漢語親子對話中的問答現象 - 政大學術集成

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(1)國立政治大學語言學研究所碩士論文. National Chengchi University Graduate Institute of Linguistics Master Thesis. 治 政 指導教授: 黃瓊之博士 大 立. Advisor: Dr. Chiung-chih Huang. n. er. io. al. sit. y. ‧. ‧ 國. 學. Nat. 漢語親子對話中的問答現象. i n U. v. Questions and Responses in Mandarin Parent-child Conversation. Ch. engchi. 研究生:林以舷 撰 Student: Yi-xian Lin 中華民國 一百零一年七月 July, 2012.

(2) Questions and Responses in Mandarin Parent-child Conversation. By Yi-xian Lin. 立. 政 治 大. n. sit. er. io. al. y. ‧. ‧ 國. 學. Nat. A Thesis Submitted to the Graduate Institute of Linguistics in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master Arts. Ch. engchi. July 2012. i n U. v.

(3) 立. 政 治 大. ‧. ‧ 國. 學. n. er. io. sit. y. Nat. al. Ch. engchi. Copyright © 2012 Yi-xian Lin All Rights Reserved iii. i n U. v.

(4) Acknowledgements. 一本論文的完成象徵著人生一個重要的里程碑,論文的完成也為我在政大 八年的求學生涯劃下完美的句點。在碩班四年的學生生涯中我首先要感謝我的 指導教授黃瓊之老師,感謝黃老師教導了我豐富且深奧的語用學知識,在完成 論文的期間,老師總是循循善誘,並且精闢的點出我的論文的盲點,替我的論 文開了一扇窗,讓我能在枯竭的沙漠中找出一線生機。而在兒童語言習得工作 室工讀的期間,我也從老師身上學到了許多待人處事之道,讓我一生受用無窮, 能夠當老師的指導學生實在是件很幸福的事。我也要向我的論文口試委員教授 致上最高的謝意。感謝徐嘉慧老師、張麗香老師擔任我的論文口試委員並給予 我最寶貴的建議,讓我的論文能更趨完美。 另外,在語言學世界遨遊的這四年中,我要感謝語言所上的老師們教授了 我最寶貴的語言學知識。感謝蕭宇超老師總是活力滿點的鼓舞著學生,並教導 了我最珍貴的音韻學知識;感謝何萬順老師總是風趣的解讀每個語言現象,化 繁為簡;感謝萬依萍老師總是熱情地鼓勵我們;感謝詹惠珍老師在我大學階段 啟發了我對語言學的興趣,讓我一頭栽進了語言學的奧妙世界。 在碩班的求學生涯中,我也要感謝身邊一直鼓勵我的好同學,還有工作室 的學長姐、學弟妹們,語言所就像是一個大家庭一樣,讓我焦慮、不安的心可 以停泊休息。感謝同窗八年的易儒,在我焦慮的時候總是給我最溫暖的安慰和 鼓勵,讓我在寫論文的這條路上不孤單。感謝愷玟、苡瑄、孟英等好友們總是. 立. 政 治 大. ‧. ‧ 國. 學. y. Nat. sit. n. al. er. io. 與我一同歡笑、一同分享生活大小事。感謝子權、采君、怡璇、佩如、裕台等 同窗與我一同激盪出語言學的燦爛火花。感謝我的青梅竹馬侃彧同學總是熱情 地替我打氣,在我口試當天為我張羅一切。感謝妃容學姊對於我的纏人電話總 是毫無畏懼,在我沒勁的時候替我捎來最溫暖的鼓勵。感謝大學好友藝馨、秀 蕙和教育實習的好夥伴們給我的加油打氣,讓我在論文撞牆期總算是能順利翻 牆、安然度過。感謝助教惠鈴學姊總是比我還著急我的論文進度,提醒我該注 意的大小事項,讓我能在四年內完成論文、順利畢業。 最後,感謝我的家人給予我最強大的支持,讓我疲憊的時候能回家充個電、 再出發。感謝我的媽媽照顧我的身心靈,給予我無怨且溫暖的支持,在我完成. Ch. engchi. i n U. v. 論文的後期,儘管擔心,卻總是默默支持著我。感謝我的哥哥在我碩班求學期 間成為家庭最可靠的經濟支柱,並在我焦慮的時候鼓勵著我。感謝崎崎從不過 問我的論文進度,給予我最溫暖的支持,陪我上山下海,體驗許多新事物,打 開了人生的另一扇窗。沒有你們,我沒有辦法一個人披荊斬棘、度過重重難關; 有了你們,讓我的生命更加美好,謝謝你們。. iv.

(5) Table of Contents. Chapter 1 Introduction …………………………………………………………. ….1 1.1 Background and motivation………………………………………….. …1 1.2 Purpose of the study ……………………………………………………...4 1.3 Organization ……………………………………………………………...4 Chapter 2 Literature Review………………………………………………………...5 2.1 Studies of questions in pragmatics……………………………..................5 2.1.1 Pragmatic perspective ……………………………………………………5 2.1.2 Conversational perspective ………………………………………………7 2.2 Child language acquisition of questions …………………………………9 2.2.1 Development of children’s questions …………………………………….9 2.2.2 Pragmatic functions of children’s questions …………………………….11 2.2.3 Mothers’ responses to children’s questions ……………………………..15 2.3 Questions in Chinese ……………………………………………………16 2.3.1 Categorization of question forms in Mandarin Chinese ……………….. 16 2.3.2 The studies of child language acquisition of questions in Chinese ……..19 Chapter 3 Methodology ……………………………………………………….…...22 3.1 Subjects and data ………………………………………………………..22 3.2 Analytical framework …………………………………………………...22. 立. 政 治 大. ‧. ‧ 國. 學. y. Nat. sit. n. al. er. io. 3.2.1 Question types in Mandarin Chinese ……………………………………23 3.2.2 Pragmatic functions of questions ………………………………………..29 3.2.3 Types of responses to questions …………………………………………33 3.3 Coding system ………………………………………………………….. 35 Chapter 4 Results …………………………………………………………………..37 4.1 The child’s questions …………………………………………………… 37 4.1.1 The linguistic forms of the child’s questions ……………………………37 4.1.2 The pragmatic functions of the child’s questions ……………………….42 4.1.3 Form-function mapping of the child’s questions ………………………..51. Ch. engchi. i n U. v. 4.2 The mother’s responses to the child’s questions ………………………...60 Chapter 5 Discussion and Conclusion ……………………………………………..74 5.1 The child’s development of questions …………………………………..74 5.2 The child as a conversationalist …………………………………………77 5.3 The mother’s responsiveness in mother-child interactions ……………...78 5.4 Limitation and suggestion for future research …………………………..79 References ………………………………………………………………………….81 Appendix ..………………………………………………………………………….85 v.

(6) List of Tables. Table 1 Distribution of the linguistic forms of the child’s questions ………………38 Table 2 Distribution of the pragmatic functions of the child’s questions ………….42 Table 3 Distribution of the pragmatic functions of the child’s questions served by different linguistic forms ………………………………………………..52 Table 4 Distribution of the child’s three major question types for different pragmatic functions ………………………………………………………………...57 Table 5 Distribution of the mother’s responses to the child’s questions …………..61 Table 6 Distribution of the mother’s responses in relation to the child’s questions..63. 立. 政 治 大. ‧. ‧ 國. 學. n. er. io. sit. y. Nat. al. Ch. engchi. vi. i n U. v.

(7) List of Figures. Figure 1. Ho’s categorization of the pragmatic functions of children’s questions ....20 Figure 2. Framework of questions and responses in the mother-child interaction ...36 Figure 3. Distribution of the pragmatic functions of the child’s questions ……..….43. 立. 政 治 大. ‧. ‧ 國. 學. n. er. io. sit. y. Nat. al. Ch. engchi. vii. i n U. v.

(8) 國 立 政 治 大 學 研 究 所 碩 士 論 文 提 要. 研究所別:語言學研究所 論文名稱:漢語親子對話中的問答現象 指導教授:黃瓊之 博士 研究生:林以舷. 政 治 大 本研究旨在探討漢語母子對話中孩童問句的語言形式和語用功能,以 立. 論文提要內容:. 及其問句和母親回應之間的關係。研究語料來自於一對以漢語為母語的. ‧ 國. 學. 母子在日常生活的對話,孩童的年紀約為二至三歲。研究將孩童問句的 語用功能分為四類:詢問訊息(informational)、請求行為(directive)、對話. ‧. 修補(conversational)以及針對自我(self-directed)。母親針對孩童問句所作. y. Nat. 的回應分為三類:直接回應(answers)、非直接回應(non-answer responses). sit. 與無回應(no answers)。研究發現漢語孩童大量依賴疑問詞問句和語助詞. er. io. 問句,而隨著年紀增長,孩童的問句語言形式也更趨多元。研究也發現. n. 孩童多使用問句來詢問訊息,而孩童使用問句執行對話修補功能的比例 a v. i l C n 也隨著年紀增長而有所增加,另外,執行此項功能的問句的語言形式也 hengchi U 隨年紀增長而越加豐富。最後,研究發現孩童問句多伴隨母親的回應, 而母親的回應有時會重複孩童問句或以問句形式出現鼓勵孩童參與對 話。. viii.

(9) Abstract. The study aims to investigate forms and functions the child’s questions and their relations to the mother’s responses in Mandarin mother-child conversations. The data examined are from one mother-child dyad. The child is around two and three years old. The pragmatic functions of the child’s questions are categorized into four types: informational, directive, conversational and self-directed. The mother’s responses to the child’s questions are categorized into three types: answers,. 政 治 大 wh-questions and sentence-final particle questions. As the child grows older, the 立. non-answer responses and no answers. The results show that the child mostly uses. question forms he uses become more various. In addition, the child uses questions. ‧ 國. 學. mainly to ask for factual knowledge. The child’s questions which repair the. ‧. breakdown of the conversation are significant as the child grows older. The result. y. Nat. suggests that the child gradually becomes a skillful conversationalist. Last, the data. er. io. sit. reveals that the child’s questions are mostly followed by the mother’s responses, and the mother’s responses may be related to the pragmatic functions of the child’s. al. n. v i n C halso exhibit some characteristics questions. The mother’s responses in child-directed engchi U speech in order to encourage the child’s participation in verbal interactions.. ix.

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數據

Table 1 Distribution of the linguistic forms of the child’s questions ………………38  Table 2 Distribution of the pragmatic functions of the child’s questions ………….42  Table 3 Distribution of the pragmatic functions of the child’s questions served by

Table 1

Distribution of the linguistic forms of the child’s questions ………………38 Table 2 Distribution of the pragmatic functions of the child’s questions ………….42 Table 3 Distribution of the pragmatic functions of the child’s questions served by p.6
Figure 1. Ho’s categorization of the pragmatic functions of children’s questions ....20  Figure 2

Figure 1.

Ho’s categorization of the pragmatic functions of children’s questions ....20 Figure 2 p.7

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