. 3.

(16) Purpose of the Study In recent years, T&D and organizational commitment as well as job satisfaction are significant within every companies and private sector in Mongolia. Firstly, this study’s purposes to explore the relationship between T&D and organizational commitment, and secondly, explore the mediator effect of job satisfaction between T&D and organizational commitment in private companies in Mongolia. Thus, the study results might provide the perception of those variables influence and also deliver the practical implementation of T&D in private companies in Mongolia. Additionally, findings will reveal the influence of T&D within organizational commitment and mediating effect of job satisfaction between T&D and organizational commitment also relationship of these independent, dependent, mediating variables within private companies in Mongolia.. Research Questions According to the research purpose, the following research questions are formulated: 1. Do T&D have a significant relationship with organizational commitment in the Mongolian private service companies? 2. Do T&D have a significant relationship with job satisfaction in the Mongolian private service companies? 3. Job satisfaction have a significant relationship with organizational commitment in the Mongolian private service companies? 4. Whether the job satisfaction play a role as mediator in the T&D and organizational commitment in the Mongolian private service companies?. Significances of the Study This research will contribute to a better understanding private sectors perception of T&D and organizational commitment also their job satisfaction in the company. According to Swerdlow and Cummings (2000), T&D and organizational commitment have been conducted in organizations and private corporations. Hence, the objectives of this study are providing the details about the real situation of the Mongolian private companies T&D, job satisfaction, organizational commitment and also, to provide them with some weaknesses among their practices. Generally, this research will give them perception of the influence of T&D with organizational commitment 4.

(17) and influence of job satisfaction within that two relationship. Lastly, this study can be one of the primary studies designed for the offering to the HR fields in Mongolia.. Delimitation of the Study Firstly, this study focused on the investigation the relationship of training and development, organizational commitment and job satisfaction private service companies in Mongolia only. Secondly, this study focused on private service companies in Mongolia, therefore the results may not be generalized to other private service companies and other countries sector. Additionally, this study used the survey for collecting the data from private service companies’ full-time employees in Mongolia.. Definition of the Key Terms In this section, the research provides the definitions of the key terms and items of this research. The operational definitions outline how the variables are measured and theoretical definition outline the concept of the constructs. The three main constructs investigated in this study include T&D job satisfaction and organizational commitment as described below:. Training and Development T&D is the plan and systematic approach to employee improving and learning to the acquisition of new specific knowledge or skills for the purposes of personal growths (Aguinis & Kraiger, 2009). This research focuses at T&D as support and benefits employee received to developed their knowledge, skills and ability that leads to job satisfaction, and organizational commitment. This independent variable measured by adopting Bartlett (2001). This independent variable includes three dimensions there are training motivation, perceived support of training from co-workers, and benefits of training by adopted (Noe & Schmitt, 1986; Noe & Wilk, 1993; Tharenou & Conroy, 1994).. 5.

(18) Organizational Commitment “Organizational commitment can be defined generally as a psychological link between the employee and his or her organization that makes it less likely that the employee will voluntarily leave the organizationǁ” (Allen & Meyer, 1996, p. 252). This dependent variable measured using by Meyer and Allen (1990). This measure includes three dimensions there are affective, normative and continuance commitment.. Job Satisfaction Employee Job Satisfaction refers to the “positive feelings employees have for their work in relation to previous, current experiences or available alternatives (Stanton et al., 2002). The researcher measured employee job satisfaction as a mediating variable. This Job Satisfaction variable measured by adopting 15 items of Job Diagnostic Survey (JDS) developed by Hackman and Oldham (1976).. 6.

(19) CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW This second chapter of the study provides a review of the research relevant literature of variables and each variable of definitions and lastly provides the relationship between each variable. The first section of this chapter discusses each variable definition, then discuss a theory of T&D. Lastly, it explains the relationship between each of the variables.. Training and Development Definition of Training and Development T&D are a planned process of the organization and it’s missing something may be overall purpose and it helps to improve the performance of employees, skills, knowledge, effectiveness, and attitude of employees (Belhaj, 2000; Buckley & Caple, 2009; Ensour & Kharabsheh, 2015). Armstrong and Taylor (2014) defined that, the T&D activities are to help employees earn specific skills and knowledge and also to improve the performance of employees, a significant impact for the employee’s development and personal career. Swanson (1995) described that T&D operation is systematically process of developing, to develop the employees “working knowledge” and “expertise” and to improving the job condition of employees. As reported by Sadler-Smith (2009) that “training is undoubtedly of value to individuals and organizations” and Akdere (2003) defined T&D process good opportunities for employees to improve self-awareness and to improve their performance of tasks. Training not only improves technical and not-technical skills of employees but it also can be used to increase employees’ commitment to the organization (Owoyemi, Oyelere, Elegbede, & Gbajumo-Sheriff, 2011). Moreover, T&D practices are very important for individuals and can be related to employees’ attitudes, behaviors, performance and also organizational commitment. When organizations offer adequate opportunities of development for employees it has increase employees’ level of personal satisfaction (García-Bernal, Gargallo-Castel, MarzoNavarro, & Rivera-Torres, 2005). Employees who receive more training have higher satisfaction than those receive training (Gazioglu & Tansel, 2006). Moreover, the T&D process is a significantly important role for the Human Resource Department and the organization also its impact to influence job satisfaction.. 7.

(20) Table 2.1. Definitions of Training and Development Authors (Year). Definitions. Belhaj (2000); Buckley. T&D are a planned process of the organization and it’s to. and Caple (1990); Ensour. improve organizational overall purpose and it helps to improve. and Kharagsheh (2015). the performance of employees, skills, knowledge, effectiveness, and attitude of employees.. Armstrong and Taylor. T&D activities are to help employees earn specific skills and. (2006). knowledge and also to improve the performance of employees.. Swanson (1995). T&D operation is organization’s systematically process of developing, it’s to develop the employees “working knowledge” and “expertise” and to improving the job condition of employees.. Sadler-Smith (2006). “Training is undoubtedly of value to individuals and. Owoyemi, Oyelere,. organizations”.. Elegbede, and Gbajumo-. The training not only improves technical and not-technical. Sheriff (2011). skills of employees but it also can be used to increase employees’ commitment to the organization.. Dimensions of Training and Development This variable includes three dimensions and this section explains those three dimensions. First, training motivation, second perceived co-workers support for training, third training benefits. All these dimensions have been found by (Bartlett, 2001; Noe & Wilk, 1993). Training motivation. “Training motivation is the level of motivation toward participation in training and development activities” (Bartlett, 2001, p. 340). As explained by Fleishman, Quaintance, and Broedling (1984), the employees’ attitude is the most important part of the training process, it significantly impacts training activities and training outcomes. Moreover, motivated employees are provided with more inspiration and this helps improve their level of skills (Tannenbaum et al., 1991). 8.

(21) Perceived support of training from co-workers. Blanchard (2006) stated that trainees get motivation and assistance from their co-worker. In addition, perceived support of training from co-workers is one of the important parts of training. Hence, the opinion and reaction other members have towards training will affect other team members, thus affecting their motivation towards the training. If a team is motivated into training the team will transmit this motivation to the other team members, leading of team members will be motivated to actively participate in the training and acquired all the necessary skills and content from the training and apply them in the daily work routine. As Newman, Thanacoody, and Hui (2011) reported that, it impact on affective commitment and also affect the participation rate of employees. Benefits of training. The benefits of training to influence the decisions of employees to participate in training activities (Bartlett, 2001). Ahmad and Bakar (2003) described that, employees with a better understanding of the benefits of training have a higher feeling of commitment to the organization. The individuals get three kinds of benefits from participation in training processes. Those benefits are personal, career, and job-related benefits (Nordhaug, 1989).. Theory related to Training and Development Several theories correlate to training and development. First, the self–determination theory suggests that for one to be motivated and to function at an optimal level, and basic psychological needs must be met. The justification of the self-determination theory from learning aspects is that a strong sense of relatedness high positions trainees to take on challenges, set positive purposes, and create high anticipations that motivate them. A recent study by Martin and Dowson (2009) states that relatedness needs to provide a motivating power for developing social procedures and adapting to interpersonal situations. Also, as determined by Kirkpatrick (1998), the employees and individuals who are trained to successfully adopt what they learn in a training program on to the job. It is importance to provide assist, rewards and incitements to them. He divided rewards two these are; intrinsic and extrinsic. Intrinsic refers to intrinsic inwards feelings of satisfaction, pride, and happiness and extrinsic refers to coming from the outside such as praise, freedom, and recognition, thus, rewards as being very significant for learning and commitment of employee being a train. Also, an employee and 9.

(22) individuals who have passion and high attitude towards learning are suggested to be more instruct able and will tend to remain in the organization. Kraiger, McLinden, and Casper (2004) claimed that the T&D does not only have a significant impact on the employees or individuals, but also on the organization. In addition, there are many positive consequences that can be taking from T&D both at the employee and organizational levels as demonstrated in the literature section. Hence, from the literature review section, the concept of organization T&D as realized by an employee can be viewed in diverse dimension. Especially, this study adopts the dimensions suggested by Bartlett (2001) on employee access to T&D (on-the-job or formal training). Other variables that are evaluated and incorporate in the study to define the training are established on the frequency of participation in training activities (Tharenou & Conroy, 1994). How sufficient training employees receive that enhance behavioral change and increase organizational commitment, the “Motivation to learn from training” developed by Tharenou and Conroy (1994) and “Perceived co-workers support for training” and “Benefits of training” adopted by Noe and Wilk (1993).. Organizational Commitment Organizational commitment is an important part of organizations, they need to increase commitment and also focus on the ability it has to impact and reduce turnover intention. This study prediction that, who employees have with high organizational commitment their performance better and to remain loyal to the organization. Therefore, the high commitment to impact the overall performance of organizations. Also, numerous researchers showed the correlated relation training and development with organizational commitment and job satisfaction.. Definition of Organizational Commitment There are several definitions of organizational commitment. As organizational commitment refers to “the view that commitment is a psychological state, which (1) characterizes the relationship with the organization, and (2) has implication for the decision to continue membership with the organization” (Meyer & Allen, 1991, p. 67). It also asserts that “individual’s psychological attachment to the organization; it will reflect the degree to which the individual internalizes or adopts characteristics or perceptive of the organization” (O’Reilly & Chatman, 1986, p. 493). Organizational commitment as “The degree to which an employee identifies with a particular organization and its goals and wishes to maintain membership in the organization” (Robbins, Judge, & Millett, 2015, p. 102). Organizational commitment is “most social behavior is 10.

(23) predicated on the individual expectation that one’s actions with respect to others will result in some kind of commensurate return” (Dockel, Basson, & Coetzee, 2006, p. 31). As Mowday, Steers, and Porter (1979) specified that organizational commitment is the employee’s level of recognition and involvement of employees with organizational change. This concept includes three correlated factors which are; a strong belief and acceptance of an organization’s goals and values, a willingness of the employee to make an extra effort on the benefit of the organization and the strong desire to remain in the organization. Lesabe and Nkosi (2007) as stated, the organizational commitment is impact factor employee’s behavior to stabilizing and obliging. In addition, they separated commitment into attitudinal commitment and behavioral commitment (Mowday et al., 1979). Firstly, attitudinal commitment largely, represents the degree of loyalty individuals had for an organization and secondly, behavior commitment is focused on the actions of the individuals and reflected the process which individuals linked them to an organization. The organizational commitment is related to some factors like the behavior of employees, employee’s performance, the effectiveness of employees, employees’ attitude, effective of the employee, employees job satisfaction, employees’ characteristics, their age, and working years in the organization (Bateman & Strasser, 1984). Mathieu and Zajac (1990); Tett and Meyer (1993) explained that, the organization commitments are a significant construct in predicting organization performance and intention to quit. Additionally, those three components significantly impact employees’ goals and performance, and also strongly affect to remain in an organization. Most commitment studies widely used conceptual model for measuring organizational commitment from the perspective of Meyer and Allen (1991), those component models are affective commitment, continuance commitment, and normative commitment. Who those employees have affective commitment experience and emotional higher because the organizational know what they need and also those employees remain in the organization higher. Those employees who have normative commitment experience their responsibility of felling higher because those employees know what they need to do, who those employees have continuous commitment their turnover attention present lower because they don’t have another chance. Also, these three components are an impact on employee’s aims and decision to remain in the organization. Most studies widely discuss the organizational commitment from either an attitudinal or behavioral perspective (Dunham, Grube, & Castaneda, 1994), as well as this dimensional 11.

(24) concept of organizational behavior strongly supported by them. According to DeConinck and Bachmann (1994), they defined that as an attitude it has a focus on identification of the events that develop commitment, but the behavioral perspective has a focus on the identification of the conditions where behavior is reiterated and the changes it has on attitudes, either focuses on the state of commitment (Martin & Roodt, 2008). Table 2.2. Definition of Organizational Commitment Authors (Year). Definitions. Meyer and Allen (1991,. “The view that commitment is a psychological state, which (1). p. 67). characterizes the relationship with the organization, and (2) has implication for the decision to continue membership with. O‘Reilly and Chatman. the organization.”. (1986, p. 492). Individual’s psychological attachment to an organization.. Robbins, Judge, and. “The degree to which an employee identifies with a particular. Millett (2015, p.102). organization and its goals and wishes to maintain membership in the organization.”. Dockel, Basson, and. “Most social behavior is predicated on the individual. Coetzee (2006, p. 31). expectation that one’s actions with respect to others will result in some kind of commensurate return”. Mowday, Steers, and. The employee’s level of recognition and involvement of. Porter (1979), Lesabe and. employees with organizational change impact factor. Nkosi (2007). employee’s behavior to stabilizing and obliging.. Dimensions of Organizational Commitment This part of this study presents component model by Meyer and Allen (1991) and this variable includes three dimensions, which are first affective commitment, second normative commitment, third continuous commitment and is explained below. In addition, this model is widely adopted in the most organizational commitment studies and this model is an important role in this study also shows attitudes of work and employee’s behaviors (Morrow, 1993). 12.

(25) Affective commitment. Meyer and Allen (1991) explained that, affective commitment refers to emotional attachment of employees to the organization, it means the employees remain to the organization because employees want to stay with an organization (Mercurio, 2015; Murray, Poole, & Jones, 2006). Those researchers explained that this kind of commitment has generally positives outcomes with the organization, also employees who have this commitment have higher levels of performance, more positive work attitudes, and those employees have a higher desire to remain with the organization than other employees. Therefore, this kind of commitment is a strong type of commitment to the organization (Bozlagan, Dogan, & Daoudov, 2010). Mercurio (2015) explained that this concept of commitment related to the demographics of a variable, difference of individuals, and with the strongest correlation with work experiences. In addition, this type of commitment impacts the behavior of employee and perceptions of individuals, and reactions of individuals. Normative commitment. As stated Meyer and Allen (1991), normative commitment is the individual’s employees feeling of responsibility. Especially the sense of responsibility based on formal and informal principles, rules, social norms and customs, employees’ feel an ethical duty and an obligation for the relationship to continue in the organization (Roxenhall & Andrésen, 2012). Also, this type of commitment is encouraged by the strong organizational commitment of other co-workers and colleagues appreciate for favors made by the organization, rules and concepts and the effect of a social frame of mind (Bozlagan et al., 2010). Individuals and employees with high normative commitment continue working for their organization because they know what is the right and ethical duty (Meyer, Stanley, Herscovitch, & Topolnytsky, 2002). Moreover, this kind of commitment is important for the organization and several researchers explained few variables related to normative commitment. Continuance commitment. Meyer and Allen (1991) defined continuance commitment as determine the investment of employee and it related with employees leaving the organization. Dunham et al. (1994) have divided this concept of commitment; personal sacrifices and lack of alternatives. First, the personal 13.

(26) sacrifice refers, themselves to remain in the organization because those employees have no choice. Second, the lack of alternatives refers, themselves to remain in the organization because the willingness of employees and caused by losing the job. It is positively correlated with job performance and quality of work (Khan, Naseem, & Masood, 2016). Also, those type of employees have the financial or social dependence on the organization. Hence, this type of commitment is not strong considered in the organization. The employees are unlikely to make sacrifices for their organization and they have high turnover intention rates (Bozlagan et al., 2010; Roxenhall & Andrésen, 2012). Factors influencing continuance commitment level are age, tenure, career opportunities, educational background, marital status, alternative job opportunities, gender, and organizational justice perception.. Job Satisfaction Definition of Job Satisfaction Job satisfaction concept has been widely researched, and it is one of the most important and significant impact in employee’s behavior and in organization behavior. The most widely definitions from Spector (1997), it stated that “Job satisfaction is simply how people feel about their job and different aspects their jobs”. It is the extent to which people like or dislike their jobs” (Spector, 1997, p. 2.). Job satisfaction provides negative and positive feelings for employees and their performance and work. Therefore, Job satisfaction is very important for employees and in the organizational because the employees spend a long time of life in the workplace (Curtis, 2007). Also, this concept is very important for the organization and especially human resource professionals they need to know what kind of factors affecting job satisfaction and often need to considering improve their job situation and employee’s well-being. Higher satisfaction gives employees a better feeling and positive attitude and affect employee’s behavior. Employees who have high job satisfaction will probably be more active in the job and remain on the organization (Wang & Feng, 2003). Robbins et al. (2015) defined that, the presence of satisfaction with job offers positive significant consequence in the organization, these are; reduced absenteeism, increased effectiveness, and reduced turnover intention in the organization. Most job satisfaction studies agree that higher employee job satisfaction provides to organizations a higher return, and help organizations and individuals to achieve desired outcomes, because it has straight effect on organizational commitment, motivation, absenteeism, deviant behavior, turnover, organization 14.

(27) citizenship behavior, and life satisfaction of the individuals (Kinicki & Kreitner, 2006). Taris and Feij (2001) were separated the various aspects, which are extrinsic values aspects and intrinsic aspects. Frist, Extrinsic value means material aspects, like salary and opportunity of organizational encouragement. Second, intrinsic value means unmaterial aspects of the job, like type of job and autonomy of organization or employees. Therefore, to avoid such situations organizations need to divide employees’ as a means to achieve the organizational basic aims. Table 2.3. Definition of Job Satisfaction Authors (Year) Spector (1997, p. 2). Definitions “Job satisfaction is simple how people feel about their job and different aspects their jobs”. Curtis (2007). Job satisfaction is very important for employees and in the organizational because the employees spend a long time of life in the workplace. Wang and Feng (2003). Who employees have high job satisfaction those employees are probably will be more active in the job and stay remain to the organization. Robbins et al. (2015). the presence of satisfaction with job offers positive significant consequence in the organization. As reported by Hassan et al. (2011), some individuals and employees contribute to their own success in the organization as they believe the achievement of organizational performance is part of personal aim. Hence, the employees’ attitude and responsibility taking them their personal goals also it helps achieve a goal of the organization. The research conducted by Bartlett (2001), it confirmed that if the organization invests on individuals and employees T&D and organizational commitment, most of them will become satisfied with the job and will want to stay. Also, this study findings explained that employee training, positive working situation, and rewards grow employee commitment behavior. The most widely used conceptual model of measuring Job satisfaction is that by Hackman and Oldham (1976), they described those five scales are possible to motivate performance and contribute to employee’s satisfaction. This scale includes five 15.

(28) dimensions which are: skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and feedback from job itself and feedback. The development of the Job Diagnostics Survey (JDS) questionnaire and scale by Hackman and Oldham (1975), it was adopted to measure employee job satisfaction, as it measures general and specific features of job satisfaction as correlated to satisfaction with skills, task, and results. The theory also described that job satisfaction is linked to employees and an individuals’ perception of their job, showed the aspects of the job they value (Colquitt, LePine, & Wu, 2010). Iaffaldano and Muchinsky (1985) mentioned that many researchers agreed the job satisfaction has major effects to job performance in the organizational and numerous researchers work result shown that the job satisfaction has significant moderating relationships with many variables and also and this variable is extra-role performance in the research area (Organ & Konovsky, 1989).. Core job Dimensions. Critical Psychological States. Personal and Work Outcomes. Skill variety Task Identify. Meaningful of Work. High Intrinsic Motivation. Autonomy. Responsibility for Outcomes. High Job Performance Low. Feedback. Knowledge and Results. Absenteeism & Turnover. Employee growth need and development Figure 2.1. Hackman and Oldham’s Job satisfaction characteristics model. Adapted from Development of the job diagnostic survey by Hackman & Oldman, G. R. 1970, p.78. Copyright © 1980 by Addison- Wesley Publishing Co., Ltd.. 16.

(29) Table 2.4. Brief Description of the FIVE Facets of Hackman Job Description Index Satisfaction Facet Meaningfulness of work. Description This implies that work must be experienced as meaningful to the employees. Meaningfulness is derived from:. Skill variety. Employees gaining variety of their skills and talents, through on-the- job training and formal training from the company.. Task identity. Job satisfaction can be gain when the employees is being able to identify with the work at hand, hence enabling more pride. Task significance. to be taken in the outcome of that work. Autonomy. Satisfied with the ability to contribute to organization over and beyond the self. For example, the Hackman theory suggests that employees will be more motivated and satisfied, if they are contributing to the organization performance than one self.. Responsibility. Responsibility is derived from autonomy, when the job. Swanson (1995). provides substantial freedom, independence and discretion to the employees in scheduling the work and in determining the procedures to be used in carrying out the job. T&D operation is organization’s systematically process of developing, it’s to develop the employees “working knowledge” and “expertise” and to improving the job condition of employees.. Source: Adapted from Development of the job Diagnostic by Hackman and Oldham (1974). Relationship among the Variables Training and Development and Organizational Commitment T&D and organizational commitment is important for employees and the organization. Therefore, recent years many studies have researched T&D and organizational commitment. The organizational training practices are perceived as an organization’s support and commitment is to increase the employee's commitment to an organization. Also, as stated by Al-Emadi and Marquardt (2007), numerous findings of studies have provided some evidence to propose that 17.

(30) organization T&D influences organizational commitment. According to Ahmad and Bakar (2003), they expounded that motivation to learn is strongly correlated to affective commitment but no relationship with continuance commitment was found. As claimed by Noe and Wilk (1993), they illustrated that three significant of training benefits employees receive from the organization training, these are; personal benefits, career benefits, and job–related benefits and those concepts support positive work behaviors. This statement is supported by Bartlett (2001), it mentioned that the benefits of training significantly correlated to affective commitment, continuance commitment, and normative commitment. Hence, employees receive more support and benefits from training, the higher organizational commitment achieved. Ahmad and Bakar (2003) also found that support is significantly and positively correlated with affective commitment, continuance commitment, and normative commitment. In addition, as stated by Noe and Wilk (1993) on the categorization of the importance of training, applied in the study of Al-Emadi and Marqurdt (2007). The results of these researchers described that there is a significant positive relationship between affective commitment, personal benefits and career benefits of training. Thus, employees who received more personal and career benefits of training incline to be more active in the organization. Also, employees acquired more personal and career benefits from training, they inclined to have a responsibility to remain in the organization. Furthermore, the training and benefits of training both had a positive relationship with normative commitment. Therefore, who employees acquired these benefits they have no purpose to quit the organizations. From the above discussions, the hypothesis proposed in this study empirically can be positively significant. Hypothesis 1: T&D is related to organizational commitment. Training and Development and Job Satisfaction According to Gazioglu and Tansel (2006), the satisfaction among the employees was proven higher when they got trained before taking the potential position in the company. Another research of Bartlett (2001) described that training has proven to be higher within the employees, who are satisfied with their job. The opposite theory applies to the employees, who have less satisfaction, meaning they tend to have lower affective commitment. This study also presents the idea that organizational commitment and being able to be trained, an hour spent in training, support from the surrounding employees, eagerness to learn and following benefits of training have a 18.

(31) strong relationship with one another. What influences organizational commitment the most out of above is being able to be trained in the organization beforehand. Also, affective commitment and access to training relationship are proven to be affected by job involvement and job satisfaction to a certain degree. Therefore, this relation illustrates that the core base of the organizational commitment is the level of job satisfaction of employees in the organization. Additionally, several studies have proven that the relation of access to training and affective commitment had a mediating effect of job satisfaction. Lastly, those all relation shows the importance of each variable and coherence of organizational commitment with other relations (Brief, 1998). Accordingly, in this study the following hypothesis was proposed and tested: Hypothesis 2: T&D is related to job satisfaction.. Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment Previously, studies have concluded that there is a relationship between organizational commitment and Job satisfaction. However, the recent studies suggest a different point of view, claiming that some differences exist in data toward this relationship direction. To be specific, it promotes the notion that job satisfaction is an outcome of organizational commitment. Referring to the findings of Sarwar and Abugre (2013); Wang and Feng (2003), those highly satisfied employees are found to have a positive attitude and more committed to the organization and they settle in the organization, show citizenship behaviors, including giving a hand to co-workers or customers and actively done an extra role. The same process can be applied to low satisfied employees, abandoning their position not showing up to work, having complained and taking unethical actions. As Locke and Latham (1990) described, the high-performance cycle presents the idea that great performance, result in rewards, commitment, and satisfaction to the organization and its goals. Several studies suggest that, Job satisfaction is only partially a mediator of the predecessor of organizational commitment in the organization (Lok & Crawford, 2001). Thus, most of the antecedents of organizational commitment are directly related on commitment, rather than indirectly affected via their effects on job satisfaction. On the other side, the results by Williams and Hazer (1986) showed that the antecedent variables of organizational commitment were totally mediated by the effects of job satisfaction. As Leite, Rodrigues and Alburguergur (2014) noted, job satisfaction is a root of organizational commitment, but also that it mediates the relationship between commitment and other elements including job stress, task variety and 19.

(32) characteristics of an individual. Accordingly, in this study the following hypothesis was proposed and tested: Hypothesis 3: Job satisfaction is related to organizational commitment. Job Satisfaction as a Mediator among T&D, and Organizational Commitment Job satisfaction remains one of the most studied work-related variables (Spector, 1997) and is frequently defined as an individual’s satisfaction or behavior toward his or her job (Moorhead & Griffin, 1997). The association between job satisfaction, T&D and organizational commitment is strong, although conflicting data exist on the causal direction of the relationships. Williams and Hazer (1986) studied on organizational commitment have concluded that job satisfaction is an antecedent of organizational commitment and some studies have supported the idea that commitment increases job satisfaction vice versa (Vandenberg & Lance, 1992). According to Brief (1998) have concluded that T&D cannot do it alone, training influences job satisfaction, while job satisfaction increases commitment. Bartlett (2001) further suggested that more research is required to unmask the nature of the job satisfaction training and organization commitment relationship. Several studies found that job satisfaction have potential effects on organizational commitment (Becker, 1992; Mosadeghrad, Ferlie, & Rosenberg, 2008; Mowday et al., 1982; Williams & Hazer, 1986). In addition, a research has shown that job satisfaction has a significant mediating effect of relationships with many important constructs, including extra-role performance (Organ & Konovsky, 1989) and physical health and psychological well-being (Spector, 1997). However, the relationship between T&D and commitment is still not clear (AlEmadi & Marquardt, 2007; Ehrhardt, Miller, Freeman, & Hom, 2011). As researchers argue T&D cannot do it alone without the employee being satisfied with their job that will boost commitment to the organization. Although this relationship still applies in many situations satisfied employees leave for a variety of reason; satisfaction data alone are not necessarily a valid leading-edge indicator. There exist positive factors that make people not be committed. At times people select those actions or activities that they feel they are capable of doing best (Deci & Ryan, 2000). For the purpose of this study, the researcher concludes that if a relation between training and organizational commitment does exist, it is mediated by employee job satisfaction. Many researchers coincide with the fact that training and development have an effect on job satisfaction, and also many studies agree of 20.

(33) job satisfaction being an antecedent of organizational commitment. Job satisfaction is also seen as a mediator between organizational commitment and some other antecedents of commitment. Therefore, there is a high probability of the mediator effect of job satisfaction over organizational commitment. Based on the literature the following hypotheses were proposed and tested: Hypothesis 4: Job satisfaction mediates the relationship between T&D, and organizational commitment.. 21.

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(35) CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHOD Research methodology will be the main focus of this chapter, which focuses on the research framework, relating to research hypotheses, and defines both research design and procedures. Also, this chapter presents sample population, instrument of the research, measurements, and statistical analysis methods used for the collected of data will be illustrated as well.. Research Framework This research study includes three variables. First, it is T&D second is organizational commitment and third is job satisfaction. Dependent and Independent variables have three dimensions. Also, this research to exam significantly related to each variable. The research framework showing below in figure 3.1. H4 H2. H3 Job satisfaction. Training and Development •. Training motivation. •. Perceived co-workers. Organizational Commitment H1. support for training •. Benefits of training. •. Affective commitment. •. Normative commitment. •. Continuance commitment. Control Variables. Figure 3.1. Research framework. 23. •. Gender. •. Age. •. Tenure.

(36) Research Hypotheses Based on the research questions and purpose of the study, the following hypotheses are formulated: Hypothesis 1: T&D is related to organizational commitment Hypothesis 2: T&D is related to job satisfaction. Hypothesis 3: Job satisfaction is related to organizational commitment. Hypothesis 4: Job satisfaction mediates the relationship between T&D and organizational commitment.. Research Procedure First, the researcher identifies the research topic, then identify and create the theoretical framework. Research of study key topics are T&D, job satisfaction and organizational commitment. After identifying the topic, the researcher identifies participants and after that develop instruments. Then the researcher collects data and analyzes data. Lastly, the researcher shows the results from the statistical analysis in SPSS and conclude in section four. Lastly, the researcher gives conclusions and implication the result. The research process is illustrated below: Review Literature Identify Sample Identify Research Develop Instrument Collect Data Data Analysis Conclude and Implicate the result Figure 3.2. Research procedure 24.

(37) Participants and Data collection In terms of measuring the correlation between independent and dependent variables, a quantitative approach has been used to mediate the relationship. Data was collected through a survey questionnaire in form of numbers, which was later tested and verified the relationship between the variables by statistical methods. Regarding the fact that the hypothesis approach questions the validity of a hypothesis and gives more attention to the outcomes or influences among variables, this approach was considered to be more suitable and effective for this research. Throughout this research paper, many different reliable and valid information from the other researchers are used (Neuman, 2014). Additionally, this study all questionnaires offered in Mongolian language. In order to ensure that the scales and the translations are accurate and consistent and have good face validity, the peer review, expert review and back translation of the scales were conducted. This research focused on private service companies in Mongolia because the majority of private companies in Mongolia are service company and those private service companies are playing as an important role in Mongolian economy and local people’s life as mentioned in the background section. Therefore, the target population for this study were the full-time employees from three private service companies in Mongolia. The employees that are in charge of the private companies and HR managers helped with the distribution and collection of the questionnaires. This study covered private companies’ employee branches in the private area because the private area is an important sector in Mongolia. The survey questionnaire participants were full-time employees of three private service companies; “Gyls LLC,” Faro LLC,” “Infinity Solutions LLC”. The researcher data was collected from those three private companies with a total of 250 participants.. Measurement The research instrument used a self-report survey questionnaire. The participants chose the best answer according to their feelings and attitudes. This instrument had a total of (57) items, and divided into four sections, which were: T&D (Bartlett, 2001), Job Satisfaction (Hackman & Oldham, 1976), Organizational Commitment (Allen & Meyer, 1990), Demographic section. This section of the study used different scale items from different researchers’ questionnaire and each scale items from the work of previous researchers. The survey questionnaire part from 1 to 3 used 25.

(38) a 5-point Likert scale items questionnaire, respondents were able to evaluate each item from “strongly agree to strongly disagree.” Also, last part demographic section provided descriptive information of participants and included respondent’s gender, age, tenure.. Training and Development This section of the study used a total of 12 scales items by (Bartlett, 2001; Noe & Wilk 1993). This survey questionnaire included three dimensions which are; training motivation, perceived training support from co-workers, benefits of training. Also, each scale item had a 5point Likert scale item, for example, questions table had chosen section they 1 (Strongly Disagree) to 5 (Strongly agree) and a sample item is “my manager makes sure I get the training I needed to remain in the organization and be effective in my job”. Each dimension initial consistency and reliability were as follows; Training motivation with 0.87, perceived training support from coworkers with 0.83, benefits of training with 0.82 (Noe & Wilk, 1993; Tharenou & Conroy, 1994).. Job Satisfaction This section of the study also used a total 15 another scale item from (Hackman & Oldham, 1976). Also, Job Satisfaction measurement used version of the Job Diagnostic Survey by (Hackman & Oldham, 1976). Its scale had a 5-point Likert scale item, for example, questions table had chosen section they 1 (Very dissatisfied to 5 (Very satisfied) and a sample item is “I am satisfied with my job as it provides me with the opportunity to improve my skills”. It has a reported Cronbach’s alpha of Job satisfaction with 0.91 (Hackman, 1974).. Organizational Commitment This section of the study used a total 24 survey questionnaire scale items by Allen and Meyer (1990). This variable includes three dimensions these were the affective commitment, normative commitment, and continuous commitment and those dimensions to exam participants’ commitment of private companies Mongolia. Its scales had a 5-point Likert scales, for example, questions table had chosen section they 1 (Strongly Disagree) to 5 (Strongly agree). Each dimension initial consistency and reliability were as follows; Affective commitment with 0.85; Continuous commitment with 0.79 and Normative commitment with 0.73 (Allen & Meyer 1990). 26.

(39) Control variable From the reported above in literature section, this research included; age, gender, tenure also those control variables could serve. First, according to Mathieu and Zajac (1990) navigated into studying the relationship between gender and commitment. Those researcher results reported that females committed higher than males. Second, researcher Allen and Mayer (1990) described that age is positively influence with commitment. Third, according to Mathieu and Zajac (1990) confirmed that tenure is secret predictor of organizational commitment. Also, researcher Ahmad and Bakar (2003) discovered that positive relationship between tenure and affective commitment.. Reliability and Validity Analysis Peer review, pilot test and confirmatory factor analysis were used to test the validity and reliability of the questionnaire ensuring that the questionnaire being used in this study is valid and reliable to conduct further.. Pilot Study Based on the results of the pilot study, the researcher proceeds to make the necessary changes, increasing the credibility and reliability of the research instrument. For this study the pilot test consists of 30 participants. A pilot study helps the researcher to detect any problems or deficiencies in the design of a research instrument before proceeding to the formal study (McBurney & White, 2010). The study was used for this research had 54 questions and results of the reliability analysis present in table 4.7. Reliability analysis is the dependability or consistency of the measure of a variable and Cronbach’s alpha value above .7 is generally considered as an acceptable result (Neuman, 2014). Therefore, this study Cronbach’s alpha used to investigate the reliability of each variable and questionnaire. All the items exceeded higher than .70, therefore all items were suitable to use. The Cronbach’s alpha for training and development is .80, job satisfaction is .91, and organizational commitment is .86.. 27.

(40) Table 3.1. Reliability Results of the Pilot Study Variables. Items. Pilot Study. Training and Development. 12. .80. Job Satisfaction. 15. .91. Organizational Commitment. 24. .86. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) According to Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA), it used to examine validity of the measurement structure. Moreover, CFA was conducted by using AMOS. Amos used to compute and execute this analysis using a total 250 participants. The number of observed variables for training motivation was 4, perceived training support from co-workers was 3, training benefits was 5, job satisfaction was 15, and organizational commitment was 24. However, after running AMOS, CFA results of organizational commitment and job satisfaction showed a poor model fit due to the number of items in each variable. Researchers have argued that item parcel is a successful way to handle and improve a poor model fit reducing the measurement error and also increasing the stability of the parameter estimates (Bagozzi & Edwards, 1998). Therefore, the 15 items of Job satisfaction were divided into 5 parcels, Organizational commitment 24 items were divided into 12 parcels. After conducting parceling, CFA results reported a better model fit than the first time. In order to confirm model fits, the result of CFA analysis is based on fit indices. For instance, the Chi-square (χ2) aids in confirming the adequate model fit. A chi-squared divided by the degrees of freedom (χ2/df) with a value, 2.0 is said to be a very good fit, though values between 2.0 to 5.0 are focused acceptable. Root mean square of approximation (RMSEA) is indicative of how adequate the model fits the population being studied and ranges from 0 to 1. Accordingly, the smaller the value the better, thus <.08 is better fit (Hair, Black, Babin, Anderson & Tatham, 2010; Hooper, Coughlan, & Mullen, 2008). With regards to the incremental fit indices; both the Comparative Fix Index (CFI) and the Tucker Lewis non-formed index 9 (TLI) aid in determining how accurate the considered model fits proportionate to another model. CFI and TLI values >.90 indicate good fit whilst the same applies to the goodness of fit index (GFI) value (Hair et al., 2010; Hooper et al., 2008). Considering the above and adopting the three indices criterion from Hair et 28.

(41) al. (2010), for the purpose of this study, a good model fit, will encompass the following; chisquared divided by the degrees of freedom (χ2/df) value of 2.0, RMSEA <.08, CFI >.90 and a GFI >.90. The findings of the CFA analysis on the constructs is discussed below. The results are provided and summarized in Table 3.2 to 3.4.. 29.

(42) Table 3.2. Confirmatory Factor Analysis Result for Training and Development χ2. df. χ2/df. RMSEA. CFI. NFI. IFI. TLI. GFI. 153.5**. 51. 3.011. .090. .941. .592. .942. .924. .901. Note. χ2= Chi square. df= Degree of freedom. GFI= Goodness-of-fit index. AGFI= Adjusted goodness-of-fit index. RMR= Root mean square residual. RMSEA= Root mean-square error of approximation. CFI= Comparative fit index; **p < .01. Note. TDEV=Training and Development; TM= Training Motivation; PS= Perceived support of training from co-workers; BT= Benefits of Training. Figure 3.3. CFA test results of T&D. 30.

(43) Table 3.3. Confirmatory Factor Analysis Result for Organizational Commitment χ2. df. χ2/df. RMSEA. CFI. NFI. IFI. TLI. GFI. 257.2**. 52. 4.947. .126. .683. .640. .690. .598. .835. Note. χ2= Chi square. df= Degree of freedom. GFI= Goodness-of-fit index. AGFI= Adjusted goodness-of-fit index. RMR= Root mean square residual. RMSEA= Root mean-square error of approximation. CFI= Comparative fit index; **p < .01. Note. OrgCom=Organizational commitment; OC_AC= Affective commitment; OC_CC=Continuous commitment; OC_NC= Normative commitment. Figure 3.4. CFA test results of Organizational commitment. 31.

(44) Table 3.4. Confirmatory Factor Analysis Result for Job Satisfaction χ2. df. χ2/df. RMSEA. CFI. NFI. IFI. TLI. GFI. 14.7**. 5. 2.948. .088. .988. .982. .988. .975. .979. Note. χ2= Chi square. df= Degree of freedom. GFI= Goodness-of-fit index. AGFI= Adjusted goodness-of-fit index. RMR= Root mean square residual. RMSEA= Root mean-square error of approximation. CFI= Comparative fit index; **p < .01. Note. JobSat=Job satisfaction; Figure 3.5. CFA test results of Job satisfaction. 32.

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