Language-across-the-Curriculum (LAC) Approach

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CONTENTS

Unit 1 Introduction to a Language-across-the-curriculum (LAC) Approach

1

Unit 2 Teacher Language 3

Unit 3 Classroom Language (Teachers' List) 5

Unit 4 Classroom Language (Students' List) 19

Unit 5 Listening 22

Unit 6 Speaking 26

Unit 7 Reading 30

Unit 8 Pronunciation 44

Unit 9 Vocabulary 46

Unit 10 Project Work 61

Unit 11 Helping Students Understand the Instructions on Test and Examination Papers

70

Unit 12 Helping Students Answer Examination Questions 72

Unit 13 Useful Websites for Content Subject Teachers 75

Unit 14 Lesson Plans 76

Unit 15 Action Plans 117

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Unit 1

Introduction to a

Language-across-the-Curriculum (LAC) Approach

Because the medium of instruction is the key to understanding the subject content in an EMI school, an LAC approach will help improve students’ language proficiency and understanding of academic content.

¾ What is an LAC approach?

An LAC approach is one that integrates language learning and content learning

¾ Why is there a need for such an approach?

Language cannot be effectively learnt without a context while learning in all subjects is dependent upon language. In view of the above, language and content are closely interrelated. In fact, content subjects provide a context for language while effective language development facilitates the learning of content subjects. It is therefore necessary to integrate language and content.

¾ What are the benefits of an LAC approach?

For the school: To ensure that there is an organisational structure in the school which helps to formulate and implement language policy across the curriculum. This enables teachers to contribute and get support in dealing with language in learning issues as well as to work for a common target.

For the teacher: To use the language to teach more effectively and help students learn more effectively

For the students: To minimise the problems of adjusting to the new medium of instruction and to learn the subject content better.

¾ What are the respective roles of content subject teachers and English teachers in an LAC approach?

English teachers introduce and teach the skills, reinforcing them from time to time in English lessons.

Content subject teachers re-teach those skills or introduce related

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Example:

The idea of suffixes has been introduced in English lessons.

The History teacher can introduce the new suffix ‘-ism’ and give examples such as ‘communism’ or ‘colonialism’, or consolidate familiar suffixes, like ‘ion’ in

‘rebellion’.

(See materials “Teaching Ideas for English Teachers” and “Teaching Ideas for Content Subject Teachers” prepared by the CUHK Project Team)

z It is important for English teachers and content subject teachers to each know what the other is doing. For instance, the English teacher can teach students how to do a vocabulary log. The content subject teachers then ask students to keep a vocabulary log for their own subject. The English teacher can collect the vocabulary logs and check from time to time to make sure that students are on the right track.

z As every subject has to contribute to the language development of students, a balance between an emphasis on English and an emphasis on content is recommended.

z Since more time and effort has to be spent on the development of students’ language proficiency, the subject content may have to be reduced, especially at the initial stages.

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Unit 2

Teacher Language

A.

The importance of teacher language The classroom is an authentic social environment which provides plenty of opportunities for the genuine use of language. So, the language the teacher uses provides exposure to real language use.

B. Criteria of good teacher language 1. providing a reliable model (accurate, fluent and appropriate)

2. provide rich comprehensible input 3. being natural

4. exposing students to language that shows form-function relationships 5. varying the situational phrases e.g. the whole class, all together

6. not requiring students to understand every word in order to comprehend the teacher’s language

7. getting students’ attention before he / she starts talking

8. providing opportunities for students to hear genuine uncontrolled language used for authentic communicative purposes

9. providing opportunities for authentic use of language

C. Elements contributing to good teacher language

The following is adapted from Hoare P., Kong S. & Evans M. (2000). Principles and Practice of Immersion Teaching.

1. Speed

- adjusting the speed of the teacher talk to match the level of students’

understanding

- breaking up the teacher talk into smaller manageable ‘chunks’

2. Vocabulary

- using simple vocabulary

- using vocabulary that is generally known to the students

3

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3. Language structures

- using simpler structures e.g. active sentences - using short sentences

4. Content

- including familiar topics to arouse students’ interest

- including requests for repetition, clarification or explanation from students - including much encouragement for students to interact

5. Repeating and rephrasing

- repeating and rephrasing the sentences to help students understand

6. Flexibility

- using the language flexibly in different situations

4

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Unit 3

Classroom Language (Teachers’ List)

A. General Classroom Language

The items below are grouped according to their nature and use. They are neither prescriptive nor exhaustive. They are only for teachers’ reference.

1. Praising students Good.

Very good.

Excellent.

Perfect.

Great.

Superb.

Marvellous.

Lovely.

Exactly.

Good job.

Well done.

That’s very good.

That’s nice.

I like that.

You’ve done a great job.

You didn’t make any mistakes.

Excellent answer, ____________ (name of the student).

You are very good at this.

That’s right.

Good work.

That’s it.

You did that very well.

Keep up the good work.

Terrific.

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That’s the way to do it.

That was first class work.

2. Saying a student is wrong Not really.

Good try but not quite right.

I’m afraid that’s not quite right.

It’s not quite right. Could anybody help?

3. Encouraging students after they have given an answer Good try.

A good guess.

Not bad.

Don’t worry about the spelling.

Try again.

4. Encouraging students to speak Would anyone like to try?

Don’t be afraid to make mistakes.

We learn from mistakes.

It’s OK to make mistakes.

Don’t worry about being wrong.

We’d really like to hear what you think.

Tell me your answer. If it’s correct, good. If it’s wrong, we’ll talk about it.

You won’t be punished for a wrong answer.

I’d prefer to hear your answer, not your neighbour’s.

5. Beginning of a lesson Good morning / afternoon.

How are you today?

Did you have a nice weekend?

6. Ending a lesson It’s almost time to stop.

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Time is running short. We have to stop here.

Let’s stop here and continue next lesson.

That’s all for today. Are there any questions?

That’s all for this lesson. See you tomorrow.

We’ll discuss this further in the next lesson.

Before you leave, I have one more thing to say.

See you next week / Monday.

I don’t think we have time to finish this now. We will continue next lesson.

Have a nice weekend.

7. Marking stages of a lesson First, let me take the attendance.

Let me take a roll call first.

The first thing we’ll do is … I want to introduce …

Today we’re going to look at … Today we’ll find out about … In this lesson, you will learn …

We were looking at … yesterday/last lesson. Today, let’s look at … The next thing we’ll do is …

Now let’s look at … Let’s move on to …

When we’ve finished this, we’ll discuss …

I think you’ve all got that, so we’ll move on to a new topic.

If there are no problems, we’ll move on to something new.

8. Classroom organisation/management Now put your things away.

We won’t start until everyone is quiet.

Okay. I think we can start now.

Keep quiet.

Louder, please.

Say it a bit louder, please.

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Speak more clearly.

Not so quickly, I can’t follow.

Repeat / Once again, please.

Say it again / once more.

Again, but more quickly this time.

Say it after me.

Use a complete sentence.

9. Eliciting answers

Does anyone know the answer?

Can anyone tell us the answer?

Put up your hands if you know the answer.

Can anyone help him / her?

What can we do next / in this case?

What’s the answer?

10. Eliciting an explanation What does this mean / show?

How do you do this?

Why does it happen?

Any comments?

Do you have any ideas about …?

Can you give me an example of …?

Explain more, please.

What do you mean?

What is the meaning of this word?

Why do you do it that way?

What did you do next?

11. Clueing

Shall I give you some hints?

Let me give you some hints / help.

It’s used for … It’s the same as …

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It’s like a …

It’s the opposite of … It’s a type of…

12. Giving instruction for pair/group work Work with the person next to you.

Work together with your friend.

Find a partner.

Work in pairs.

Work in groups of two / three / four.

Work in twos / threes / fours.

I want you to form groups. Three / Four students in each group.

Get into groups of three / four.

I’ll divide the class into groups.

Here is an exercise / task for you to work on in pairs / groups / threes.

I want you to do this in pairs / groups.

13. Instructions for homework / assignments This is the homework for tonight.

Complete this exercise for homework.

Complete the exercises at home.

Memorise this passage and I’ll give you a test next lesson.

Learn this by heart.

Don’t forget your homework.

Revise the last two chapters for the test.

Copy the heading and underline it.

Write on alternate lines / every line.

You must hand in your homework by next Monday / next lesson.

Hand in your homework to the monitor / monitress.

Please take down the information on the board and finish the assignment at home.

Your homework assignment is to … Please write it down in your handbook.

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14. Asking students to do preparation at home Prepare Chapter X at home.

You must read Chapters X and Y at home.

By next lesson, I want you to read pages X and Y.

Recite this poem at home.

Look up the new / difficult words in the dictionary.

Find the meaning of these words in the dictionary before the next lesson.

15. Checking understanding

Is there anything you don’t understand?

Do you know the meaning of all the words?

Are there any words you don’t understand?

Is there anything you would like to ask about?

Are there any points you are not sure of?

Has anybody got anything to ask?

Is everything/that clear?

Do you understand everything?

Put up your hands if you have any questions.

O.K.?

All right?

Have you got any questions?

Would you like me to repeat that?

16. Instructions for tests and examinations Put away all your books.

Pass the papers to the back.

Don’t turn over the question paper.

Has everybody got a question paper?

Has everybody got an answer sheet?

Raise your hands if you have any problem.

Listen to the tape carefully.

Read the instructions carefully.

You have one hour to do the paper.

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You may start now.

You still have X minutes.

You have x minutes left.

X more minutes to go.

Time is up.

Stop writing.

All pens down.

Put down your pens.

No more writing.

Remember to write your name and class number.

Pass your paper to the front.

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Praising Students (A game)

A. Before the lesson

1. Make copies of the table on the next page.

2. Cut up each table along the lines and get a set of 22 strips of paper from each table.

B. During the lesson

1. After you have praised a student in class, give him / her a strip of paper.

2. Tell students that after one has collected a complete set, one will be given a small token like a bar of chocolate. For this reason, remind them to keep the strips of paper they have got and encourage them to raise their hands to answer questions in class.

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Good. Very good.

Excellent. Perfect.

Great. Great job.

Well done. I like that.

That’s very nice. You’ve done a great job.

That’s very good.

You didn’t make any mistakes.

Excellent answer. You are very good at this.

That’s right. Good work.

That’s it. That was first class work.

You did that very well. Keep up the good work.

Terrific. That’s the way to do it.

Superb Marvellous

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B. History Classroom Language

1. What will we learn in Chapter 1?/

2. What is the title of Chapter 1?

3. Read the headings / subheadings of Chapter 1.

4. Turn to p.4. Look at Passage C.

5. Look at the pictures on page 4. What can you see in Picture 1?

6. What is the difference between Picture 1 and Picture2?

7. Look at Passage C on page 4. Listen to my reading. Now read Passage C on silently and look for the answers to the questions.

8. Read the words aloud after me.

9. Write the answers to questions 1 to 4 in your book.

10. Look at the blackboard and correct your work.

11. Change worksheets with your partner / neighbour. Look at the board and correct your partner’s work.

12. These words will help you understand the new passage. Listen and repeat.

13. Could you repeat the sentence after me?

14. What is the answer to question 1?

15. Revise the vocabulary. We are going to have a short dictation / quiz next lesson.

16. Turn your books over. / Close your books. Write your answers on the blackboard.

Taken from Kiangsu-Chekiang College (Shatin) (1999). EMI Handbook (English Immersion Day-Camp)

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C. P.E. Classroom Language Part I: Instructions by the teacher 1. Line up properly, please.

2. Pay attention to my demonstration on … 3. Who has forgotten to bring their P.E. uniform?

4. Get yourself a personal space and start to do the stretching exercises.

5. Who will lead warm-up today?

Part II: Students’ questions, apologies and excuses

1. I’m sorry. I don’t follow you’re your demonstration. Would you please repeat it?

2. When shall we have a / the physical fitness test?

3. I’m sorry. I have forgotten to bring my P.E. uniform.

4. I’m sorry. I am not feeling well today. May I be excused from the P.E. lessons today?

5. I’m sorry. I am sick today. May I be excused from the P.E. lessons today?

6. I’m very thirsty. May I drink some water, please?

7. I have fallen on the ground and hurt my leg. May I go to the medical room for treatment?

8. May I go to the toilet, please?

Taken from Kiangsu-Chekiang College (Shatin) (1999). EMI Handbook (English Immersion Day-Camp)

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D. I.S. Classroom Language (in the Laboratory) Part I: Control and Organisation

1. Dos and Don’ts (in the laboratory)

Beware of splashing / spilling laboratory chemicals.

Be aware of your tie.

Be careful when you heat /mix / shake anything.

Report accidents or breakage to your teacher at once.

Always check the label on reagent bottles.

Always use a spatula to transfer solid chemicals.

Wash your hands after an experiment.

Check the apparatus before doing an experiment. During your experiment, you may discuss your work with your classmates quietly.

Handle hot test tubes carefully.

Handle hot apparatus carefully.

Heat liquids gently to avoid them splashing out of their container.

Place glassware in the centre of the table.

Don’t point the mouth of a boiling tube at anybody to avoid accidents.

Use forceps to hold chemicals.

Use only a small amount of chemicals.

Put the stopper back into every bottle after use.

Wear disposable gloves to prevent the transmission of germs from animals.

Wear safety glasses when doing an experiment.

Wash your hands after every experiment.

If there is a fire, remain calm. Leave under the direction of your teacher and go to the playground.

Read all instructions carefully.

Tie up your hair.

Don’t run/play in the laboratory.

Don’t touch any switches without permission.

Don’t do any experiment without permission.

Don’t go into the laboratory without permission.

Don’t take anything from the laboratory without permission.

Don’t handle any chemicals with bare hands.

Don’t look directly at bright flames.

Don’t smell any chemicals directly. Use your hand to fan the gas towards your nose.

Don’t taste any chemical without permission.

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Don’t put anything in the laboratory into your mouth

Don’t interfere with gas and water taps, electrical fittings, with, or fire extinguishers.

Don’t stir water with a thermometer.

Don’t leave a Bunsen burner unattended. Turn off the gas tap if you are not using the burner for a period of time.

Don’t pour any solid waste into the sink.

2. Organising Group/Pair work Divide into groups of 2.

Groups 1 to 6 bring along your stools when you come out.

Groups 7 to 10 come out and stand behind Group 1 to 6.

Look at the diagram on the blackboard to see the seating arrangement when you come out to look at the demonstration.

Come/Move to the front and watch the teacher’s demonstration.

Return to your seats and start your experiment.

3. Giving out and Collecting Materials and Books Come to the teacher’s bench and get the chemicals.

Group leaders, come out to collect the apparatus.

Pass this apparatus to your classmates group by group.

Return X to the teacher’s desk.

4. Clearing up

Check to see that the tap/gas supply is off.

Clean the bench/sink before you leave.

Clean the test-tube thoroughly.

I give you X minutes to clean up your benches and return your apparatus.

Return the reagent bottle with the label facing you.

Wash your hands before you leave.

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Part II: Lesson Procedure 1. Giving Instructions

Always ask before you try out the experiment.

Make sure you understand all the steps before you start your experiment.

You may start your experiment now.

2. Finishing up Work

Everybody must stop now.

Time’s up.

Write down what you have observed.

Adapted from Kiangsu-Chekiang College (Shatin) (1999). EMI Handbook (English Immersion Day-Camp)

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Unit 4

Classroom Language (Students’ List)

A. The importance of giving students a list of classroom expressions

To help students express themselves in different situations, it is necessary to give them a list of classroom language.

B. A list of student language in different situations 1. Asking for repetition

I’m sorry. I don’t understand.

I’m sorry. I can’t follow.

Could you say it again, please?

Could you explain again, please?

Could you repeat the last part, please?

Would you please explain this part again?

Would you mind saying it once more?

I beg your pardon. Could you repeat your point, please?

2. Asking for clarification

Could you please tell me the meaning of this word /sentence / part?

Could you repeat the instructions / steps, please?

Can you help me, please?

I don’t quite understand what that means. Could you explain it again, please?

Sorry. Did you say we have to prepare Chapter X?

What do we do next?

When will we have the test / dictation?

When will we hand in our homework?

Which chapter should we prepare?

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3. Making requests

Can we have the test / dictation later?

Sorry. Can you speak louder, please?

Sorry. I can’t hear very clearly. Would you please turn up the cassette?

I’m sorry. How do you say it in English?

Excuse me, can you tell me the English for x?

Excuse me, how do you spell X?

Excuse me, how do we pronounce this word?

4. Asking for feedback

Excuse me, is this correct / right?

Excuse me, why is this wrong?

Excuse me, have I done this right?

Excuse me, is this the way to do it?

5. Asking for permission May I go to the toilet?

May I be excused?

Can I turn / switch on / off the fan/air-conditioner?

Can I change my seat? I can’t see the blackboard clearly.

6. Apologising

I’m sorry. I don’t understand.

I’m sorry. I don’t know the answer.

Sorry. I’ve no idea.

I’m sorry. I’ve forgotten to bring my book/do my homework.

Sorry. I’ve left my book / homework at home.

I’m sorry I’m late. It’s because I got up late / missed the bus.

I’m sorry I’m late. It’s because there was a traffic jam.

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7. Group work / pair work Shall we start?

Shall I start first?

What’s your answer to question 1?

Let’s go on to …

Shall we change over now?

It’s your turn.

My answer is different.

What’s next?

Do you mean that …?

Yes, that’s right.

No, what I’m saying is …

Sorry. I can’t follow. Could you repeat that, please?

Have we finished?

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Unit 5 Listening

A. Ways teachers can help students understand subject-related explanation in English:

1. Modify the input

Teachers can make their spoken English easier for students to understand by:

i. adjusting the speed to match the level of students ii. using shorter sentences with simpler structures iii. pronouncing the words clearly

iv. repeating

v. stressing key words

vi. talking about concrete, rather than abstract ideas

2. Improve the delivery

There is no single format for explanations of all topics in all subjects.

Below is a suggested procedure to delivery explanation:

i. Teachers recognise what the students know and show them that there is something to be explained.

ii. Activate students’ existing knowledge of the topic e.g. by brainstorming.

iii. Before the main explanation, teachers may need to explain the essential elements in it. Therefore, an explanation may consist of a number of

‘sub-explanations’ and teachers may need to build explanations on and around one another.

iv. Deliver the main explanation in a dynamic way.

v. Whenever possible, show / encourage / stimulate students to generalise from an explanation or, alternatively, apply a general explanation to specific examples.

3. Provide support i. advance organisers

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z these tell students what to expect as they go through a lesson or a topic

z these tell students what to expect as they go through a lesson or a topic

z teachers may write the headings on the blackboard or provide students with a handout outlining the topic and the major activities of a lesson

z teachers may write the headings on the blackboard or provide students with a handout outlining the topic and the major activities of a lesson

z a written advance organiser can be referred to again for signposting and summarising purposes

z a written advance organiser can be referred to again for signposting and summarising purposes

ii. signposting ii. signposting

z clear transitions between topics or activities enable students to :

z clear transitions between topics or activities enable students to :

- understand that they should change the focus to something different in the lesson

- understand that they should change the focus to something different in the lesson

- prepare themselves to concentrate on new concepts - prepare themselves to concentrate on new concepts

z examples of signposting language:

z examples of signposting language:

- So that’s how …, now let’s move on to … - So that’s how …, now let’s move on to … - So if everyone has finished the exercise, let’s … - So if everyone has finished the exercise, let’s … - That’s why … Now let’s see …

- That’s why … Now let’s see …

- So now you know … now let’s look at the next point.

- So now you know … now let’s look at the next point.

- Now we’re going to think about … - Now we’re going to think about …

iii. summaries iii. summaries

z provide students with a brief lesson or topic summary at the end of a topic or a lesson or the beginning of the next, reminding them of the main points which they may have forgotten

z provide students with a brief lesson or topic summary at the end of a topic or a lesson or the beginning of the next, reminding them of the main points which they may have forgotten

z a summary can be interactive e.g. a question and answer session or an informal quiz

z a summary can be interactive e.g. a question and answer session or an informal quiz

z the teacher may go over the advance organiser again as a way of summarising what has been covered

z the teacher may go over the advance organiser again as a way of summarising what has been covered

iv. vocabulary support iv. vocabulary support

z before explaining the content area, familiarise the students with a list of new vocabulary

z before explaining the content area, familiarise the students with a list of new vocabulary

z as explanation proceeds, ask students to write down the new vocabulary they encounter in their vocabulary books

z as explanation proceeds, ask students to write down the new vocabulary they encounter in their vocabulary books

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v. graphics, models and demonstrations

z these non-linguistic supports complement the spoken explanation and should not take the place of spoken explanation

z teachers draw students’ attention to relevant pictures, photographs, illustrations, diagrams, charts or forms before his / her explanation

vi. questioning

z this helps students’ to concentrate, involves students in the lesson, motivates students, makes students think and allows teachers to check students’ understanding and find out how much students know

z at times, teachers should demand longer answers so that students need to apply or extend their understanding

z when teachers ask a higher order question which requires students to use reasoning to answer, they may need to help the students by breaking up the question and leading them to answer it

z it is important to have a balance of question types in any lesson

z ways to provide support to students in answering questions:

- repeat the question to allow students a second chance to hear and process it and give them more time to think

- allowing ‘wait time’ i.e. the time allowed for the student to answer before the teacher asks another student or gives the answer herself / himself

*Note: at least 5 seconds should be allowed before the teacher assumes the student cannot answer

vi. repetition

z repeating a point allows students more time to think

z repeating a question allows students more time to process an answer

z repeating a question using different words or a different grammatical structure may provide students with clues to help them understand or respond

vii. examples

z these clarify and support an explanation

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viii. anecdotes / stories related to the topic

z these help explore the subject widely and engage students’ interest

z the teacher can make use of jokes, personal experience, students’ own experience, TV programmes and movies etc.

Adapted from English Department, The Hong Kong Institute of Education (2000). Principles and Practice of

Immersion Teaching & Evans M., Hoare P., Kong S., O’Halloran S. & Walker E. (2001). Effective Strategies for English Medium Classrooms: A Handbook for Teachers

C. Examples of subject-specific listening activities 1. For all subjects:

z The teacher gives instructions to students. Students are asked to listen carefully and write them out afterwards.

z The teacher reads from the textbooks and stresses the key words / phrases.

Ask the students to write down the stressed key words and answer the teacher’s questions afterwards.

*Make sure that students close their textbooks while listening to the teacher.

z The teacher gives an instruction / explanation. Then he/she asks students to repeat what he/she has said. This helps check listening comprehension.

z To enable students to explore the subject widely and to hear different voices talking about the subject content in different ways, teachers can make use of television / radio programmes, videos, CD-ROMs and the internet.

z Students have to take notes while listening to the teacher’s explanation and use the information to complete a task after the explanation e.g. completing a picture / chart / form, writing a summary, answering questions, solving a problem, making a decision etc.

2. I.S.:

z The teacher reads aloud the safety rules in the laboratory and asks students to write them down. Afterwards, the teacher asks students to design a poster, putting all the rules down in it.

z The teacher gives each student a worksheet. Students have to fill in the blanks in the worksheet while the teacher reads aloud the safety rules in the laboratory.

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Unit 6 Speaking

A. Ways teachers can help students in speaking

1. boost students’ confidence in using English in class by

i. giving encouragement e.g. the whole class applaud after a student has answered a question in English

ii. instilling correct attitude in students regarding the use of English in class

z not to laugh at students with poor English

z not to think that students with good English are showy or arrogant

2. provide students with chances to express themselves e.g. conducting activities for pair work / discussion

3. familiarise students with the pronunciation of new subject vocabulary and expressions

4. prompt students by giving signals / cues

e.g. help students organise their sentences in a logical way by providing them with connectives such as ‘because’, ‘so that’ and ‘therefore’

5. expand what students say

6. rephrase what students say in a more appropriate or accurate way

7. provide whole-class feedback to make general comments on common errors and / or to praise common strengths

8. provide speaking frames for students Steps:

i.familiarise students with the pronunciation of new subject vocabulary and expression

ii.write the guidelines for students to use when speaking on the blackboard

iii.ask students to insert the vocabulary or expressions they have practised saying

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Example

1. The teacher familiarises students with the pronunciation of the following:

‘rural land use’ and ‘urban land use’.

2. The teacher provides the following written guide to students:

The two main types of land use are _______________and ________________. (Geography)

3. The teacher asks students to complete the sentence orally.

B. Activities for pair work / discussion

It is important to provide a real reason to discuss with a partner or with a group. Pair work / discussion is suitable for most learning situations. The following examples are taken from Evans M., Hoare P., Kong S., O’Halloran S. & Walker E. (2001). Effective Strategies for English Medium Classrooms: A Handbook for Teachers:

1. when students are checking / comparing / quickly revising written or graphic responses in class activities

2. when students are offering suggestions/ evaluations / appreciation to each other for work done

3. when students are rehearsing a response to a whole class question e.g. briefly checking pronunciation / grammar with each other before offering the response to the class

4. when students are planning questions on aspects of the lesson not well understood (the question then becomes ‘our’ question, not just one individual’s problem)

5. when students are rehearsing a small demonstration e.g. a maths solution to be worked through on the board, a short explanation in social sciences

6. when students are planning a response to a higher order question, i.e. co-constructing an idea requiring several sentences or an opinion

7. when students are problem-solving e.g. working out how to carry out instructions for making something

8. when students are carrying out or describing sequenced activities e.g. explaining how they arrived at a maths solution

9. when students are reporting the results of some work in which their partner was not

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C. An example of subject-specific speaking activities

1. Mathematics: Inequalities

Worksheet for Student A

Work in pairs. Student A reads questions 1-4 to student B slowly. Student B writes down what Student A says in inequality expressions.

Question

1. The sum of 100 and k is less than half of k. What is the value of k?

2. Three times of k is less than or equal to the sum of k and 30. What is the value of k?

3. The sum of two consecutive numbers is less than 15. What is the smaller number (x)?

4. The sum of two consecutive even numbers is greater than or equal to 22.

What is the greater even number (x)?

Inequality expression 1. 100 + k < k/2.

2. 3k ≦ k + 30.

3. x + (x + 1) < 15

4. x + (x - 2) ≧ 22

Now, Student B reads questions 5-8 to Student A slowly. Student A writes down what Student B says in inequality expressions.

5. ________________________________

________________________________

________________________________

________________________________

________________________________

6. ________________________________

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________________________________

________________________________

7. ________________________________

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8. ________________________________

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Worksheet for Student B

Work in pairs. Student A reads questions 1-4 to student B slowly. Student B writes down what Student A says in inequality expressions.

1. ________________________________

________________________________

________________________________

________________________________

________________________________

2. ________________________________

________________________________

________________________________

________________________________

________________________________

3. ________________________________

________________________________

________________________________

________________________________

________________________________

4. ________________________________

________________________________

________________________________

________________________________

________________________________

Now, Student B reads questions 5-8 to Student A slowly. Student A writes down what Student B says in inequality expressions.

Question

5. The difference between 60 and x is greater than twice of x. What is the value of x?

6. Four times of k is greater than or equal to the sum of k and 15. What is the value of k?

7. The sum of two consecutive numbers is less than 19. What is the greater number (x)?

8. The sum of two consecutive odd numbers is less than or equal to 20.

What is the smaller odd number (x)?

Inequality expression 5. 60 - x > 2x.

6. 4k ≧ k + 15.

7. x + (x - 1) < 19

8. x + (x + 2) ≦ 20

Taken from English Department, The Hong Kong Institute of Education (2000). Principles and Practice of Immersion Teaching. Hong Kong: The Hong Kong Institute of Education

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Unit 7 Reading

A. Ways teachers can help students in reading 1. equip students with strategies for reading

2. provide students with different kinds of reading activities to arouse their interest in reading

3. provide students with different kinds of reading materials e.g. newspaper articles, promotion leaflets and magazines etc.

B. Strategies for reading

‹ All the strategies suggested help students read actively and promote understanding.

‹ Strategies marked with an asterisk ‘*’ help students develop higher order thinking skills.

1. *Guessing meaning of word from the context (see P.31 – P.32)

2. Making use of typographic clues (see P.33)

3. Making use of patterns of knowledge (see P.34 – P.36) 4. Making use of graphics (see P.37– P.38)

5. *Making use of headings and sub-headings (see P.39) 6. *Making use of information transfer activities (see P.40) 7. *SQR3 (see P.41 – P.43)

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Guessing Meaning of Word from the Context

‹ This helps students develop higher order thinking skills.

Steps to guessing the meaning of word from the context

1. Look at the unknown word and work out its part of speech. If possible, break it down into parts: prefix, root and suffix.

2. Look at the clause or sentence containing the unknown word and ask these question:

- If the unknown word is a verb, what nouns does it go with? Is there any adverb modifying it?

- If the unknown word is a noun, what adjective(s) describes it?

- If the unknown verb is an adjective, what noun is it modifying?

- If the unknown word is an adverb, what verb is it modifying?

3. Look at the relationship between the clause or sentences containing the unknown word and other sentences or paragraphs. Can you find any hints? Can you follow the line of argument? What is the theme of the paragraph?

4. Use the information you have gained from steps 1 to 3 to guess the meaning of the word.

5. Check that your guess is correct by looking it up in a dictionary.

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Eaxmple

Support for vocabulary: Helping students guess meanings of unknown words EPA / Geography S1

Population Growth of Hong Kong

Read this passage about the population growth of Hong Kong during 1900-2000.

The word ‘indenparsely’ may be too difficult for you but you can try to guess its meaning. We’re talking about growth here, something growing, something that gets bigger and bigger, more and more. We’re talking about population growth, the number of people in Hong Kong that is growing, getting more and more. The word ‘indenparsely’ ends with –ly. What part of speech do you think this word is?

Is it a verb, noun, an adjective or an adverb? Right, it’s an adverb. So it must be describing how the population has grown in Hong Kong. Has it grown quickly or slowly or what? Read the other sentences. What do they suggest? Now, can you guess the meaning of the word ‘indenparsely’?

The population of Hong Kong has grown * indenparsely toward the second half of this century. At the beginning of the century, the population was only 200,000.

Between 1900 and 1949, the population remained level at about 500,000. In 1949, there was an explosion. The population rose rapidly until it reached 5 million in 1970. Since 1970, the growth has continued but the population has risen relatively slowly. The latest figures show that it has reached 6.5 million and is continuing to grow steadily.

(The word ‘indenparsely’ is purposely made up to shower how the meaning of an unknown word (in the case, a nonsense word) can be guessed. You must have been able to get the meaning of it by now. The original word was ‘immernsely’.)

Taken from Evans M., Hoare P., Kong S., O'Halloran S. & Walker E. (2001). Effective Strategies for English Medium Classrooms: A Handbook for Teachers.

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Making Use of Typographic Clues

To help students in reading, teachers can draw students’ attention to the following typographic clues and explain that they are used to emphasize important terms and definition:

1. Italics

e.g. The degree of polynominal is the degree of the term with the highest degree.

(Maths)

2. boldfaced print

e.g. Ancient Egyptians used a water reed called papyrus to make paper.

(History)

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Making Use of Patterns of Knowledge

Patterns of knowledge, i.e. patterns through which knowledge is organised, are found in all subject content areas. Draw students’ attention to the specific language features related to each of these patterns which appear at the sentence level. This helps students in understanding and development of concepts.

Patterns of knowledge Explanation Examples of language features

Description To provide information about facts, events, concepts, ideas, features, characteristics, objects and people.

…has…

…is situated at…

…is…

…looks like…

…contains…

…is made up of …

…is made of…

…is used for/to…

Sequence To put facts, events or

concepts into a sequence.

Now Before After When First Second Then Next Finally

Comparison and contrast To show likeness (comparison) and or differences (contrast) among facts, events,

However But

…as well as…

On the other hand

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concepts and people. Either…or While Although Unless Similarly Instead

Cause and effect To show how facts, events or effects happen because of other facts, events or causes.

…because…

…because of … Since

Therefore As a result

…so that…

…is due to…

…is a result of …

Definition To define a concept or a term.

….is…..

…is/are called…

…means…

…is known/defined as…

Classification To classify objects,

people etc. in groups.

…is classified as…

…is classified into…

There are … types of…:

…is a type/kind of …

Hypothesis To put forward ideas or suggestions as a starting-point for reasoning or explanation.

If…, then…

…unless…

It is likely/unlikely/

possible/impossible that…

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Exemplification To give examples. For example For instance

…such as…

…is an example of…

In other words

Evaluation To decide the value of

something.

…is

good/bad/right/wrong/

satisfactory

…like/dislike/approve/

disapprove…

…enough/too…

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Making Use of Graphics

Graphics are used to organise and present information. Graphics which complement the written language can help to show the ideas in a text visually. Students who are able to make use of graphics can read more effectively.

Examples of graphics

1. Tables

They are used to classify information so that comparison between and among data can be made.

2. Bar graphs

They are used to make comparisons between amounts or quantities.

3. Line graphs

They are used to show the relationship between the variables.

4. Pie charts

They are used to show the relationships of parts to the whole.

5. Flowcharts

They are used to show a process or procedure.

6. Diagrams

They are used to present information in a visual way.

7. Pictograms

They are used to show specified amounts in an interesting way.

8. Maps

They are used to show location and direction.

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9. Photographs

They are used to enhance interest in reading.

10. Cartoons

They are used to lighten the text.

11. Time-lines

They are used to show the sequence of events.

12. Venn diagrams

They are used to show the relationships between two sets of information.

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Making Use of Headings and Sub-headings

Headings suggest the major topics of a chapter while sub-headings often suggest the specific focus toward a particular topic. So they are important clues to reading.

Steps:

1. Teachers draw the students’ attention to the heading(s). This helps to activate students’ existing knowledge.

2. Ask students to change the subheadings into questions. This helps them predict what they are going to read.

3. Ask students to find the answers to the questions formulated. This provides them with a purpose for reading.

Example

I want you to read page X of your textbook at home before our next lesson.

Now, let’s turn to page X and see what it’s about.

Look at the heading. What is it?

From the heading, we know that it's about ______________________

Now look at the sub-headings. They are printed in ______ (e.g. blue). What do they tell you about ‘_____’ (the heading)?

Now let’s turn each sub-heading into a question.

(Ask students the questions they have formulated.)

Very good questions. Do you want to find the answers to your questions?

Read this page at home and you’ll find the answers to your questions.

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Making Use of Information Transfer Activities

Information transfer activities require students to transfer the information given in a text to a graphic or vice versa. Text -> graphic activities are reading activities while graphic -> text activities are writing activities.

Benefits of text -> graphic activities:

1. help students visualise the organisation and relationships of ideas spatially

2. to complete the graphic, students need to read and understand the information in the text before they can re-present it in a graphic

Taken from Evans M., Hoare P., Kong S., O'Halloran S. & Walker E. (2001). Effective Strategies for English Medium Classrooms: A Handbook for Teachers

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SQR3

‹ Each step of SQR3 facilitates the processing of information

‹ SQR3 helps students acquire higher order thinking skills

A. Introduction

- SQR3 is a study technique that helps students comprehend and retain the materials they are going to read.

- To read actively and effectively and to assist comprehension, readers complete some tasks before reading, while reading and after reading. These tasks include:

S = Survey Q = Question

R = Read R = Recite R = Review

z Survey:

Good readers preview the materials to anticipate content by looking at the titles, headings, subheadings, terms or words in bold or italics, pictures, maps, diagrams and other visual material.

Steps:

1. Read the title. Change it into a question.

2. Read the introduction, summary and questions, if there’s any. What is the main point of the text?

3. Read the terms and words in bold or italics. Why are these terms and words highlighted?

4. Study the visual materials. What do they tell you about the text?

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z Question:

Good readers ask questions that they think they will find answers to in the text e.g.

they turn each subheading into a question and formulate additional questions to read to answer.

z Read:

Good readers think about the questions that they have asked and search for ideas and information that will answer their questions.

z Recite:

After reading, good readers attempt to answer their questions by saying aloud what they have learned and / or by writing responses to their questions.

z Review:

Good readers review and reflect a text by going back and skimming the text, placing a check to parts of the text that they are sure they understand and a question mark to those parts that are still unclear to them and that they need to further study.

B. Point to note

Do not teach SQR3 as a formula: memorize the steps, practise the strategies and use it for life. To make this system effective, students have to learn to control it through selective and flexible use.

C. Examples of applying SQR3 in different subjects 1. To read a chapter in a Geography textbook

- students survey the chapter

- they turn the subheadings into questions - they read to answer the questions

- they try to remember the main ideas and specific details - they summarise / write a brief outline of the chapter

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2. To solve a word problem in Maths

- students skim the problem to form a general impression of it - they decide: i. the question in the problem

ii. the facts required to solve it iii. the steps required to solve it

- they read to understand the question and decide the steps required to solve the problem

- they decide the facts on which the answer depends

- they estimate the answer and check it after the problem has been solved

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Unit 8 Pronunciation

A. Points to note

1. There is no shortcut to the teaching and learning of pronunciation.

2. For many students, the classroom is the only place where they are exposed to spoken English. In the class, students listen to the pronunciation of teachers and classrooms while teachers and classmates are speaking. Therefore, the pronunciation of teachers is an important source of learning. In addition, students

learn when teachers correct the pronunciation mistakes of the other classmates.

B. Ways content subject teachers help students with pronunciation 1. A whole-school approach

To maximise the chance for students to recycle and consolidate what has been taught in the English lessons, teachers of all EMI subjects adopt the same strategy of teaching pronunciation.

Examples:

i. After the English teachers have familiarised students with the phonetic symbols, teachers of all EMI subjects make use of the phonetic symbols whenever they introduce the pronunciation of new vocabulary items.

ii. After the English teachers have familiarised students with the phonics, teachers of all EMI subjects make use of the phonics whenever they introduce the pronunciation of new vocabulary items.

2. Policy among the panels of content subjects

All panels of EMI subjects agree upon a policy of teaching pronunciation e.g.

separate a word into chunks, separate a word into syllables.

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3. Teachers as important models of pronunciation

A list of dos and don’ts for teachers:

Do

i. Be aware of : long & short vowels, consonant clusters, word stress and the endings of words

ii. Ask English teachers / NETs for help iii. Consult the dictionary

Don’t

i.Provide wrong models ii. Make up the pronunciation

iii.Provide Cantonese sounds for easy reference

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Unit 9 Vocabulary

A. The difference between receptive / passive and productive / active vocabulary For a receptive / active vocabulary item, one is able to:

i. recognise and recall the meaning of a word when one meets it ii. make various associations with other related words

For a productive / passive vocabulary item, one is able to:

i. recognise and recall the meaning of a word when one meets it ii. make various associations with other related words

iii. pronounce it iv. spell it

v. use it in correct grammatical structure along with words it usually collocates with

B. Ways to help students move from receptive use to productive use of vocabulary 1. Repetition

The transition of an item from a student’s receptive vocabulary to his / her productive one is very often a gradual process. Such transition usually takes place when a student reads or hears an item repeatedly over a period of time. For this reason, it is essential to recycle the vocabulary items taught from time to time.

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2. Teach the vocabulary items in depth

To teach a vocabulary item in depth, it is essential to incorporate the following in the teaching:

i. Meaning(s) ii. Pronunciation iii. Related forms

e.g. triangle [noun], triangular [adjective] (Maths) iv. Related concepts

e.g. law and order (EPA)

C. Strategies for teaching vocabulary

‹ Strategies marked with an asterisk ‘*’ help students learn words in depth.

‹ Strategies marked with two asterisks ‘**’ help students develop higher order thinking skills.

1. Pronunciation and spelling

Separate a word into chunks to enable students to see the relationship between spelling and sound e.g. solution – so/lu/tion (Maths, I.S.)

2. Visuals (diagrams, pictures, maps, drawings, photos and realia) These are best for concrete objects e.g. a microscope (I.S.)

3. Gesture, facial expression and mime

e.g. These are best for action verbs e.g. press

4. Scales - these are useful to show degrees and gradings e.g. always, often, sometimes, rarely, never

5. *Related concepts

e.g. law and order (EPA), bread and butter (Home economics)

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6. *Related forms

e.g. govern, government (EPA), develop, development (History)

7. *Words with multiple meanings e.g. solution (Maths, I.S.)

8. *Word formation (see P.49 – P.51)

9. **Semantic map (see P.52)

10. **Semantic features analysis (see P.53)

11. **Guided discovery (see P.54)

12. **Listing (see P.55)

13. **Guessing meaning of word from the context (see P.56 - P.57)

14. Glossaries (see P.58)

15. Creating a vocabulary log (see P.59 - P.60 )

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Word-formation

A. The benefits of teaching ways of word-formation to students

1. To help students make informed guess about the meaning of unknown words 2. To enable students to express themselves with a wider range of vocabulary

B. Ways of word-formation 1. Affixation

This means adding prefixes and suffixes to a word to change its meaning or function.

i. prefixes – added to the beginning of a word Examples of common prefixes:

Prefix Possible meanings Examples

un- not, opposite of unimportant, uncertain, unreal, uncomfortable

non- not nonsense, nonstick, nonstop,

non-conductor

im- not impossible, impolite,

immeasurable, immature

il- not illegal, illegible

ir- not irresponsible, irresistible, irregular, irrelevant

dis- not, opposite disagree, disobey, disorder, dislike disadvantage

mis- not, wrong misunderstand, misfortune, misrule, miscount

re- again rebuild, replay, refill

over- too much overload, overcrowded

tele- long distance telescope, telephone, television en make, made of endanger, enrich

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ii. suffixes – added to the end of a word Examples of common suffixes:

Suffix Examples

-dom kingdom, freedom

-ion election, collection, action -ment government, movement -ness happiness, kindness -ist socialist, economist

-able washable, suitable, valuable -less helpless, careless

-ive constructive, additive -en lengthen, frighten -ly quickly, interestingly -ism feudalism, metabolism -er caller, buyer

-or actor, director -(i)fy classify, beautify -ful useful, helpful, careful -y snowy, windy, rainy

2. Compounding

This means combining two or more separate words which can stand independently to form a word.

i. adjective compounds

e.g. labour-intensive, capital-intensive (EPA), large-scale (Geography)

ii. verb compounds e.g. sightsee (EPA)

iii. noun compounds

e.g. table-tennis (P.E.), raw materials, labour disputes (EPA),

world map, landmark (Geography), tongue roller, backbone (I.S.)

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3. Conversion (Zero conversion)

This means using a word in different parts of speech without changing its form.

e.g. Hong Kong exports a lot of electronic toys. (verb)

Hong Kong is famous for its export of electronic toys. (noun)

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Semantic Map

Example History

primary sources government records

written sources

newspapers

archaeological finds

temples

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Semantic Features Analysis

Example

Semantic features analysis Science S1

Senses

Students listen / read or observe and fill in the appropriate boxes.

Things we can perceive

The five senses Organs of the body

sight hearing taste smell touch Flowers

Taken from Evans M., Hoare P., Kong S., O'Halloran S. & Walker E. (2001). Effective Strategies for English Medium Classrooms: A Handbook for Teachers.

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Guided Discovery

‹ This helps students develop higher order thinking skills.

A. Steps

1. The teacher writes a question which contains a vocabulary item on the board. The question has to engage the students’ interest.

Example:

History

Why does a country conquer another country?

2. He / She asks the students to look up the meaning of the unknown word in the dictionary.

3. He / She asks the students to write down the answer(s) on a piece of paper and/or answer the question orally.

B. Benefits

1. More memorable for students since it involves an element of guided discovery

2. Engages the students in a degree of semantic analysis e.g. why a country conquers another country

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Listing

‹ This helps students develop higher order thinking skills.

A. Steps

1. Give students some vocabulary items.

2. Ask students to make a list e.g. list the items in order of personal preference and compare their lists with their neighbours’.

B. Example

Home Economics

List the following vegetables in order of your personal preference and compare your list with your neighbour’s:

lettuce spinach leek Chinese celery turnips broad beans green peas sweet peas pumpkins

tomatoes broccoli cucumbers

* Teachers may supply students with a form like this:

Vegetables I like most 1. ________________

2. ________________

3. ________________

4. ________________

5. ________________

6. ________________

7. ________________

8. ________________

9. ________________

10. ________________

11. ________________

12. _______________

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Guessing Meaning of Word from the Context

‹ This helps students develop higher order thinking skills.

Steps to guessing the meaning of word from the context

1. Look at the unknown word and work out its part of speech. If possible, break it down into parts: prefix, root and suffix.

2. Look at the clause or sentence containing the unknown word and ask these question:

- If the unknown word is a verb, what nouns does it go with? Is there any adverb modifying it?

- If the unknown word is a noun, what adjective(s) describes it?

- If the unknown verb is an adjective, what noun is it modifying?

- If the unknown word is an adverb, what verb is it modifying?

3. Look at the relationship between the clause or sentences containing the unknown word and other sentences or paragraphs. Can you find any hints? Can you follow the line of argument? What is the theme of the paragraph?

4. Use the information you have gained from steps 1 to 3 to guess the meaning of the word.

5. Check that your guess is correct by looking it up in a dictionary.

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Eaxmple

Support for vocabulary: Helping students guess meanings of unknown words EPA / Geography S1

Population Growth of Hong Kong

Read this passage about the population growth of Hong Kong during 1900-2000. The word ‘indenparsely’ may be too difficult for you but you can try to guess its meaning.

We’re talking about growth here, something growing, something that gets bigger and bigger, more and more. We’re talking about population growth, the number of people in Hong Kong that is growing, getting more and more. The word ‘indenparsely’ ends with –ly. What part of speech do you think this word is? Is it a verb, noun, an adjective or an adverb? Right, it’s an adverb. So it must be describing how the population has grown in Hong Kong. Has it grown quickly or slowly or what? Read the other sentences. What do they suggest? Now, can you guess the meaning of the word

‘indenparsely’?

The population of Hong Kong has grown * indenparsely toward the second half of this century. At the beginning of the century, the population was only 200,000.

Between 1900 and 1949, the population remained level at about 500,000. In 1949, there was an explosion. The population rose rapidly until it reached 5 million in 1970.

Since 1970, the growth has continued but the population has risen relatively slowly.

The latest figures show that it has reached 6.5 million and is continuing to grow steadily.

(The word ‘indenparsely’ is purposely made up to shower how the meaning of an unknown word (in the case, a nonsense word) can be guessed. You must have been able to get the meaning of it by now. The original word was ‘immensely’.)

Taken from Evans M., Hoare P., Kong S., O'Halloran S. & Walker E. (2001). Effective Strategies for English Medium Classrooms: A Handbook for Teachers.

Figure

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References

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