The Impact of Buddhismon the Development ofChinese Vocabulary

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The Impact of Buddhism on the Development of Chinese Vocabulary ( I I )

Zh[ Q*ngzh%

Professor, Dept. of Chinese Language and Literature, Peking University, Beijing, China

3.3. Tendency toward disyllabization of the vocabulary of BHC, its nature, and its i n f l u e n c e o n t h e p r o c e s s o f t h e disyllabization of the whole vocabulary of Chinese

BHC vocabulary showed a much more conspicuous tendency toward disylla- bization than the vocabulary of contempo- rary Chinese works, which has been proved by many linguists, including Erik Zyrcher.

The disyllabization of Chinese vocabulary started from the spoken language. Thus the disyllabization of BHC showed the same direction of development with the Chinese vocabulary. But it seems untrue to argue that the extraordinary disyllabization of BHC is really one of the features of spoken language or is mainly “the consequence of the spo- ken tendency projected onto the level of writ- ten language.”

In fact, the high degree of disyllabization of BHC vocabulary was very far from the

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E r i k Z y r c h e r

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real character of Chinese vocabulary at that time. The difference resulted from the co- existence of two kinds of words in Buddhist scriptures a foreign words in which di- syllabic words are dominant, and most of them are the result of loan translation, and b the disyllabic forms of monosyllable words inherent in Chinese in which some had existed in Chinese and might have come from colloquial language , but most of them were not inherent in Chinese, and they seem to be the creation of the transla- tors themselves. Of course, the existence of these words is closely related to the prosodic structure of Chinese, but it is more likely that it was the result of fulfilling the require of the special four-character style an d j i s d n g g a t h a o f B u d d h i s t scriptures. In this sense, the disyllabization of BHC vocabulary is not natural, i.e. it is not the reflection of natural language, but rather the consequence of many human factors.

The proper understanding of BHC vo- cabulary disyllabization can help explain why the disyllabization of Chinese could be accomplished so quickly in the Medieval T i m e s f r o m 1 0 0 C E t o 6 0 0 C E . Disyllabization mainly occurred in the 4th and 5th centuries, the reason of which seems to be easy to explain. By the Medieval Times, the intellectual class had fully come into being. The main driving force of Chi-

a

b

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nese development, in terms of practice, was not coming from the populace, but from the intellectuals who were literate and able to write. The disyllabization of Chinese vocabulary, from a just tendency in speech to a remarkable change in the language system, was accomplished through the long- term tremendous writing practices of the intellectuals. Yet it is rather strange that the main process of disyllabization could oc- cur in the 350 years of the W7i, J*n and Period of division 220 CE-589 CE , which were the most chaotic and unstable period in Chinese history.

So what spurred the fast change in this period? It was precisely the translation of Buddhist scriptures, which was flourishing because of religious fanaticism and the uni- versal support of rulers of all nationalities.

During the W7i, J*n and Period of division , in terms of vocabulary, the translation of Buddhist scriptures was the biggest factory of disyllabized expressions. It was this great cultural project that could play such a driv- ing role in the disyllabization of the Chi- nese vocabulary.

3.4. Buddhism and changes in word for- mation in Chinese vocabulary

In the past, only the meaning, but rarely

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the form, was involved in discussions of foreign words from Buddhism, giving the impression that the forms of these foreign words are inherent in Chinese. L i 1 n g Xi2oh9ng 1994 made an initial study on this aspect. She thought that the translation of Buddhist sutras has the following two effects 1 not only created many new forms of words but also invented some new methods of translation, and 2 caused the further development of the already existed word formation in Chinese. Multi-syllabic transliteration brought about many translit- erated words comprising of varied syllables.

The special word formation combining Chi- nese and foreign elements also brought many compound words into being. The com- bination of transliteration and free transla- tion gave Chinese fresh words too. For e x a m p l e v e r b - o b j e c t c o m p o u n d s , derivatives, and subject-predicate com- pounds that were rare in the pre-Q^n days experienced a sharp increase in Buddhist s c r i p t u r e s . A m o n g t h e s e k i n d s o f compounds, derivatives stood out and dis- played their special features. The main uses of prefixes like x^ng and suffixes like sh% make good examples. But we should go further, beyond these examples, to think about how the creation of new ways of word formation and changes of the old ways of word formation influenced the his- torical development of Chinese vocabulary.

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Sanskrit is a language of phonography and Chinese is one of ideography. Zh7ng Qi1o of the S-ng Dynasty said ‘Be- cause Indian people are good at sounds, they get knowledge by hearing it Chinese people are good at characters, so they get knowledge by looking at it’.” T8ng Zh*

, Liush[ Lu7 So what influ- ence did the introduction of a great amount of transliteration words in Chinese Buddhist sutras have upon the traditional view of Chinese words, i.e. the emphasizing on b6nz* ‘the original character of a word or concept’? The transliteration words cut off the conventional connection between words and characters, which might be the reason for the “using characters at will”

which once appeared and clearly exhibited itself in the Medieval Times. What kind of inspiration could the ancient Chinese people derive from transliteration compounds like Sh*ji` -- m9un^ , b&qi[ -- n^ ? If purely transliterated words af- f e c t e d p e o p l e ’ s v i e w o f w o r d s an d characters, then what special significance did the appearance of a method which com- bines transliteration and free-translation, or so-called y % n y * j i ` n y * in Chinese? Nowadays it is a more fre- quently used method to translate foreign words. Moreover, how did the appearance of polysyllabic transliterated words influ- ence the traditional view of vocabulary that placed more attention upon monosyllabic

using characters at will

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words?

Many scholars think that the verb- complement compounds that appeared in medieval period laid a solid foundation for the development of vocabulary of Early Modern Chinese. Jerry Norman 1988 121 , on the basis of I. S. Gurevich’s study

1974 on the Buddhist scriptures from the t h i r d c e n t u r y t o t h e f i f t h c e n t u r y , concludes

In Classical Chinese there were no v e r b a l c o m p o u n d s w h e n t w o closely linked verbs occurred in a single phrase, they had to be sepa- rated by the verbal connective 5r . By the Western Han Dynasty, however, linked verbs without an intervening 5r began to make an appearance. In the several cen- turies following the Han Dynasty, the use of these verbal collocations greatly increased.

This is how the verb-complement com- pounds appeared, but it is insufficient to at- tribute the usage of V + V solely to the V + 5r + V constructions. We might notice that in translating Buddhist scriptures, ‘con- secutive synonyms’, as an often used means of disyllabization or polysyllabization of

Jerry Norman I. S. Gurevich

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monosyllabic words, created many disyl- labic words, including disyllabic verbs. But one thing we should pay attention to is that translators of Buddhist sutras might have an imprecise knowledge of synonyms and might use some words that are not really synonymous. This is perhaps because they could not find a proper word for the moment, or because their limited, insuffi- cient Chinese proficiency made it hard to find a true synonym. Thus the use of “con- secutive synonyms” might change the origi- nal meaning of its elements. This change plus the re-analysis from word to phrase caused by the traditional view of word-char- acter correspondence helped to shape 1 synonymous or nearly synonymous coordi- nate compounds, 2 two new types of verb- complement compounds a verb + resultative complement, and b verb + di- rectional complement.

Let us look at some examples of verb- complement or quasi-verb-complement di- syllabic words from Saddharmapundarika translated by Dharmaraksa in the Western J*n Dynasty

b 3 n z {

a b

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9 / 127b

b 1 d u 3 n

9/75c

b 7 i z {

9 / 118a

b i 3 n c h 5 n g 9/103c

ch3ngj*n

9 / 1 2 5 b

c h a o c h [

9 / 7 3 b

chaogu-

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9/126a

c h 7 n z h u 9 9/108b

ch8ngb7i

9/117a

c h 8 n g m 2 n 9/106c

c h [ x i 3 n

9 / 6 9 c

ch{du3n

9/87c

c h { q *

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c h { y l

9 / 1 1 4 a

c h [ f 3 n g

9 / 8 9 a

c - u m 2 n

9 / 7 6 c

We c a l l t h es e w o r d s “ q u as i - v e r b - complement,” because most of them, though appearing to be verb-complement disyllabic words, were not real verb- complement, but coordinate word groups.

Therefore, if we agree upon the view that

“consecutive synonyms” resulted in verb- complement compounds, we should take into account the driving force the transla- tion of Buddhist scriptures had on this change.

4. The influence of loan translation Due to the fact that the semantic inner structures of words have their own national characteristics, words that are synonymous in different languages often differ in their

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semantic inner structures. It is also true that words with the same semantic inner struc- ture have different meanings. Therefore, there is no doubt that loan translation can bring a great number of new words into the target language, with relatively rare excep- tions in the case that there are some equiva- lent words in the target language in terms of both meaning and semantic inner structure.

But we should not stop here without fur- ther investigating the influence of loan trans- lation upon the target language. The seman- tic inner structures of words that have their national features, to some extent, reflect a certain nationality’s special perspective on and mode of thinking about the objective world, and reflect the special conceptual structure and grammatical structure of the given language. If the unique national fea- tures of the original language were taken into the target language through loan translation, the loan translation not only brought new words but also new semantic inner structures, as well as new conceptual and grammatical structures to the target language. For example, “make-hair” in En- glish means dressing one’s hair artificially in a certain style for the sake of beauty. Its meaning is general. Comparatively, in Chi- nese there are only some similar expres- sions that have a specific meaning, such as bi`n bi3nzi ‘to braid or twist [hair]

into a queue’, t 3 n g t 9 u f 3 ‘to

m a k e - h a i r

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marcel’, etc. , but there is no expression that has the general meaning like the En- glish expression. So zudt9uf3 , loan- translated from “make-hair,” is a new word.

But previously, zudt9uf3 was prac- tically as unintelligible as zud zh&jia

presumably meaning to trim or mani- cure your fingernails because zud can’t be directly collocated with t9uf3 or zh&jia . But the loan translation of

“make-hair” changes the semantic feature of zud and might extend its collocation range by coining a phrase like zud zh&jia

in spite of the existence of xi[ zh&jia in Chinese.

Loan translation can also cause some semantic change. K ai h u 0 , which originally means “to make a fire [for cooking]” , if someone say “W0 z*j&

kaihu0 ,” it means that “I cook myself ” and also t^nghu0 , which originally means “to put out fire,” both have slit into two words of different meaning, with a newly acquired meaning in which hu0 referring to “weapons,” after “open-fire”

and “ceases-fire” in English were loan translated into kaihu0 and t^nghu0

.

The following discussion provides more examples to illustrate the massive amount of such words due to loan translation used in translating Buddhist scriptures.

o p e n - f i r e c e a s e - f i r e

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4.1. Gudq] , xi3nz3i , and w7il1i

W1ng L* , who in his ‘Sketch History of Chinese’ correctly identified the Buddhist origins of these three words, but did not point out that they are loan translations from Sanskrit

gudq] atita ‘the past’ is a past participle form of the compound verb ati i, i ‘to go’, prefix ati- ‘exceed, beyond, over’, thus literally the meaning is “over- gone ”

x i 3 n z 3 i p r a t y u t p ann a ‘ t h e present moment’ is a past participle form of compound verb prati-ut- pad, ut-pad

‘to appear, to emerge’, prati ‘at [the time of], appear’, thus they correspond to the loan translated word xi3n and z3i

w7il1i anagata ‘the future’ is a past participle form of negative compound verb an-agam, gam ‘to go’, a-gam ‘to come’, plus the negative prefix an-, liter- ally it means “un-come.”

We should notice some changes in the semantic inner structure of the three San-

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atita ati i

i a t i -

p r a t y u t p a n n a p r a t i - u t - p a d

u t - p a d p r a t i

a n a g a t a a n - a g a m

g a m a- g a m

a n

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skrit words which originally were verbs sig- nifying a spatial category. These words translated into Chinese have become tem- poral nouns as their Sanskrit origins did. The spatial and temporal categories contained in Sanskrit and Chinese have great philo- sophical significance. Furthermore, atten- tion should be paid to the semantic inner structure of w7il1i .

4.2. W7il1i , b]ji} and others Zhang Y0ngy1n 1982 113 says,

“Unlike Indo-European languages, Chinese has no prefix of negation, but negative ad- verbs and verbs of negation. The language units that are formed by this type of nega- tive words and another word can only be viewed as a phrase e.g., xi2ox%n

‘caution’ / b] xi2ox%n ‘incaution’, y0u ch[xi ‘to have promise’/ m5i ch[xi ‘do not have promise.’ It is clear that it is the syntactical means but not morphological means that is used to consti- tute antithesis.” If the argument is correct, the appearance of w7il1i should be given enough attention. W7il1i , has been proved as a result of loan translation, must be a word rather than a word group or phrase, if traditional criteria of identifying words are taken into account. In the Chi- nese version of Buddhist scriptures, there are many “words” of this kind, most of which are loan-translated compounds from

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1982:113

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their corresponding Sanskrit words that con- tain a stem and a negative prefix, e.g.

bujiu , w7ijiu a-cira ‘not long, recent, soon, speedily’ = native expression sh2oq&ng , shunjian

, shuh[

bush2o , buxi2o a-dabhra

‘not scanty, plentiful’ = native expression du8

buyuqu a-dattadana ‘taking what is not given voluntarily, stealing’ = na- tive expression qi7

f4ig4ng a-krsta ‘unploughed, unplaoughed land’ = native expression hu`ngtu , hu`ngy6

f4ijia an-agarika ‘the houseless life of such an ascetic Buddha’ = better expression ch[jia

f4ij*ng an-avakrsta ‘noisy’ = native expression n3o , c`o

f4iqu a-graha ‘destroying the best part non acceptance’ = native expression sh6q*

w{sh5 a-jihvaka ‘tongueless’ = native expression y2

w{m^ng , w{zh% a-jbana

‘ s t u p i d , i g n o r an c e , u n w i s e ’ = n a t i v e

a - c i r a

a - d a b h r a

a d a t t a d a n a

a - k r s t a

an-aga rika

a n - a v a k r s t a

a - g r a h a

a-jih vaka

a - j b a n a

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expression ch% , y{

w{li3ng , w{shu , w{qi9ng an-anta ‘endless, boundless, eternal, infinite’ = native expression zhdngdu8

, y*w3n

w{ji3 an-arghya ‘priceless, in- valuable’ = native expression gu*zhdng

w { s h 3 n g a n - u t t a m a

‘unsurpassed, incomparably the best or chief, excellent’ = native expression d&ng

, zu*g`o

But we should be cautious that here a- and an- are semantically and functionally the same in Sanskrit, as prefixes, having the meaning of “negative,” “privative” or

“contrary.” But b] , w{ , w7i and f4i differ from each other in both mean- ing and function, in addition to the fact that they are different from a- and an- in Sanskrit.

In this case, there are apparent conflicts in translating Sanskrit a- and an- into bl , w{

, w7i or f4i in Chinese, which manifested in the following aspects

1 Some concepts that are positively expressed in Chinese are often negatively expressed in Sanskrit. Consequently, using

a n - a n t a

a n - a r g h y a

an-uttama

a a n

a a n

a a n

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loan translation, huangy6 and y2 shall be replaced by f4ig4ng and w{sh5 which were not used in Chi- nese before. Therefore it is not difficult to understand that most of the loan translated words were not fully admitted into Chinese in the end, with only a few exceptions like buji} , bush2o , w{ji3 , etc.

There is no doubt that loan translation has enriched Chinese expressions. But the ques- tion of its influence upon the Chinese mode of thinking still remains open.

2 The difference mentioned above between Sanskrit a-, an- and Chinese bl , w{ , w7i and f4i made the mean- ings and uses of the BHC words different from their former ones. Accordingly, two results are possible a} the grammatical status of bl and other negative words could evolve from syntactic elements into morphological elements b the meaning of the loan translation words could be distorted. For example f4ijia , lit- erally means “to be not one’s home,” is far from the meaning borrowed from Sanskrit, that is “giving up one’s home.” The ‘Con- temporary Chinese Dictionary’ Zh8nggu9 Sh7hu* K4xu5yu3n Yuy1n Y1nji[su0, 1996 includes 320 subentries under the entry bl

, 27 under f4i and 204 under w{ .

( 2 ) a a n u

a )

b )

a n - a g a r i k a

1 9 9 6

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More than a half of these subentries are word groups or idiomatic phrases. Also in these subentries there are many words that might have developed under the influence of ancient Buddhist language. Of course it is still an open question.

4.3. Reduplication

In the translated Buddhist scriptures, there are many compounds whose elements are semantically reduplicated. According to Y1ng B9j]n and H5 L7sh* 1992 172 , it is only after the Eastern J*n Dynasty that reduplicated verbs had the meaning of con- tinuity and emphasis in Chinese. H{ Ch*ru*

1999 34-35 made a comparison be- tween the semantically overlapped terms in the Buddhist scriptures of the Eastern H3n Dynasty and in Lun H5ng written by W1ng Ch8ng at the same time and found 33 such terms in the former and 2 terms in the latter.

He concludes that “This is one of the striking differences between the vocabulary in Buddhist scriptures and that in L]n H5ng.

The semantically reduplicated terms in Buddhist scriptures are more similar with those in Early Modern Chinese. For instance, many quantifiers and nouns of this type in Buddhist scriptures have an entailment of

‘per, each, every.’ Reduplicated adjectives and adverbs entail the concept of ‘quantity’.”

3 2 0 2 7

2 0 4

4 . 3 .

1 9 9 2 1 7 2

1 9 9 9 3 4 - 3 5

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We do not agree with H{ Ch*ru* who con- sidered those reduplicated expressions as the representation of spoken language. The following data show that it is likely that those reduplicated forms in Buddhist sutra were also the result of loan translation

s h 4 n g s h 4 n g , q & q &

utpadotpada. Utpada ‘coming forth, birth.’

There is an additional meaning of “every, each” after reduplication.

z3iz3ich]ch] yatoyatas...

tatra tatraiva. Yatas ‘where, in what place’ yatoyatas ‘wherever’ is the em- phasis of yata. Tatra ‘in that place, there’, tatra tatra ‘in that and that place, here and there, everywhere.’

ch]ch] sthana-sthana. Sthana

‘place of standing or staying, any place, spot, locality’, after reduplication, ‘in dif- ferent place, here and there.’

ch]ch] tahij tahij. Tahij ‘at t h a t p l a c e ’ , a f t e r r e d u p l i c a t i o n ,

‘everywhere.’

ch]ch] dewe dewe. Dewe ‘in or at or on point, region, spot, place, part’,

u t p a d o t p a d a , u t p a d a

y a t o y a t a s t a t r a t a t r a i v a Y a t a s

y a t o y a t a s

y a t a T a t r a

t a t r a t a t r a

s t h a n a - s t h a n a S t h a n a

t a h i j t a h i j T a h i j

dewe dewe Dewe

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after reduplication, ‘in everyplace.’

ch]ch]zh8ng , p&p&zh8ng tesu tesu. Tesu ‘in those places’, after reduplication ‘everywhere.’

ch]ch] diwi diwi. Diwi ‘direction, place’, after reduplication, ‘in all directions, everywhere.’

g7g7 , l|l| , shudshud , chu1chu1 parajpara. Para ‘next, following’, after reduplication, ‘one follow- ing the other, successive, repeated.’

g7g7 prthak-prthak. Prthak

‘widely apart, separately, singly, one by one’, after reduplication the meaning is emphasized.

g7g7 , bi5bi5 , zh0ngzh0ng anyanya. Anya ‘other, different’, af- ter reduplication, ‘the one, the other.’

g7g7 svesu svesu. Svesu sva ‘self’ svesu svesu, the emphasis of svesu.

t e s u t e s u T e s u

diw i di w i Di w i

paraj para Para

p r t h a k - p r t h a k P r t h a k

a n y a n y a A n y a

s v e s u sve s u Sves u

s v a s v e s u

s v e s u s v e s u

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sh^sh^ kalanukalam. Kala ‘time, a fixed or right point of time, occasionally’, after reduplication, ‘hardly, merely.’ Zh[

, 1999

j^j^ wighra-wighra. Wighra ‘quick, immediate’, after reduplication the mean- ing is emphasized.

d u 3 n d u 3 n ksudranuksudra.

Ksudra ‘tiny, very small, littler’, after re- duplication the meaning is emphasized.

du3ndu3n khandakhandani.

Khanda ‘a piece, part, fragment’, after re- duplication the meaning is emphasized.

du3ndu3n avgam avge. Avga ‘a limb of the body, a subordinate division or department,’ there is an additional meaning of “every, each” after reduplication.

b]b] kramakramena. Krama ‘a step, proceeding’, after reduplication, ‘suc- cessive order and simultaneousness.’

From the above data, we know that it is common in Sanskrit that many words are

k a l a n u k a l a m m K a l a

wi g h r a - w i g h r a Wi g h r a

k s u d r a n u k s u d r a K s u d r a

k h a n d a k h a n d a n i K h a n d a

v v Avga

k r a m a k r a m e n a K r a m a

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duplicated. After the duplication, two kinds of semantic changes will occur one is to express “every and all,” the other is to emphasize. After these words were loan translated into Chinese, the two features were retained. Therefore, we are justified in saying that Buddhist scripture translation, especially loan translation, was the main reason for the wide-spread existence of re- d u p l i c a t e d c o m p o u n d s i n B u d d h i s t scriptures, and was a driving force for the development of reduplicated words in Chinese.

4.4. Z*y9u gduc^ yusu flexible morpheme

A z*y9u gduc^ yusu re-

fers to a morpheme whose written form is a character and major function is to extend the number of syllables in a word, namely to constitute a disyllabic form by combin- ing with a monosyllabic character, which was an important way to form disyllabic words in the Medieval Times. Typical flex- ible morphemes that are commonly known are -f] , -z* , -w5i , -dang and x^ng- , etc. Zh[, 1992a W1ng Y{nll, 1998 Perhaps the embryonic forms of flex- ible morphemes may have existed before the Medieval Times and were used to cre- ate new words in the H3n Dynasty before Buddhist scriptures were introduced into China. But their maturity and large amount of appearance only happened in the Medi-

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a

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eval Times, and most of them made their first appearances in Buddhist scriptures.

Some may still argue that flexible mor- phemes are the representation of spoken Chinese. However, when we take into con- sideration the frequent use of loan transla- tion at that time and the features of Sanskrit compounds, it is justifiable for us to say that flexible morphemes’ wide-spread use in Middle and Early Modern Chinese, was closely related to the imitative creation of the translators of Buddhist scriptures.

As we know, since the Sanskrit prefix anu- sometimes does mean something but sometimes means nothing in particular, why was it still added to a word stem? It is be- cause Sanskrit required the number of syl- lables in a word to be highly flexible. People in ancient India paid much more attention to oral instructions than to written forms. To facilitate reciting and memorizing, the his- torical literature of ancient India was mainly created in verse. The rhyme of the verses was formed through the number of syllables in the sentence and the regular collocation of long and short vowels. Thus it is impor- tant that a meaning could be expressed by many synonyms with different number of syllables and that a word could have more than one variant having different syllables.

For example, above-mentioned anu-, when it does not mean anything, functions to add syllables to the given word. Therefore, is

a n u

a n u

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there any difference between anu- and -f]

, -z* , etc?

4.5. Abbreviated forms

Those that we called abbreviated forms refer to the forms which have a specific meaning by combining the number of items and the name of the category, such as Wuj%ng ‘Five Classics’ Y* J%ng

, Sh[ J%ng , Sh% J%ng , L& J%ng and Ch[nqi[ J%ng . They are often used in contemporary Chinese, e. g.

S ` n m ^ n z h u y * ‘ T h e T h r e e People’s Principles’ m^nz{zh}y*

‘nationalism’, m^nqu1nzhuy*

‘democratism’ and m^nsh4ngzhuy*

‘people-livelihoodism’ s`nxi3 ‘the three summer agricultural jobs’

x i 3 s h 8 u ‘ s u m m e r h a r v e s t i n g ’ , x i 3 z hdn g ‘summer planting’ and xi3gu2n ‘summer field management.’

In ancient works, there are a few words that seem to be similar with the abbreviated words, such as b2ix*ng ‘hundreds of families common people’, s*h2i

‘four seas the whole country, the whole world’, wugu ‘five cereals, corn cereals, cereal crops grain plants’ etc, but they have a general meaning, without a specific reference.

There are a surprisingly large number of abbreviated words in Buddhist scriptures.

a n u

4 . 5

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Y1n Qi3m3o 1997 made a comprehen- sive study on this and gave the following examples

G u 3 n x &

F9 X^ngxi3ng J%ng Western

J*n F2 Ju tr. b

In the above text, there are 14 “number + category name” expressions that are ab- breviated words. They are not the words created by translators, but loan translated w o r d s o f s i m i l a r c o n s t r u c t i o n , f o r example

s* $h1n caturagama, catur

‘four’, agama ‘a traditional doctrine, collec- tion of such doctrines’ Sajyuktagama , Mad h y am a g am a , Dirghagama , and Ekottarikagama

.

c a t u r a g a m a

c a t u r - ag a m a

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s*sh5nz{ catvara-rddhipadah, catvara- ‘four’, rddhipada ‘one of the four constituent part of supernatural power’

c h a n d a - s a m a d h i - p r a h a n a - s a j s k a r a - samanvagato-rddhipada

, citta-samadhi-prahana-sajskara- samanvagato-rddhipada

, v i r y a - s a m a d h i - p r a h a n a - sajskara-samanvagato-rddhipada

, m i m a j s a - s a m a d h i - p r a h a n a - s a j s k a r a - s a m a n v a g a t o -

rddhipada .

w } g 4 n pab cendriya, pab ca

‘five’, indriya ‘organ of senses five or- gans of perception, i.e. eye, ear, nose, tongue, and skin’ caksur-indriyam , wrotra-indriyam , ghrana-indriyam

, j i h v a - i n d r i y am , an d k a y a - indriyam .

w}l* pabca-balani, pabca ‘five’, bala ‘power, strength, force’ wradda- balam , virya-balam , smrti-balam , samadhi-balam , and prajba-

balam .

These examples are convincing evi- dence to show that abbreviated forms of Chinese were influenced by translation of Buddhist scriptures.

So far, our knowledge is limited about how loan translation affected Chinese vocabulary. Fortunately, we have come to

c a t v a r a - rddhipadah catvara-

rd d h i p a d a

p a b c e n d r i y a n i

pabca indriya

pab ca-bala ni pab c a b a l a

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the realization that there is still a lot of work to be done. It is foreseeable that by further and more thorough investigation of loan translation, more evidence will be found to reveal more clearly the influence of Bud- dhist language upon Chinese vocabulary.

Last, but not least, although our research has made some progress in the language of Chinese Buddhist scriptures, compared with the work to be done, our findings are quite limited. Research on this issue requires the efforts of more linguists and experts in other fields who have similar interests and pur- sue the same goal.

NOTE

A n o n y m i t y o f Q % n g D y n a s t y, W3ijiao Xi2osh& , Ch[sh& xiadhu3 Jiuz5 “

All of the examples as following are c i t e d f r o m O g i w a r a 1 9 7 9 an d Karashima 1998b .

Zh7ng F2hu1 J%ng, Ch. 5

9/

97a

9/97c Ch.6

9/103b

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Zh7ng F2hu1 J%ng, Ch. 8 “

” 9/119c “

” 9/119c

Zh7ng F2hu1 J%ng, Ch.5 “

” 9/98c Ch. 6

(9/103b

Zh7ng F2hu1 J%ng, Ch.3 “

” 9/84b

Zh7ng F2hu1 J%ng, Ch. 10 “

” 9/129a

Z h 7 n g F 2 h u 1 J % n g , Ch.

(29)

4 “

” 9 / 93c

Others are F9sh^7rb]j%n

dvadawanga-buddha-vacana, S * y * z h & catv a r i - s m r ty- upastha na ni, S * y * d u 3 n

catva ri-prahan ani, Q % j u 5 saptabodhyangani, Bazh^x^ngd3o

a r y a s t a n g i k am a r g a , S a n s h ^ 7 r x i 3 n g

d v a t r i j s a n - m a h a - p u r u s a - laksanani Bash^zh0ngh2o

a s i t y - a n u v y a n j a n a n i , Sh^zh0ngl* dasa-balani, S * w { s u 0 w 7 i catvari- vaisaradyani and Sh^b1b{gdng

astadasa-avenika-abuddha- dharmah.

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