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7

th

Asialics International Conference

Conference theme:

Global Recession and Reform of Innovation Systems in Asia

Sub-themes:

Assessing various policies, programs, institutions and trends related to innovation at the regional, national, city, and sectoral levels in Asia, especially in times of

global recession.

Taiwan ICT industrial innovation policy trends

-- An application of Q methodology

Authors’ information: Ting-lin Lee, Ph.D.

Associate Professor, Chair

Department of Asia Pacific Industrial and Business Management National University of Kaohsiung

No. 700, Kaohsiung University Road, Kaohsiung 811, Taiwan O:07-5919246; F:07-5919430

E-mail: linda_lee@nuk.edu.tw

Yu- lun Wang, Graduate student

Department of Asia Pacific Industrial and Business Management National University of Kaohsiung,

700, Kaohsiung University Rd., Nanzih District, 811. Kaohsiung, Taiwan, R.O.C. E-mail: bonanzalife@yahoo.com.tw

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Taiwan ICT industrial innovation policy trends

-- An application of Q methodology

Ting-ling Lee, Yu-lun Wang

Department of Asia Pacific Industrial and Business Management National University of Kaohsiung

Abstract

ICT industry is one of the important industries in Taiwan. To helping the ICT industry to compete with other countries, the government has created many policies. However, not all the policies work well in reality, some of them didn’t work, and others just didn’t fit the goals.

This research purpose is to find out what is the trend of the Taiwan ICT policies through literature reference, secondary information collection and Q methodology. The result shows that Taiwan ICT industry policies can be divided into four trends including the basic environment plans, service applications, technology combinations and technology developments. According to the achievement of these policies, the major findings of this study and suggestions are that the government should encourage ICT companies to settle a platform to combine their technologies, and deepen the ICT service applications, and also the government should give them finance help continuously.

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1. Motivations and Objects

The ICT industry is an important investment for Taiwan. In the future, it will become a higher value-added industry through innovation. In order to engage with this trend, the Taiwan’s government has proposed different policies, such as the “ABCDE policy,” and “Challenging 2008” promoted by the Executive Yuan as well as the latest ones like “e-Taiwan”, “M-Taiwan” and “u-Taiwan”. Yet, do these policies, regardless of their national, the ministry, or the bureau levels satisfy the needs of different groups? Is there a different understanding about the priority of each policy? This study uses the Q methodology to analyze the government’s ICT innovation policy to determine its preference and trends as a reference for future policymaking. The purpose of this study is to find preferences and trends in the government’s ICT policy. The results will be useful as a reference for making policies related to the ICT industry in the future.

This study focuses on the ICT industry project promoted by the government in the last fifteen years, including the semi-conductor industry, optoelectronic industry, and information & communication industry. Through the application of the Q

methodology, subjective viewpoints about the policy from different specialists or experts from the industry, government, and academia will be clarified. Quantified data will be sorted and turned into a diagram. A statistical analysis will be applied to determine the trend/preference of the governmental policy, and thus suggestions will be made.

2.1 Policy-making process and Policy Instrument

2.1.1 The National Technological System in Taiwan: Institutions

Responsibility for implementing the development of science and technology is divided among various government agencies in the R.O.C. Beneath the Office of the

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President is the Academia Sinica, and beneath the Executive Yuan are the National Science Council (NSC) and various other agencies: Ministry of Education (MOE), Ministry of Economic Affairs (MOEA), Ministry of Transportation and Communications (MOTC), Atomic Energy Council (AEC), Department of Health (DOH), and Environmental Protection Administration (EPA). The Executive Yuan has also established the Science and Technology Advisory Group, which is directed by the Executive Yuan minister responsible for matters pertaining to science and technology. The Science and Technology Advisory Group meet during regular Science and Technology Advisory Conferences. In the case of special tasks that cross the boundaries of individual agencies, when necessary the Executive Yuan premier may direct the minister in charge of science and technology to coordinate inter-agency implementation through a special project team or task force.

The National Science Council Board Meeting is attended by the heads of agencies, whose scope includes scientific and technological matters (including the MOE, MOEA, MOTC, AEC, Council of Agriculture (COA), DOH, and EPA), the Executive Yuan minister in charge of matters pertaining to science and technology, the president of the Academia Sinica, the secretary-general of the Executive Yuan, the director general of the Directorate General of Budget, Accounting, and Statistics, and various scholars and experts (refer to the dotted lines in Figure 1). The Taiwan's science and technology development framework operates according to the principle of comprehensive planning and a division of labour. All agencies are responsible for internal planning; the formulation of inter-agency science-technology policies, the deliberation of major national projects, and the management and allocation of the national budget for science and technology are to be carried out in conjunction with meetings of the National Science Council Board.

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The development of government policy has stages of its own. Each stage has different questions that need to be solved, different policy instruments that need to be used, different target groups to be faced, different duties to be implemented, different policy contexts to be separately dealt with, and perhaps different policy needs to be produced. Each member of the structure is not an independent part, and his/her action is not completely free; he/she is embedded in its social structure, and will consider the possible actions of other members in deciding on his own actions (Granovetter, 1985). This description reflects that actions during the policy-making process for each member within the structure are deeply influenced by the above five main steams.

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Practically, the concept of policy making as a dynamic process implies that an analysis of official policy content as embodied in laws and other formal texts should be supplemented by an analysis of all the stages of the corresponding policy process including agenda setting, policy formulation, legitimating, adoption, implementation, and evaluation (Cherp & Antypas, 2003: 461). Interaction within policy networks can be regard as a continuous process of transformation in which actors negotiate the definition and content of each others’ interests, and try to link the interests of other projects they themselves want to carry out (Latour, 1987). Put in another way, each stage of a policy process is seen as a contestation between a variety of actors with disparate conceptions of their own interests and in varying modes of relationship to one another.

Policy discourse refers to a set of concepts that structure the contributions of a group of participants to a discussion. In other words, discourse is defined as an ensemble of ideas, concepts, and categories through which meaning is given to phenomena (Hajer, 1993:45). The ideas, concepts and categories that constitute a discourse can vary in character: they can be normative or analytic convictions; they can be based on historical references; they can reflect myths about nature. Discourse at the same time forms the context in which phenomena are understood and thus predetermines the definition of the problem. Donati (1992: 151) also pointed out that “discourse is the place where efforts at defining public reality are made so that it can achieve a collective validity”. In the words of Rein and Schön (1993: 145), policy discourse refers to the “interactions of individuals, interest groups, social movements, and institutions through which problematic situations are converted to policy problems, agendas are set, decisions are made, and actions are taken”.

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during the last step, which might convert a previous policy decision. Every policy community based on common policy interests/benefits might intervene in the process of decision-making. Once in a while, these communities may be forced to engage in irregular/abnormal discourse as they debate across communities of practice (Boland & Tenkasi, 1995).

S&T policy is also characterized by contextuality and embedded in a specific context of space-time. Most policy results and policy phenomena resulted from the intertwining between the policy itself and its circumstantial context. It is hard to coordinate policy areas, from practical as well as social and cultural reasons (Koch, Norgren, & Oksanen, 2003: 25). Therefore, a discourse coalition will be organized. A discourse coalition is basically a group of actors who share a social construct.

There is one thing worth noting, as van de Kerkhof & Wieczorek (2005) pointed out, that the decision-making process may be risked by taking into account the opinions and interests of the dominant actors who perceive themselves as the main stakeholders in the transition theme and by excluding the viewpoints and interests of other less prominent actors, who may not perceive themselves as stakeholders but who can contribute new and innovative insights to the process. Besides, Rooney (2005) addressed the idea of ‘technocratic discourse’ and indicated that technocrats are specifically those who argue that what they claim is necessary, not why it is necessary. They try to transform them into exhortations in policy based on the “discourses of expert of expert knowledge” (Lemke, 1995). This kind of technocratic discourse as well could lead to a paranoiac position in process of policy making.

2.1.3 The S&T Policy Instrument

A policy expresses the intention of a government; it presents a purpose and a desired result. A policy maker makes decisions based on standards and indicators of a chosen

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project. A possible prejudice or bias of a policy maker highly influences the process of the policymaking, including the agenda, concept and implementation of a policy. Different viewpoints on a policy will cause different policy instruments to be used and illustrate different concepts of policy.

The scope of science and technology innovation policy comprises science

development policy linked with basic research and technology development policy linked with industry technological research, and economic policy which support related favourable environments. Based on the classification of Rothwell et al. (1985), the effects of innovation policy on S&T activities are divided into three aspects: supply policy, demand policy, and environmental policy (refer to Figure 2). 1. Policy instruments of the supplying dimension

Although the result during the innovation process is uncertain, a significant quality and quantity of resources must be invested. Research developments, new techniques or expansion are highly related to finance, human resources, and technology. 2. Policy instruments of the demanding dimension

The second dimension of a policy for a technological activity is the demand dimension. It focuses on the market. In other words, the demand of technology influences a policy related to the development of the technology, such as a purchase and contracted research from the central or the local government to a certain

technology product.

3. Policy instruments of the environmental dimension

An environmental policy refers to the environmental factors which indirectly influence the development of technology, such as patents, taxes, and laws. Even if they are all indirect factors, they still influence the development of technology significantly.

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Figure 2: Policy Instruments

Source: Rothwell et al. (1985)

2.2 The Policy Programs of Taiwan ICT industry

The term ICT, based on the categorization of the European industry, includes the following industries:

1. Conductors: such as semi-conductor, photonic, electronic components, and electric machinery.

2. Software: such as games, information service, and information system design. 3. Telecommunication: such as communication equipment, communication service, PDA and 3G mobile phone and mobile networks.

Supply  Dimension Financial Supports Human  Resource  Supports Technology Supports Demand Dimension Create Demand Intervene the market Environment Dimension Establish the  infrastructure of  technology development Encourage the will to  create Guide the rules of  creating

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The government policies show that the most vigorous ICT industries in Taiwan are the semi-conductor, photonic, and information & communication. Therefore, this research will explore the policies with regard to these three industries and will collect relevant information about the seventeen ICT projects from annual reports, official websites and publications of the departments of the Executive Yuan, Institute for Information Industry and Industrial Technology Research Institute. ( refer to Appendix I)。

2.3 A brief introduction to the Q Methodology

2.3.1 The basic concept

Q Method is a research method used in psychology and other social sciences to study people's "subjectivity" -- that is, their viewpoint. Q method, first introduced by William Stephenson in 1935, provides a foundation for the systematic study of subjectivity (Brown, 1991). Q method has been used as a research tool in a wide variety of disciplines including nursing, veterinary medicine, public health, transportation, education, rural sociology, hydrology and mobile communication. In Q methodological study, people are presented with a sample of statements about some topic, called the Q-set. Q participants, called the P-set, are asked to rank-order the statements from their individual point of view, according to some preference, judgment or feeling about them, mostly using a quasi-normal distribution (van Exel, J., and G. de Graaf, 2005.)

Q method is also a type of research that integrates qualitative and quantitative techniques to reveal social perspectives. The former is mainly to collect qualitative data with the same effect of in-depth interviews; and the later is to analyze the quantitative data which can be clearly proceeded the statistical analysis and comparison. Qualitative research can rich in perspectives and ideas of the individual;

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while quantitative research can often make a clear and systematic analysis, so Q method is not only a good research tool, but also a participatory activity.

The advantage of Q method, because of its unique process of operationalization, is to help researchers clarify the issues characterized with subjectivity and complex. Therefore, it is often used to handle multi-view issues which is helpful for the interviewees to raise the real point of view on the research topic.

2.3.2 Q and R methods

Stephenson (1935) defined traditional and general research survey with large samples as "R Method". In R research, respondents are subjects and questions are variables. R researchers look for patterns in responses across the variables for each person. In the analysis of survey data, statistics are used to find patterns in responses across respondents. It is common to compute a correlation coefficient comparing responses. The letter “Q” was selected to emphasize that Q method was different from R method techniques. The comparison of Q and R methodological provides some insight into the key differences in the methodologies. These include (Brown, et al., 2008):

1. Q method seeks to understand how individuals think/cognition about the research topic of interest. R methodology identifies the structure of opinion or attitudes in a population. Thus, the results of Q method will identify how an individual, or individuals with common views, understand an issue; the results of R methods describe the characteristics of a population that are associated statistically with opinions, attitudes, or behavior (e.g., voting) being investigated.

2. Although R methods are intended for the “objective” analysis of research issues, Q methodology is designed to study subjectivity. R methodology is found on logical positivism in which the researcher is an outside objective observer. In

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contrast, Q methodology is more closely related to postpositivist ideas (Duning, 1999).

3. Q methodology is an intensive method that seeks in-depth understanding of how at least one person thinks about the topic of investigation. As an intensive method, Q methodology requires a small number of well-selected subjects to complete the Q sort. R methods are extensive methods designed to extract an understanding of populations through representative samples of them; thus, they require – depending on the population size and sampling techniques- data from a certain percentage of the population of interest.

4. R method involves finding correlations between variables across a sample of subjects. Q method, on the other hand, looks for correlations between subjects across a sample of variables. Q factor analysis reduces the many individual viewpoints of the subjects down to a few "factors," which represent shared ways of thinking. It is sometimes said that Q factor analysis is R factor analysis with the data table turned sideways.

Following is the key differences between R and Q method (Table 1).

Table1: The comparison between R and Q methodology

R method Q method

variable Survey question Q sort done by a Q

participant

Subject Respondent Q statement

Population All possible respondents Concourse (all possible Q statements)

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respondents answered different questions

statements appear in different Q sorts

Factor Analysis Normal Inverted

Source: Webler et al. (2009)

2.3.3 Q sorting

The people who do the Q sorts are called Q participants. In R studies, the people who fill out surveys are called respondents. Q participants are selected to represent the breadth of opinion in a target population, not the distribution of beliefs across the population. Q participants are also chosen because they have different and well-formed opinions. People who have well-formed opinions will find it easier to do the Q sort and are likely to produce a more robust sort (Webler et al., 2009)

Fundamentally, Q methodology provides a foundation for the systematic study of subjectivity, and it is this central feature which recommends it to persons interested in qualitative aspects of human behavior. The Q participants by way of the ranking process of Q method to express their views on the topics of the study. Therefore, the Q participants will be asked some questions which are relevant to the research topics(Q statements)for some advice; thereafter, the arrangement based on their individual opinion from the most agreeable to the most disagree will be arranged, this process called "Q sorting". The statements are matters of opinion only (not fact); there is no right or wrong way to provide "my point of view" about anything. Yet the rankings are subject to factor analysis, and the resulting factors, in as much as they have arisen from individual subjectivities, indicate segments of subjectivity which exist. And since the interest of Q methodology is in the nature of the segments and the extent to which they are similar or dissimilar.

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Q sorting gathered from all the Q participants by way of statistical software to conduct correlation or factor analysis, the varied communities can be figured out. In other words, the similar rankings of statements to the Q participants were assembled into a catalog, different catalog known as "Q factor", where each member of a Q factor has a similar viewpoint on the research topic. Kerlinger (1986: 517) argued that Q methodology’s main strength is “its affinity to theory.” “It means that if a theory can be expressed in categories and if items that express the categories can be produced, then Q can be a powerful approach to testing theory”.

2.3.4 Q statements and subject selection

The Q method uses a sample of the less 20 to the more 60 statements selected from the population of all possible statements. Typically the sample of statements is stratified or structured to insure that it represents relevant aspects of the population of statements. In other words, Q method is composed of a serious of statements which related with research topic, these statements are the “Q statements” designed for implementing the Q method. Q study begins by identifying a concourse (opinion population), or a body of literature about the topic. In Q method, the flow of communicability surrounding any topic is referred to as a "concourse", and it is from this concourse that a sample of statements is subsequently drawn for administration in a Q sort (Brown, 1993). A concourse can be gotten in a number of ways. It usually consists of text, often created from interviews with well-informed people, but commentaries from newspapers, talk shows, and essays have also been used. From the concourse a sample of Q statements is strategically selected. Each Q statement is an expression of an individual opinion. Since concourses do not have clear membership lists (as would be the case in the population of subjects), statements cannot be drawn randomly. Commonly Q methodologists use a structured sampling approach in order

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to ensure that they include the full breadth of the concourse.

As with sampling persons in survey research, the main goal in selecting a Q sample is to provide a miniature which, in major respects, contains the comprehensiveness of the larger process being modeled. The problem, of course, is how to select from the concourse so as to provide representativeness in the Q sample, and the main device relied upon to achieve this is Fisher's experimental design principles (see Brown, 1970) As a preliminary matter, therefore, all statements in the concourse were categorized as either (a) methodological or (b) technical, depending on their main thrust, all the time recognizing that few statements are ever one or the other exclusively.

3. Methodology

3.1 Research flowchart

In this study, the concept of the ICT industry refers to the relevant policies which regulate the semi-conductor industry, photonic industry, and information & communication industry. Each policy is categorized by the supply, demand and environmental dimensions of the policy instruments. The Q statement of each dimension will be chosen to make Q cards. The cards will be ranked by specialists from industry, government and academia. The result will be analyzed to distinguish each policy more clearly. Meanwhile, a Q-sort will be performed to discern the direction of the government’s policy on the ICT industry.(refer to Figure 3)

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Supply Policy Demand Policy Environmental Policy Define Research Questions

Literature Reivew Q methodology Q Sorting by Experts PQMethod analysis Findings and Suggestions Selecting Q Statements

Figure 3: Research Flowchart

3.2 Interview Design and Q sorting instructions

Generally, the person will be given the Q sample and instructed to read through them all first so as to get an impression of the range of opinion at issues and to permit the mind to settle into the situation. At the same time, the person is also instructed to begin the sorting process by initially dividing the statements into three piles: those statements experienced as agreeable in one pile, those disagreeable in a second pile, and the remainder in a third pile.

Donner(2001:28)suggested a way how to prepare the instruments which comprise four components:

1. Chips

The chips are what participants actually sort, write each statement on each chip, and ask participants to sort these chips in terms of their preference. There will have 32

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cards with each statement in this research. 2. Guide bar

The guide strip helps participants structure the sort according to the pattern determined in advance by the researcher.

3. Answer sheet

The answer sheet, with the umbrella question on the top and the guide strip (and answer spaces) underneath. Make sure each participant place all the cards in each space which matches the number of statements listed on the header in advance with numbers ranging from -3 to 3 as shown in the step 2.

4. Instructions

The function of instructions, as a backup instrument, is to help participants step by step to finish the sorting.

For the sake of Q sorting, an instruction for explaining the operationalization of interviewing agencies will be given to read in advance, then a tool for interviewing (a board with guide strip) should be prepared.

Then each of interviewees was instructed to rank Q statements based on the degree that he or she agrees with the statements and place these statements accordingly on the score sheet. Figure 4 is a sample of score sheet used in the interviews.

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Based on the Q distribution defined in this study, statements ranked +3 are considered most agreed by the participants, and statements ranked -3 are considered most disagreed. Accordingly, if statements were ranked at +3 by at least one pattern while ranked at -3 by at least one other pattern, we can say that at least two patterns do not share the similar view to either agree or disagree with the statements. By identifying and analyzing these statements, the author hopes to highlight differences among agents of different patterns. Then the focus was switched to find shared views among these patterns. When statements were ranked zero or negatively by all patterns, it is said that each of four revealed patterns is either neutral or disagreeing with the statements. From a policymaking standpoint, these are issues that agents of all

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patterns would agree to not pursuing. On the contrary, when statements were ranked zero or positively by all patterns, we can conclude that each of the five patterns is either neutral or agreeing with the statements. Since none of the patterns is opposing these statements, they are more likely to become the starting point for reaching policy consensus.

All the results of each Q sort were analyzed by using PQMethod1, statistical

software specially designed to perform Q analysis. First, correlations of 32 Q sorts were computed by PQMethod to provide a preliminary assessment of how each Q sort correlates with one another. Next, as suggested by Brown (1980: 235-238; 208-224), “Centorid factor analysis” was performed to obtain unrotated factors. Varimax rotation was then performed to reveal rotated factors. Factor loadings of these rotated factors were examined, and the factors were further manually rotated to better reflect the interrelationship of 32 Q sorts based on their correlations. Each factor loading indicates the extent of a Q sort’s association with these four factors. A Q sort with a significant loading would be considered significantly loaded with the factor.

After officials’ patterns of attitudes were revealed, these patterns were interpreted, analyzed, and compared to gain insights on how each pattern of attitudes perceive the concept of policy trends.

3.3 Q participants

The research period of this study was from the November to early December, 2009. Eleven people were interviewed. Three of them are from the industry, two from the government office, three from academia, and three doing research work. They all have experience in the ICT industry, which makes their opinions a valuable reference. As was mentioned previously, the data matrix of the Q methodology is Q statements,

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which is drawn from a concourse. Therefore, the number of the interviewees (the specialists being interviewed) does not influence their subjective viewpoint.

4. Analysis and result

4.1 Data analysis by using PQ Method

After being processed by the PQ Method, the opinions of the eleven interviewees are divided into four categories by software. Q methodology divides the interviewees through factor loadings. The formula for the critical value of the categorization is listed below (Schliger, 1969):

Factor loading > 2.58/√n (n=the number of Q cards) Factor loading > 2.58/√32 = 0.46 (in this study, n=32)

After the statistics are processed by the software, only the variances of the four factors are higher. Therefore, this study divides the ICT industry policy of Taiwan into four trends. The critical value for the factor loadings is 0.46. In Table 2, variances that are higher than 0.46 are shaded and marked with an X. Between each trend, there should be no relevance or a low relevance to distinguish in which factor it belongs. In other words, in an ideal situation, the variances of an interviewee should be significantly higher than 0.46 or lower than -0.46 under the type he belongs, while the other variances are significantly lower than the critical value. The result of the categorization is shown in Table 2 as shaded and marked with an X. The fourth interviewee is regarded as an invalid sample and is thus deleted for the interviewee has two variances which are higher than 0.46 and close to each other in value. 4.2 Interpreting trends in ICT industrial innovation policy

The result of the policy sorting is not related to the divisions between the industry, government, academia, and research. Therefore, the score of each coding card for each trend must be calculated. See Table 3 for the results.

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Table 3:Accumulative total table of Q coding card

No. of Coding Card

Factor I Factor II Factor III Factor IV

1 -3 -3 1 1 2 3 1 4 -2 3 6 1 4 -2 4 5 0 1 -1 5 0 -1 -3 -1 6 -2 -3 0 2 7 1 1 0 1 8 -2 -3 -1 0 9 2 -2 -3 4 10 -2 2 -4 -1 11 -4 -2 3 2 12 0 3 0 -3 13 3 -1 0 1 14 3 3 -3 1 15 3 -2 0 5 16 1 1 -2 2 17 2 -4 1 -6 18 -2 2 1 -3 19 4 2 0 7 20 -1 2 2 -7 21 -1 -1 3 3 22 -1 0 0 3 23 -3 2 -3 -7 24 -2 0 3 5 25 -4 -5 3 0 26 -3 -2 -3 -6 27 -1 6 6 -1 28 0 4 -2 2 29 0 -1 0 2 30 1 3 -3 1 31 1 -2 2 -1 32 -4 -1 -4 1

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Source:this study

Based on the result above, an analysis is processed through the following three steps. First, the very important and unimportant statements in every factor together are explained, which means that statements that score more than 1 and less than -1 are examined.

Second, determine the concourse from the remaining coding cards after those that score -1, 0, and 1.

Third, compare each factor with the other three to find the differences among them. The result of the analysis shows four trends in ICT industrial innovation policies: 1. ICT planning and infrastructure; 2. ICT service and application; 3. ICT integration; and 4. ICT research and development. The following sections explain these four trends.

4.2.1 Trend I: ICT planning and infrastructure

Naming of factor I: Table 4 shows that in the coding cards of factor 1, the interviewees prefer statements like “basic environment,” “basic facilities,” and

“popular.” Considering the total score of the coding cards and interviewees’ opinions, this trend is called ICT planning and basic environment.

Table 4: Accumulative total table of Q coding card in trend I Cumulated

score

No. of Q card

The official statement of Q card

+6 3 Develop a new business pattern for further opportunities through encouraging businesses to develop applications and services focusing on innovation, demonstration, integration and technology.

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+5 4 Improve the quality of the projects proposed by businesses through guidance and helping small and mid-sized businesses in innovation research (SBIR).

+4 19 Accelerate the upgrading of the traditional industries and assist the new and leading industries by developing critical technology and components.

+3 2 Increase our production value and international

competitiveness through international cooperation, planning, and integration.

13 Use the technology and skills of one industry to create more new industries.

14 Accelerate digital convergence to meet the requirements of the next generation network.

15 Improve the environment and system for research and development.

+2 9 Increase the level of sharing and integration of government information through a comprehensive electronic government system.

17 Set up a public information service system to reduce the gap encountered by people in rural areas as well as the blind and deaf.

-2 6 ncourage multinational enterprises to establish local R&D centres in Taiwan, which will influence and help local industries.

8 Introduce the managing system of multinational enterprises to improve local industries.

10 Actualize the goal of broadband internet for every household by accelerating the construction of the broadband network (wireless, high-speed and multiple networks).

24 Encourage the information/semi-conductor business, logistics flow business, and bank business to introduce electronic services for the logistics flow.

18 Increase the quality of learning and entertainment by constructing a knowledge operation platform and integrating the digital learning resources in the country through a web service.

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-3 1 Promote a R&D system for high-value innovation industry and develop a premier Asia-Pacific technology center.

23 Increase the credibility of the examination for information technology in Taiwan through international cooperation and exchange, and through establishing a comprehensive examination system for information application professionals. 26 Promote Taiwan in the international supplying chain through

a standardization of the digital catalogue for different industries and products.

-4 11 Benefit the public by constructing a service environment integrating telephone network and local wireless network. 25 Protect information ethics and digital human rights by setting

up a comprehensive UNS regulation.

32 Assist banks in setting up regulations and standards for financial supply information.

Information & communication technology (ICT) is a driving force in economic and social transformation. The Networked Readiness Index (NRI) is a very important indicator of a country’s ICT development. According to the Global Information Technology Report 2008-2009 from the World Economic Forum (WEF), among 134 countries/economic systems being evaluated, Taiwan ranked 13th in the NRI, fourth among the other Asian countries. The ranking rose four places compared to the previous year, which is the highest among the top 15 countries in the world. Although Taiwan is one of the most competitive countries in ICT, the adoption rate of the internet and network services can still be improved. According to the “Broadband Internet Adoption Report 2009” from TWNIC, the internet population in Taiwan is over 15,800,000. The adoption rate is about 69%, which is lower than Korea and Japan, but higher than Hong Kong and Singapore. New services are required to attract those who do not use the internet as the adoption rate in Taiwan is starting to fall or

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only grow slightly. This shows that the ICT industry in Taiwan is highly developed and reaching its saturation point. Therefore, the future project should emphasize extending the infrastructure and its application for more business profits.

4.2.2 Trend II: ICT service and application

Naming of factor II: Table 5 shows that coding card No. 27 scores the highest (6 points), and card No. 28 comes in second (4 points). The statements of both the plus and minus points indicate that factor II emphasizes more on “technology service” and “innovative application.” Therefore factor II is called a trend in ICT service and application. Refers to Table5.

Table5: Accumulative total table of Q coding card in trend II Cumulated

score

No. of Q card

The official statement of Q card

+6 27 Establish a new advantageous industry in Taiwan through developing ICT platform businesses for IT-enabled service.

+4 28 Accelerate the u-Taiwan program by promoting

electronic tags and object networking.

+3 12 Use convergence technology to increase the adoption rate of mobile applications, networks and wireless internet.

14 Accelerate digital convergence to meet the requirements of the next generation network.

30 Increase the competitiveness of the exporting industry by creating an examination and certification

infrastructure for the industry development. +2 10 Actualize the goal of broadband internet for every

household by accelerating the construction of the broadband network (wireless, high-speed and multiple networks).

18 Increase the quality of learning and entertainment by constructing a knowledge operation platform and integrating the digital learning resources in the country through a web service.

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19 Accelerate the upgrading of the traditional industries and assist the new and leading industries by developing critical technology and components.

20 Increase the capacity of information application for the public through training enough UNS professionals. 23 Increase the credibility of the examination for

information technology in Taiwan through international cooperation and exchange, and through establishing a comprehensive examination system for information application professionals.

-2 9 Increase the level of sharing and integration of government information through a comprehensive electronic government system.

11 Benefit the public by constructing a service

environment integrating telephone network and local wireless network.

15 Improve the environment and system for research and development.

26 Promote Taiwan in the international supplying chain through a standardization of the digital catalogue for different industries and products.

31 Encourage corporations to establish a joint-design mode to work with other industries through new information technology and process.

-3 1 Promote a R&D system for high-value innovation industry and develop a premier Asia-Pacific technology center.

6 Encourage multinational enterprises to establish local R&D centres in Taiwan, which will influence and help local industries.

8 Introduce the managing system of multinational enterprises to improve local industries.

-4 17 Set up a public information service system to reduce the gap encountered by people in rural areas as well as the blind and deaf.

-5 25 Protect information ethics and digital human rights by setting up a comprehensive UNS regulation.

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Source: this study

The policy description from the statement cards shows that the trend in ICT service and application emphasizes developing the “technology service platform” and “u-life style” in Taiwan. Currently, the ICT platform has been used in teaching, security, supply chains, medicine and health, and so on. They all create many new services for the ICT industry.

4.3.3 Trend III: ICT integration

Naming of factor III: The scores on Table 6 show that card No. 27 scores the highest (6 points), No. 23 the second highest (4 points), and Nos. 11, 21, 24, and 25 the third highest (3 points). The statements of both the plus and minus points indicate that factor III emphasizes more on “Technology integration” and “System integration.” Therefore, factor III is called an ICT integration trend.

Table6: Accumulative total table of Q coding card in trend III Cumulated

score

No. of Q card The official statement of Q card

+6 27 Establish a new advantageous industry in Taiwan

through developing ICT platform businesses for IT-enabled service.

+4 23

Increase the credibility of the examination

for information technology in Taiwan

through international cooperation and

exchange, and through establishing a

comprehensive examination system for

information application professionals.

+3 11 Benefit the public by constructing a service

environment integrating telephone network and local wireless network.

21 Increasing the competitiveness of the entire industry by setting up an integration electronic system for the information flow and the payment flow between banks, central factories, and

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suppliers.

24 Encourage the information/semi-conductor

business, logistics flow business, and bank business to introduce electronic services for the logistics flow.

25 Protect information ethics and digital human rights by setting up a comprehensive UNS regulation.

+2 20 Increase the capacity of information application

for the public through training enough UNS professionals.

31 Encourage corporations to establish a

joint-design mode to work with other industries through new information technology and process.

-2 16 Upgrade and innovate the technology of the small

and medium-sized business through the collaboration and techniques transfer between industry and academia.

-3 5 Assist schools in establishing R&D centers to

increase the depth of technology and to maintain a leading position in the world.

9 Increase the level of sharing and integration of government information through a comprehensive electronic government system.

14 Accelerate digital convergence to meet the requirements of the next generation network. 23

Increase the credibility of the examination

for information technology in Taiwan

through international cooperation and

exchange, and through establishing a

comprehensive examination system for

information application professionals.

26 Promote Taiwan in the international supplying chain through a standardization of the digital catalogue for different industries and products. 30 Increase the competitiveness of the exporting

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certification infrastructure for the industry development.

-4 10 Actualize the goal of broadband internet for

every household by accelerating the construction of the broadband network (wireless, high-speed and multiple networks).

32 Assist banks in setting up regulations and standards for financial supply information.

Source: this study

As most policies that focus on the ICT integration trend are still under discussion, the government should consider both the supply and the demand dimensions of the policy. After the ICT integration policies build up a foundation and invigorates the industry, then policies from the demand dimension should be made to regulate technology integration.

In the 2008 Technology Industry and Strategy Conference held by the Executive Yuan, the agenda focused on using the excellent ICT background of Taiwan to upgrade traditional manufacturers, business, agriculture and small and medium-sized businesses to catch up with the international market, especially in the transformation of traditional machine manufacturers. The government will invest more to make the machine industry in Taiwan one of the top six in the world by 2013. Total output value will be NT$ 1.6 thousand billion. The manufacturing business will provide more services and become a 2.5 industry for more competitiveness in the world. Such expectation is what this study has found. The integration of ICT with other fields through the government’s efforts will create more profit.

4.2.4 Trend IV: ICT research and development

Naming of factor IV: Table 7 shows that card No. 19 scores the highest (7 points), followed by Nos. 15 and 24 (5 points). The statements of both the plus and minus points indicate that factor IV emphasizes “key technology” and “R&D system.”

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Therefore, factor IV is called ICT research and development.

Table7: Accumulative total table of Q coding card in trend IV Cumulated

score

No. of Q card

The official statement of Q card

+7 19 Accelerate the upgrading of the traditional industries and assist the new and leading industries by

developing critical technology and components.

+5 15 Improve the environment and system for research and

development.

24 Encourage the information/semi-conductor business, logistics flow business, and bank business to

introduce electronic services for the logistics flow.

+4 9 Increase the level of sharing and integration of

government information through a comprehensive electronic government system.

+3 21 Increasing the competitiveness of the entire industry

by setting up an integration electronic system for the information flow and the payment flow between banks, central factories, and suppliers.

22 Assist the information business in Taiwan,

international purchase office, and electronic service provider by forming a good supply system.

+2 6 Encourage multinational enterprises to establish local

R&D centres in Taiwan, which will influence and help local industries.

10 Actualize the goal of broadband internet for every household by accelerating the construction of the broadband network (wireless, high-speed and multiple networks).

16 Upgrade and innovate the technology of the small and medium-sized business through the collaboration and techniques transfer between industry and

academia.

28 Accelerate the u-Taiwan program by promoting electronic tags and object networking.

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29 Encourage system business and upstream

components suppliers to use the internet to create a B2B electronic operation for the information industry.

-2 2 Increase our production value and international

competitiveness through international cooperation, planning, and integration.

3 Develop a new business pattern for further opportunities through encouraging businesses to develop applications and services focusing on innovation, demonstration, integration and technology.

-3 12 Use convergence technology to increase the adoption

rate of mobile applications, networks and wireless internet.

18 Increase the quality of learning and entertainment by constructing a knowledge operation platform and integrating the digital learning resources in the country through a web service.

-6 26

Promote Taiwan in the international supplying chain through a standardization of the digital catalogue for different industries and products.

-7 20 Increase the capacity of information application for

the public through training enough UNS professionals.

23 Increase the credibility of the examination for information technology in Taiwan through

international cooperation and exchange, and through establishing a comprehensive examination system for information application professionals.

Source: this study

This study found that some specialists in industry, government, academia, and research think that the current ICT policy of Taiwan should focus on research and development. In both the “Challenging 2008 Project” or in the “2015 Economic

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Development Expectation,” the importance of research and development is mentioned. Although the government has recognized the importance of the ICT research and development policy, there has been no significant performance yet. Hsin-wu Lin, in his interview, suggests that the government should emphasize more on the policy of the supply dimension and on research and development for small and medium-sized businesses. Lin thinks that the R&D departments from large corporations do not lack financial support. Yet, Taiwan has more small and medium-sized businesses, whose R&D departments deserve more resources. This study shows that the key for a R&D department is innovation. Therefore, in making ICT research and development policies, the government should also include environmental policies to encourage more innovation.

5.Conclusions and Suggestions

5.1 Conclusions

The previous sections show that there are four trends in ICT industrial innovation

policy in Taiwan. Although they are discussed separately, they actually connect to

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The priority of an ICT policy is the plan and construction of the infrastructure, for only a solid ICT infrastructure is able to lead to the development of ICT service applications and create more profit for the industry. Although Taiwan has

accomplished the integration platform for payment flow and logistics flow, ICT needs to be integrated with other fields to develop more platforms in order to create a high value-added technology industry.

5.2 Suggestions

The innovation of an integration platform and related technology depends on the improvement of technology research and development. Following the improvement of technology research and development, the infrastructure for mechanization must be planned and installed. Under this circulation, policy making for the ICT industry must follow and consider these four trends to bring the most benefit to the entire ICT industry.

Based on this analysis, this study proposes the following suggestions to current ICT industry policy:

1. Reinforce ICT application and service:

The ICT infrastructure of Taiwan and other developed countries is already saturated. Therefore, the next profitable market is ICT application facilities or services for the general public. In order to achieve this goal, the government should focus more on the policies for the supply dimension like the skill training for business and design. For the policy of the environmental dimension, applications for new patents should be awarded in order to encourage the application of ICT. For the policy of the demand dimension, export policy should be encouraged to promote ICT products from Taiwan through business experts, so that the products can be franchised abroad.

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value chain, which covers marketing, retail and service. It requires the skilled professionals in marketing and service and their tacit knowledge. The foundation of their tacit knowledge depends on the deployment of human resources. Hence, the content of ICT application and service should emphasize more on the employees for the latter half of the ICT industry value chain.

2. Encourage the establishment of ICT integration platforms:

Although the basic integration platform for payment flow and logistics flow is

completed, further integration is expected to maintain the profits for the ICT industry. This depends much on the government’s policy regarding the supply dimension. For example, financial support, loans, human resources from the academia, and the technological support that requires a research and development organization to work with the industry to integrate the ICT with other fields. This integration platform is to connect every link of the industrial value chain together and to integrate different services from different industries to multiply the profits of the ICT industry in Taiwan.

3. Reinforce R&D financial support and supplementary measures:

In such a competitive international market, innovation is the only way to lead the industry to a new level of success. Yet, investment in money and time is a great risk and challenge for corporations (especially the corporations of Taiwan). Instead of praising the achievements of the past, the government should focus on helping industries now. For the supply dimension, the government should increase financial and technology support; for the environmental dimension, applications for new patents should be awarded to encourage more innovation. These are all for Taiwan’s future success. Yet, support from the government should not spoil the industry but assist it in becoming more competitive through different supplementary measures.

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5.3 Possibilities for future research

During the eleven interviews for this research, the specialists from different fields were impressed by this research methodology and gave many valuable suggestions to improve it in the future. The suggestions are summarized into the following two points:

1. The current ICT innovation policy covers different goals. Future research should focus on and explore a certain goal to get a possible result.

2. Future studies of the innovation policy should consult the technology policies of other developed countries. This not only helps our government in finding the right direction for technology policy in the future, but also enables a comparison between Taiwan and other countries.

5.4 Limitations of this study

The interviews of the eleven specialists show that among the seventeen ICT

innovation projects in the past fifteen years, some have already finished while some are still ongoing, which make some interviewees think that the finished projects are “unimportant.” Moreover, interviewees had problems in judging a policy’s

importance and urgency. Many interviewees thought some policies were “important but not urgent” while some were “urgent but not important.” This might cause hesitation or even mistake in their judgment.

Although these innovation projects are categorized through the policy instruments of supply, demand, and environmental, similar concepts have been removed from the selection of Q-statements, subjective judgement is unavoidable. Moreover, these seventeen projects belong to different levels. While some belong to the national level, others belong to the Executive Yuan, and some belong to the Departments. The selection of the Q-statements is unable to show the difference of these levels and

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might influence the rankings by the specialists.

Policy instruments

The Official Context

Supply 1. Increase the quality of learning and entertainment by

constructing a knowledge operation platform and integrating the digital learning resources in the country through a web service.

2. Set up a public information service system to reduce the gap encountered by people in rural areas as well as the blind and deaf.

3. Increase the capacity of public information application through training enough UNS professionals.

4. Accelerate the upgrading of the traditional industries and assist the new and leading industries by developing critical technology and components.

5. Assist the information business in Taiwan, international purchase office, and electronic service provider in forming a good supply system.

6. Increase the competitiveness of the entire industry by setting up an integrated electronic system for information flow and the payment flow between banks, central factories, and suppliers.

7. Encourage the information/semi-conductor business, logistics flow business, and bank business to introduce the electronic service for logistics flow.

8. Increase the creditability of the examination for information technology in Taiwan through international cooperation and exchange, and through the establishment of a comprehensive examination system for information application professionals (Mid-term Project for Information Technology Development). 9. Improve the quality of the projects proposed by businesses

through guidance and helping small and middle-sized businesses in innovation research (SBIR).

10. Develop a new business pattern for further opportunities through encouraging the business to develop applications and

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services with concepts of innovation, demonstration, integration and technology.

Demand 1. Promote Taiwan in the international supplying chain through a standardization of digital catalogues for different industries and products.

2. Protect information ethics and digital human rights by setting up a comprehensive UNS regulation.

3. Accelerate the u-Taiwan program by promoting electronic tags and object networking.

4. Establish a new advantageous industry in Taiwan through developing the ICT platform business for IT-enabled service. 5. Increase the competitiveness of the exporting industry by

creating an examination and certification infrastructure for industry development

6. Encourage system business and upper stream components suppliers to use the internet to create a B2B electronic operation for the information industry.

7. Assist the banks in setting up regulations and standards for financial supply information.

8. Encourage corporations to establish a joint-design mode to work with other industries through new information technologies and processes.

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Environmental 1. Actualize the goal of broadband internet for every household by accelerating the construction of the broadband network (wireless, high-speed and multiple networks).

2. Increase the level of sharing and integration of government information through a comprehensive electronic government system.

3. Use the technology and skills of one industry to create more new industries.

4. Upgrade and innovate the technology of small and medium-sized businesses through the collaboration and techniques transfer between industry and academia. 5. Improve the environment and system for research and

development.

6. Increase our production value and international

competitiveness through international cooperation, planning, and integration.

7. Accelerate the digital convergence to meet the requirements of the next generation network.

8. Use convergence technology to increase the adoption rate of mobile applications, networks and wireless internet.

9. Benefit the public by constructing a service environment integrating the telephone network and local wireless network. 10. Promote a R&D system for the high-value innovation industry

and develop a premier Asia-Pacific technology centre. 11. Assist schools in establishing R&D centers to increase the

depth of technology and to maintain a leading position in the world.

12. Encourage multinational enterprises to establish local R&D centres in Taiwan, which will influence and help local industries (Encouraging foreign enterprises to establish R&D centres in Taiwan project).

13. Introduce the managing system of multinational enterprises to improve local industry.

14. Use the advantage of academia in research and development to reinforce the link between industry and academia, create more valuable innovations, and boost the development of local industry.

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Source: compiled by this study

1. Promote a R&D system for high-value innovation industry and develop a premier Asia-Pacific technology center.

2. Increase our production value and international competitiveness through international cooperation, planning, and integration.

3. Develop a new business pattern for further opportunities through encouraging businesses to develop applications and services focusing on innovation, demonstration, integration and technology.

4. Improve the quality of the projects proposed by businesses through guidance and helping small and mid-sized businesses in innovation research (SBIR).

5. Assist schools in establishing R&D centers to increase the depth of technology and to maintain a leading position in the world.

6. Encourage multinational enterprises to establish local R&D centres in Taiwan, which will influence and help local industries.

7. Use the advantage of academia in research and development to reinforce the link between the industry and academia, create more valuable innovations, and boost the development of the local industry.

8. Introduce the managing system of multinational enterprises to improve local industries.

9. Increase the level of sharing and integration of government information through a comprehensive electronic government system.

10. Actualize the goal of broadband internet for every household by accelerating the construction of the broadband network (wireless, high-speed and multiple networks).

11. 9.Benefit the public by constructing a service

environment integrating telephone network and local wireless network.

12. Use convergence technology to increase the adoption rate of mobile applications, networks and wireless internet.

13. Use the technology and skills of one industry to create more new industries,

14. Accelerate digital convergence to meet the requirements of the next generation network.

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for research and development. of the small and medium-sized business through the collaboration and techniques transfer between industry and academia. 17. Set up a public information service

system to reduce the gap encountered by people in rural areas as well as the blind and deaf.

18. Increase the quality of learning and entertainment by constructing a

knowledge operation platform and integrating the digital learning resources in the country through a web service.

19. Accelerate the upgrading of the traditional industries and assist the new and leading industries by developing critical technology and components.

20. Increase the capacity of information application for the public through training enough UNS professionals.

21. Increasing the competitiveness of the entire industry by setting up an integration electronic system for the information flow and the payment flow between banks, central factories, and suppliers.

22. Assist the information business in Taiwan, international purchase office, and electronic service provider by forming a good supply system.

23. Increase the credibility of the

examination for information technology in Taiwan through international

cooperation and exchange, and through establishing a comprehensive

examination system for information application professionals.

24. Encourage the

information/semi-conductor business, logistics flow business, and bank business to introduce electronic services for the logistics flow.

25. Protect information ethics and digital human rights by setting up a

comprehensive UNS regulation.

26. Promote Taiwan in the international supplying chain through a standardization of the digital catalogue for different industries and products.

27. Establish a new advantageous industry in Taiwan through developing ICT platform businesses for IT-enabled service.

28. Accelerate the u-Taiwan program by promoting electronic tags and object networking.

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upstream components suppliers to use the internet to create a B2B electronic operation for the information industry.

exporting industry by creating an examination and certification infrastructure for the industry development.

31. Encourage corporations to establish a joint-design mode to work with other industries through new information technology and process.

32. Assist banks in setting up regulations and standards for financial supply information.

數據

Figure 2: Policy Instruments
Figure 3: Research Flowchart
Table 3:Accumulative total table of Q coding card

參考文獻

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