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Enriching Knowledge for the SS Tourism and Hospitality Studies Series: Introduction to Tourism


Academic year: 2022

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Enriching Knowledge for the SS

Tourism and Hospitality Studies

Series: Introduction to Tourism




 Sectors of tourism industry

 Distribution Channels of Tourism Products

 Impacts of tourism

 Changes in tourism industry under the COVID-19 pandemic

 Future development in tourism industry


Sectors of tourism industry



The Public Sector


 Government :

 Government departments and some public tourism organizations, such as Tourism Commission established in May 1999 and is under the Commerce and Economic Development Bureau

1. map out Government's tourism development policy and strategy 2. provide a focal point for liaison with the tourism industry

3. enhance co-ordination in developing tourism

 Tourism Organizations:

 Under government funded such as Hong Kong Tourism Board 1. promote Hong Kong as a travel destination worldwide

2. enhance visitors' experience once they arrive


Major role of Public Sector


 Planning and facilitating tourism, devise policies and plans for

development, Include the generation of guidelines and objectives for the growth and management of tourism, both in short and long term

 Control and supervision of tourism:

Controlling and supervising tourism

Prevent undesirable growth

Maintain quality standard

Help match supply and demand

Protect tourists against industrial malpractice of failure


Major role of Public Sector



 Direct Ownership of Components of the Tourism Industry, governments own parks, museums,

historic sites, streets and highways railways to

facilitate the development of the tourism industry

 Promoting Tourism to Home and Overseas

Markets, produces and distributes maps, charts, and tourism literature, increase tourism growth by effective marketing

 Investment Support, provision of land by the government at less than market value and low interest rate

 Active Involvement, Legislation which is conducive

to foreign investment


Private Sector


 Produces goods and provides service to consumers and earn profits

 Majority of tourism organizations are owned and operated in the private sector

 Primary purpose is to profit and pay the owners or shareholders who invested their money

 Accommodation

 Food and Beverage

 Transportation






1. Provided place, lodging or rooms to tourists to stay

2. The hotel leader in the world: Marriott international, inc, manage,

franchise, own, and develop Marriott-brand hotels: 30 brands, around 7,650 properties, 1.42 million rooms, 131 countries

3. Some factors affecting tourists from choosing accommodation


Price Location Comfort

Service Brand Star Rating




 Away from home composes of three main elements:

 Satisfactory accommodation

 Safe transportation

 Suitable entertainment

 Accommodation is the temporary home for travelers 1. Hotels

2. Motels (motor hotels) 3. Resort hotels

4. Campgrounds, 5. Hostels

6. Guesthouses.

Five Dimensions Weight

Facilities 0.25

Location 0.20

Staff to Room Ratio 0.20

Achieved Room Rate 0.20

Business Mix 0.15

Overall 1.00

Hotel Category Composite Score High Tariff A Hotels 3.00 or above to 3.99 High Tariff B Hotels 2.00 or above to 2.99 Medium Tariff Hotels 1.00 or above to 1.99 Tourist Guesthouses – self explanatory –

Hotel Rating System in Hong Kong


Accommodations and Target



 Target market is a group of people who have similar wants and needs

 Similar demographics like median age, race, or income level

 Specific type of people or groups who are the most efficient or potential customers

Leverage the targeting in product, sales, and marketing strategies

 Every hotel must align their marketing and sales efforts if they want to attract and book more of these ideal


 Historical sales data is great hints to know target audience profiles and preferences


What Is a Resort?


What is the difference between a resort and a hotel?

 A hotel is a place that provides lodgings, or sleeping

accommodations, to its patrons. Hotels may or may not provide meals and other services for travellers and other paying guests as well.

 A resort is a space, similar to a hotel, that offers relaxation and

recreation to its patrons. Resorts will always offer accommodations as well, in which case people might refer to such locations as a

“resort hotel.” Basically, the resort meaning is that of a hotel, but just with more accommodations, amenities, and activities, providing a wide variety of recreational facilities/programs.


Characteristics of Resort Management


There are several features that distinguish resort properties from other types of lodging properties




Local dependence



Employee training

Revenue and accounting



Target Guests

Vacationing individuals Vacationing families

Convention guests

Higher expectation and demanding

Stay longer than typical commercial hotel guests

Rooms are typically more expensive


Any resort hotel in

Hong Kong?


Auberge Discovery Bay Hong Kong Disney Explorers Lodge

Disney's Hollywood Hotel

Hong Kong Disneyland Hotel Hong Kong Gold Coast hotel

Hong Kong Ocean Park Marriott Hotel


Other type of Loggings

1. A Guesthouse is a form of accommodation that is

sometimes being called the simple lodging with basic services

2. Motel, also called Motor Lodge, Motor Court, Tourist Court, or Motor Inn,

originally a hotel designed for persons travelling by automobile, with

convenient parking space provided



Food and Beverage



Specialty Restaurant


 Deal in a particular type of cuisine like Chinese, Italian or French etc

 Each aspect of the restaurant is typical and related to the area of region of community whose food is being served

 Guest can feel the specific country culture and tradition of that area while dining in restaurant

 Restaurants may be attached to resort or may independently exist

 Specific hours of function and normally more expensive than ordinary restaurants


Room Service


Room Service is attached to a hotel and caters to the F & B requirements of the guests who are staying in the hotel only

Room service operates round the clock in resort and 5 stars hotel

Prices in the room service are

generally higher than outlets










Medium to High capacity


Suited to long distance 1. High fuel consumption 2. Stringent safety

1. Reduced the time of travel 2. Increased accessibility to places 3. Stimulate the growth of

international mass tourism



Medium to High capacity


Suited to long or short distance

1. Comparatively 2. High labour costsSlow

Cruising becomes a popular travel transportation, particularly in Europe and USA


Car, bus, or coach

Low capacity


Suited to short distance 1. Possible

congestion 1. Door-to-door flexibility allows tourist to plan routes

2. Mass transport network for excursions


High capacity Convenience: arrives at and

depart from central district 1. High fixed costs 1. Special carriages can be added

2. Trans-continental routes and scenic lines


Airline Companies


Airline Airline (in

Chinese) IATA Callsign Commenced


Hong Kong

Airlines 香港航空 HX BAUHINIA 2006

Cathay Pacific 國泰航空公

司 CX CATHAY 1946

HK Express 香港快運航



Greater Bay

Airlines 大灣區航空 HB GREATER BAY 2022 expected


Luxury Airline

 Make every trip more comfortable

 Offer premium perks and upgrades for tourists

 Enhanced privacy, upscale food and beverage service, access to premium

entertainment and private transportation to and from the airport

 Amenities offered for first class and business class 23


Airlines – low cost / fare



Provide shorter routes, with high turn around frequency

Use older planes or rent planes from others

Operate with higher load factors

Stop at secondary airports

Cut fringe services

Extra fees for other additional services

Cut out intermediaries, or low commission to agents

Online rather than having a physical distribution offices





Uniqueness of Cruise Products-

A Blend of the 5A’s


5 A’s:

Attractions Activities Access




Types of Cruises


Ocean Voyages: A one-way passage from one point to another over a major body of water.

Standard Cruises: An open water cruise may be one way or round-trip with several ports of call.

River/Canal Cruises: River and canal cruises are closely linked to the culture and heritage of the country being toured.

Destination / Expedition Cruises: based on the

destination to be visited.


Common International Cruise Routes


1. Alaska

2. Caribbean

3. European Areas

4. Canada & New England 5. Hawaii

6. Asian and Pacific Region 7. Panama Canal

8. South America

• 阿拉斯加

• 加勒比海

• 歐洲地區

• 加拿大及新英格蘭

• 夏威夷

• 亞洲及太平洋地區

• 巴拿馬運河

• 南美洲


Fly-Cruise 海陸空之旅


Have to fly to the home port first

before taking the cruise It is common because:

Not all cities have cruise terminal

The place of residence is not a home port The place to go is far away and there is a

limitation in time spent for a vacation


Dinning Area


Dinning Room: cruisers will have breakfast, lunch and dinner in cruise. So large cruise will have several features dinning rooms.

Alternative Dinning Area:

buffer, pool side kiosk or bar will

be provided in modern cruises.




Entertainment events usually take places in cruise each night to entertain

guests as well as make money.

For instance: dancing night, discos, wine tasting and opera.


Pool Area and Health Club


 Majority of ships have one or more swimming pool.

(indoor & outdoor) They will normally locate in upper deck with nice view.

 Massages, facial treatments, saunas, aromatherapy and other beauty or relaxation-related service will be indeed needed by cruiser who look for relax trip.



Casino and Internet Center

Gambling is usually legal on cruises, most cruise vessels boast casino where cruisers can play blackjack, roulette and other games.

Internet access will be offered, guests can send or receive email to extend their business from office if necessary.

Gift Shop & Medical Facility

Cruisers can buy sundries, swimsuit, souvenirs and duty-free

goods in the cruise. It could convenience guests and generate capital to cruise company.

One or more duty nurse must be assisted in cruise which

accommodates 200 or more passengers required by maritime law.


Distribution Channels



Three Different Forms of Distribution Channels




What Is a Unilateral


A contract agreement in which an offer or promises to pay after the occurrence of a specified act

Most often used when an offeror has an open request in which they are willing to pay for a specified act

In a unilateral contract, the offeror is the only party with a contractual obligation

Direct book with hotel or airline companies


What is Bilateral


An agreement between 2 parties which establishes some terms and conditions

Represents the value of goods and services that have been exported from one party to another

Influencing factors include international and

domestic policy in both providers and consumers

Deliver the goods or services from supplier to travel retailer, such as travel agents, and then to

customers (end user)

Make booking through travel agents (such as OTA)


What is Multilateral


 Process of booking between groups of three or more parties

 Multilateralism is generally considered to comprise certain

qualitative elements or principles that shape the character of the arrangement or institution


supplier Travel

wholesaler Retailer Customer

Hotels or

Airlines GDS Travel


Business or Leisure






Types of Intermediaries


Retailers, link between the tourist industry and retailing. Shopping, buying local products and trying out local cuisines are integral aspects of the tourist experience.

Distributors, the series of companies or businesses that are involved in transporting, storing and providing goods and services to customers

Wholesalers, a company that showcases and distributes travel products such as hotel rooms, transfers, and ancillary products to their network of clients

Agents/Brokers, individuals or companies that act as an extension of the product

providers, make their profits through fees or commissions


Roles and functions of travel agents


 The main members of the tourism supply chain (Zhang et al., 2009; Tigu and Calaretu, 2013)

1. Accommodation Companies 2. Transportation Companies 3. Food and Beverage


4. Recreation Companies 5. Shopping Companies 6. Travel Agencies

7. Tour Operators

1. Preferred supplier is a company that signed

agreement with another company to provide it with both goods and services 2. Partnerships are very

common in the travel industry

3. Potential for symbiotic and mutually-beneficial



Roles and functions of travel agents

1. Providing one-stop tourism products, wide variety of needs includes food,

accommodation, transport, touring and

sightseeing, shopping, entertainment, linking tourists with tourism service providers

2. Retail channel for tourism products,

transport, accommodation and catering organizations will also sell their own

products/services directly to travelers

3. Facilitating customers’ tourism activities and promoting the development of the tourism, travel agencies can book the relevant travel services before the customer departs,

guaranteeing that the trip will go smoothly industry, customize guests needs such as study tour



Factors Considered by a Travel Planner When Planning a Tour


Factor of consideration Key Elements in a Tour

Hotels Transports Food Itinerary



 star rankings

 location of hotels

 departure and arrival time

 mode of transport

healthy food  guided tour

 self-tour

Interest Entertainment

facilities in-flight local and

traditional cuisines

 shopping

 sightseeing

 adventure Budget

 Standard

 Deluxe

 Suite

 economy class

 business class

 first class

meals are included or excluded

entrance fees of theme park and other own

expenses Safety Hotel licensed history of accidents


the brand

risk of food

poisoning risk of crimes

and thefts



Product Knowledge Required by a Travel Agent

Product Knowledge Examples

Destinations Climatic conditions Political situations Major attractions

Travel regulations and documents

Airlines Reservation system

Route operations Flight schedules Fares

Services offered on board

Airports Timings


Custom and security regulations Distances from cities

Surface (Rail and Road) and Water Transport Time tables

Fares and car rentals

Reservation systems and procedures Principal Suppliers Image and financial standing

Quality of service Knowledge of Other Aspects Local excursions

Special interest tours




 Customers get more direct access to items or services by reducing or eliminating third parties

 Self-booking tools and unlimited access to

information made for better-informed travelers by internet

 Customers achieve truly personal and crafted experiences

 Rise of airbnb

 Technology to eliminate the obstacles between tourists and destination


Impacts of tourism



Positive economic impacts of tourism


 Creating jobs, large number of people with various levels of skills and abilities

 Direct employment: employment generated from business that directly provides services to tourists

 Indirect employment: manufacture goods and provide services which are bought or used by business

 Provide tax revenue

 Direct taxes: salary tax, increase in tourist expenses would result in an increase in income of people working in the tourism industry

 Indirect taxes, departure tax and hotel room tax, expenditure tax

 Improve the balance of payments: flow of goods, services and capital in and out of a country during a given period

Economic growth from multiplier effect: foreign exchange earner for

developing countries


Tourism Multiplier Effects


•Expenditure in destination (attract capitals from overseas)

•Tour operators (travel agents)

•Investors (international theme park investors)

First order:

•Wages (local people income)

•Interest (attractions such as Tai Kwun)

•Profits (trading & selling)

Second order:

•Savings (local people save money in bank)

•Tax (charge consumption tax

Third order:



Tourism Multiplier


Transactions (or sales)


Output multiplier

Government revenue multiplier Employment

multiplier Income



Transactions (or sales) Multiplier


Estimate a business's value based on the multiples used in a peer group of transactions

Measures the amount of additional business revenue created in an economy

Result of an increase in tourist expenditure


Output Multiplier


Measures the amount of additional output

generated in an economy as a result of

an increase in tourist expenditure

Output multipliers are concerned with changes in the actual levels of production and

not the volume and value of sales

Not all sales will be related to current production (payable

makes inventories increase)

The value of an output multiplier and

transactions multiplier will be different


Income Multiplier


Measures the additional income

A dollar spent turns into more money

Places will then re-spend that money

on inventory, utilities and more workers

Wages and Salaries, Rent, Interest and



Employment Multiplier


Measures the amount of direct, indirect and induced jobs created in the city

Measurement of either the total amount of employment generated by an additional unit of tourist expenditure


The ratio of the total employment generated by this same expenditure to the direct employment alone


Government Revenue



 Measures the impact on

government revenue, from all sources, associated with an increase of tourist expenditure

 Expressed in gross terms

 Net terms, government revenue is reduced by the increase in

government expenditures

associated with the increase in

tourist activity


Conclusion of Tourism Multiplier Effect


Spending on tourism is huge on a global scale which means good revenue

Net contribution to a destination’s economy depends largely on the spending leakages May be affected by imports, taxes and

repatriation of profits and wages


Negative Economic impacts of tourism


Facilitate the increase in consumer prices and land prices: great pressure on the

limited resources in host country

Over-dependency on tourism: popular destination may become out of fashion

quickly, the business and quality of life may be changed dramatically

Generate leakage

Expenditure on imported goods and services required

by tourists

Money earned and sent to their own countries by foreign workers in tourism


Profits of foreign-company- owned tourist facilities

diverted overseas


Socio-cultural Impact In



Improve the way of life

 Promote social development through employment creation

 Supports the creation of community facilities and services

 Upgraded infrastructure, health and transport improvements

 Improve the reputation and visibility of host community

Encourage cultural exchange

 Learn about each other’s culture and custom

 Respect and tolerance for each other’s culture

 Develop and extend host countries’ culture

Boost for cultural conservation

 Boost the preservation and transmission of cultural and historical traditions

 Appreciation of local art, crafts, folklore, history, religion or



Socio-cultural Impact In Negative



 Congestion

1. Visitors and local residents over shared usage of local recreational facilities 2. Additional demands on social services and supporting infrastructure

3. Conflict of land use

 Transformation of forms and types of occupation

1. Draw workers from other sectors of the economy

2. Place people, especially women and young people, in a financially less dependent position

 Health problems

1. Spread diseases, such as COVID-19

2. Over usage of facilities such as sewage treatment with health risks


Socio-cultural Impact In Negative


Moral Issues

• Possible unethical issue

• Prostitutes concern

Crime Generation

• The density of the population

• The location of the resort in relation to an international border

• The per capita incomes of hosts and tourists


Doxey’s Index of Tourist



 Based on the understanding of local residents’ attitude change toward tourists and tourism development in different stages of a destination’s life cycle

 Assumes the resulting circumstances with negative sociocultural impacts can lead to irritation in the local community

 Irridex has been currently considered as one of the most important models between local residents and tourists

 FOUR stages including:

1. The level of euphoria 2. The level of apathy 3. The level of irritation 4. The level of antagonism

5. The final level (the result of the FOUR stages)



Doxey’s Index of Tourist Irritation The level of euphoria


1. Residents are enthusiastic and thrilled by tourist development

2. Opportunities for locals and tourists bring in money

The level of apathy (理所當然)

1. Industry expands people begin to take the tourist for granted

2. Profit-taking and contact become more formal

The level of irritation (煩厭不快)

1. Close to saturation point

2. Locals cannot handle the numbers without expansion of facilities

The level of antagonism


1. Irritations have become more overt 2. See the tourist as the intruder

The final level 1. Ecosystem will never be the same

2. Must learn to adopt the changes



Environmental impact in Positive Preservation and conservation of

environment 1. Provides the necessary motive and money for preserving treasures and ancient monuments 2. Make natural resources sustainable

3. Converted to agriculture, mining or other forms of industrial development

Enhancement of environment 1. Improve destination image by planting flowers, developing well-designed tourist facilities

2. Provides incentive for “cleaning up” the overall environment

Development of environmental

awareness 1. Encourage local awareness of natural environment 2. Controls and planning to maintain the quality of the




Environmental impact in Negative

Water pollution 1. Rivers, lakes, and the sea polluted by recreational and tourist transportation 2. Untreated sewage from kitchens and bathrooms of island resorts

Air pollution 1. Excessive use of vehicles

2. Major tourist attraction areas that are accessible only or mainly by road Soil pollution 1. Litter is the most visible

Noise pollution 1. Vehicles, aircraft and motorboats

2. Theme parks, car or motorcycle races may generate noise Visual pollution 1. Poorly designed buildings

2. Use of large and ugly advertising signs

3. Poor maintenance of buildings


Measurement of Environmental Impact

The Importance of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)

 Limited environmental resources are being consumed

 Environmental impacts: Physical, Biological and Socio- economic ( culture)

 Conducted for evaluating how serious the environment could be affected

Key Considerations of Environmental Impact Assessment

 In general speaking EIA is:

 mainly for evaluating the net economic returns of tourism activity

 compare alternative developments and allocate resources more effectively

 to raise the profile of environmental issues



Measurement of Environmental Impact (con’t)


OECD Framework in Assessing Tourism and Environment Stress Stressor activities Stress Primary response

environment Secondary response (reaction) human Major construction


1. Urban expansion 2. Change in land


1. Restructuring of local


2. Lands being taken out of primary production

1. Change in population

2. Change in health and welfare

3. Change in visual quality

1. Designation of wildlife conservation and national parks

2. Controls on access to recreational lands

Generation of waste

residuals 1. Effluent discharges 2. Solid waste

disposal 3. Noise

1. Change in quality of environmental media

2. Health of humans

1. Recycling of waste materials 2. Decline in tourist revenues

3. Expenditure of pollution abatement by tourist-related industries

Tourist activities Destruction of species 1. Change in habitat 2. Change in


1. Expenditure on management of conservation

2. Controls on access to recreational



The studies of Impacts of

Tourism in Hong Kong


 Positive Impact

 Improving employment opportunities, tax revenue, and economic diversity (Kim et al., 2013)

 Residents may actively participate in tourism activities when they perceive positive tourism impacts (Gursoy &

Rutherford, 2004)

 Tourism impacts on a destination are economic, sociocultural, and environmental among others (Andereck et al., 2005; Ogorelc, 2009; Nunkoo &

Ramkissoon, 2011; Uysal et al., 2016).

 Negative Impacts

 Quality of life in the destination, include crowding, traffic congestion, and environmental pollution

(Andereck & Nyaupane, 2011; Andereck et al., 2005)

 Bring along social problems which could contribute to

social and cultural changes in the host community

(Perdue, Long, & Kang, 1995)



Impacts of Tourism in Hong Kong


 Improves the area’s appearance

 Preserves historic buildings and monuments

 increases employment opportunities

 increased availability of recreation facilities/opportunities

 Demand for historical and cultural exhibits

 Promotes cultural exchange

 Contributes to income and standard of living

 Increases tax revenues

 Increases opportunities for shopping

 Improves transport infrastructure


Negative Impacts of Tourism in Hong Kong


 Tourism creates an increase in traffic congestion

 Increases noise pollution and litter

 Results in over-crowding

 Heightened tension between residents and tourists

 The district shops tend to tourists

 Inflation concern


Changes in tourism industry

under the COVID-19 pandemic



The changes of Hong Kong Tourism under COVID-19



The changes of Hong Kong Tourism under COVID-19


 Staycation, focus on residents, but low margin

 Shopping arcades reduce income contribution

 Food and Beverage selling dropped

 Retails particular Jewelry, cut some stores in major tourist districts and added new ones in local residential areas (Lok Fook)

 Ocean Park Hong Kong only had 1.4 million visitors in 2020 (given that provided different discounts)

 Disneyland Hong Kong only had 1.7 million visitors in 2020


The changes of Hong Kong Tourism under


1. Flycation arrangement 2. No more Cathay Dragon

3. Cathy Pacific losses of HK$7.6 billion (US$977 million) in the first half of 2021




 Local community and tourists play essential parts, tourism development comes from the conflict between these two groups (Wassler et al., 2016)

 Residents must share nature- based resources with inbound tourists (Tsaur et al., 2006)

 Different stakeholders’

perceptions and preferences towards nature-based tourism in Hong Kong (Suh & Gartner, 2004; Zhang & Chan, 2016)

 Mainland Chinese visitors drive Hong Kong’s tourist numbers to record high of 65.1 million in 2018



Hotel staycation package


 Staycation hotels may be forced to extend their service to those wrong segmentations

 Lower down the profit margin to gain the cash flow to avoid lay off

 Designated Hotels for Quarantine, it may affect the staff perspective and hotel reputation

 Hotel room likes a party room

 Conflicts between hotel staff and local residence


Virtual tour



Changes in tourism


under the COVID-19 Pandemic


 Cultural Playground

 Cultural preservation

 Local guided tour

 Tourism workshop

 Virtual tour and



Virtual Tour providers’



 Interaction virtual tourism

 Story telling

 You can make decision

 Indoor and outdoor views


What makes virtual tours work?


Storytelling and theatrical approach, the content is entertaining and informative.

Participants can go through all the way and merge the selected destination

Human touch in the time of social

distancing, emphasize interaction with the audience, respond instantly to

participants’ preferences and choices to customize the experience

Excellent technology, as the technology keeps improving such as 5G mobile

network to provide clear and stable



Arise of

Tourism KOL


 KOL culture will be a factor to affect people to join virtual tour motivation

 Communication and learning will be more interactive and eager

 Cost saving, as the KOL can

entertain many people at the same time, no tour guide and tourists’

ratio restriction

 Old generation will not enjoy this

type of business


Future development in tourism industry


 Buy products through virtual platform

 Online and Offline dual business mode

 Eco tourism and sustainable tourism as having more experience with the local heritages

 Tour will be more diversified

 Multi-languages required

 Accelerate the withdrawal of traditional travel agents from the market





development in tourism



Safety & Hygiene Tourism Trends, airlines,

cruises, hotels, restaurants or bars, the safety and hygiene standards have been absolutely paramount

Shift From International to Local, various travel restrictions and the reluctance of many people to travel abroad has meant, shift to look for

local travel experience

Growth of Contactless Payments, contactless payments has enabled tourism companies to reduce friction and improve the speed of

check-ins and check-outs, and more flexible to process online shopping

Virtual Reality Tourism Trends, major tourism trends disrupting the industry and capitalizing on the technology

Internet of Things (IoT), devices include heating

and cooling systems, entertainment systems

and other items often found in a hotel room,

giving rise to “smart” hotel rooms






• Environmental Report 2020 of Transport Department, Hong Kong: to provide a transport system in an environmentally acceptable manner to align with the sustainable development of

Since huge quantities of transactions are involved in daily operations of a hotel, the accounting department always has to deal with complicated calculations which undoubtedly

Income is generated from wages and salaries, interest, rent and profits. In a labour-intensive industry such as tourism, a large part of income comes from wages and salaries earned

` Sustainable tourism is tourism attempting to make a low impact on the environment and local culture, while helping to generate future employment for local people.. The

● the F&B department will inform the security in advance if large-scaled conferences or banqueting events are to be held in the property.. Relationship Between Food and

(1) Formation of event organizational structure (2) Event management. (3) Event promotion (4) Event production

• Many people travel for gaining respect from others and a satisfying social status because one with plenty of travel experience and knowledge of different countries is

Daily operation - Sanitizing after guest checked-in / swab test (guest floor