Gifted Education Section Curriculum Development Institute Education Bureau HKSARG 2016

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Gifted Education Section

Curriculum Development Institute

Education Bureau

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Gifted Education Section Curriculum Development Institute

Education Bureau

The Government of The Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Room 328, 3/F, East Block, Kowloon Tong Education Services Centre,

19 Suffolk Road, Kowloon Tong, Kowloon Published 2016

All rights reserved. The copyright of the materials in this book belongs to the Education Bureau of The Hong Kong Special Administrative Region.

Duplication of the materials in this book is restricted to non-profit educational purposes only. Otherwise, no part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system,

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Special Features of this Book

In this book, you will grasp the principles of:

• differentiating the four classroom elements, namely content, process, product, and learning environment, to accommodate gifted students’ learning based on theory, research-based curriculum models, and teachers’ judgment consolidated from classroom practices.

You will also find 19 piloted exemplars to demonstrate the strategies of:

• pre-assessing student readiness to facilitate assessment for learning;

• differentiating the four classroom elements to tailor the English Language curriculum based on student readiness, interest, and/or learning profile;

• extending the creativity and critical thinking of gifted students as they learn to be self- directed learners with teachers’ facilitative support; and

• integrating 21st century interdisciplinary themes into the regular English classroom to address the needs of all students, including the gifted.

This book includes the following ready-to-use and –adapt learning and teaching materials in Chapter 4 for you to facilitate learning and pursue excellence with your gifted students:

• Annotated lesson plans covering the four classroom elements for differentiation, including the key points at the beginning of each lesson plan and suggestions for trying things out in your classrooms;

• Sample PowerPoint presentations;

• Pre-assessment examples;

• Flipped classroom materials;

• Differentiated activities and tasks with teaching notes;

• Sample rubrics and related references; and

• Extended teaching resources to enrich your teaching materials repertoire.

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Carol Ann Tomlinson (2014) says that “any promising classroom innovation will find itself locked outside the classrooms of teachers who work in a culture that nourishes the status quo—and will be welcomed by teachers who continually seek to connect students with a world of ideas”.

We aim to seek classroom innovations through this book; it would be futile to pursue a one- size-fits-all menu to embrace diversity and develop different talents for this century. This book offers you examples from which you will find ways to generate ideas and move beyond the status quo.

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How to Use this Book:

The following tables serve to be a summary of differentiation strategies organised according to the classroom elements, i.e. content, process, product, and learning environment. You will find the details of the strategies in Chapter 4:

Classroom Element Content

Exemplar 1 2 3 Focused Strategies

Torrance Incubation Model 

The HEROIC Questioning and Feedback Loop  

Bloom’s Taxonomy 

Jigsaw Reading and Discussion 

Choice Board 

Flipped Classroom 

Multiple Texts 

Classroom Element Process

Exemplar 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Focused Strategies

Reading Circles 

Parallel Curriculum Model 

Learning Stations 

Tomlinson’s Equalizer   

Differentiated Questioning 

Literature Theatre 

Bloom’s Taxonomy 

Conceptual Mind Maps 

Inquiry-based Jigsaw Tasks 

Flexible Grouping

(Homogeneous and 

Heterogeneous Grouping)

Flipped Classroom 

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Classroom Element Product

Exemplar 13 14 15 16 Focused Strategies

Tomlinson’s Equalizer 

Panel Switch and Debate 

Track-and-Freeze 

Expert Groups 

Mind Maps 

Comparison Grids 

Rubrics 

Classroom Element Learning Environment Exemplar 17 18 19 Focused Strategies

Challenge Corners 

Flexible Grouping

(Expert Groups, Mix-and-Match,

Fishbowl Discussion) 

Formula-based Criteria 

Each exemplar includes annotations, teaching notes, and checkpoints highlighted in colours as below:

: Focused differentiation strategies firstly introduced in the exemplars

: Strategies demonstrated in more than one exemplar to exhibit the potential of the strategies to be adapted flexibly to suit diverse classroom needs

: Notes to help you understand the rationale of the target strategies

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If you are a teacher, you may:

• refer to Chapter 1 to reflect on your understanding of your gifted students’ common characteristics and needs;

• self-assess your understanding of differentiation with the recommendations from Chapter 2;

• pre-assess your and your students’ readiness based on the suggestions in Chapter 3 to outline your action plan; and/or

• use Chapter 4 to: a) develop ideas of how to differentiate the classroom elements based on student readiness, interest and learning profile; b) use the exemplars as guiding maps to experiment the suggested strategies as you develop the skills and techniques necessary for differentiating instruction and integrating 21st century interdisciplinary themes into your English classrooms to benefit all students, including the gifted; and c) adapt and tailor the exemplars to make your curriculum work for the needs of gifted students.

If you are a curriculum or school leader, you may, in particular:

• use the key points at the beginning of each lesson plan and suggestions for trying things at the end of each in Chapter 4, or any parts of this book to guide your panel to conduct an SWOT analysis for curriculum development that addresses learner diversity (Note: SWOT stands for strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats);

• collect from your colleagues the lesson plans and learning and teaching materials adapted from the exemplars to develop your school-based resources for the continuous development of differentiated instruction in your English language panel; and/or

• use this book for staff development in differentiated instruction for the gifted students in your school.

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Preface

This book demonstrates the selected outcomes of the collaboration between the Gifted Education Section, Curriculum Development Institute, Education Bureau, and teachers from local, direct subsidy scheme, private primary and secondary schools. We worked together on piloting strategies to differentiate instruction for more able and gifted students in English classrooms from 2009 to 2015. With this book, we aim to provide English Language teachers with suggestions and resources to address the needs of gifted students.

Background of this Book

Since the holistic review of the school curriculum in the Learning to Learn - The Way Forward in Curriculum Development (CDC, November, 2000), the overarching principle of helping students learn to learn has been guiding teachers to adopt a learner-focused approach through which teachers should understand students’ needs, interests, and abilities for instructional decisions. This overarching principle has directed the attention of schools to the emphasis on catering for individual differences, paving the way for differentiated instruction to gain awareness and develop in schools. With increasing awareness of learner differences, the demand for professional development from teachers in tailoring instruction for students, including the gifted, contributed to the establishment of the Gifted Education Teachers Network (English Language) in 2009 with the following as one of its missions:

To pilot strategies and develop exemplary tasks in regular English classrooms and pull-out programmes based on gifted education curriculum models in order to enhance the learning of the gifted through differentiated instruction.

Aims of this Book

With the concerted efforts of the teachers in the Network, there have been trial lessons conducted to pilot, modify and adapt different differentiated strategies to enhance the learning of more able and gifted students in mixed-ability English classrooms since 2009. Evaluating the tryouts and the piloted materials, we aim to, through this book:

• provide you with adaptable differentiation exemplars, learning and teaching materials and suggestions supported by research and theories in gifted education for use; and

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This book aims to:

• discuss the characteristics commonly observed in the behaviour of gifted students. You are encouraged to think about the relationship between the needs of gifted students and the demands of the 21st century to define our roles as educators and those of our students;

• discuss the myths and realities about differentiated instruction for gifted students in English;

• list the common concerns about differentiated instruction for gifted students and guide you to seek possible solutions using this book;

• recommend road maps with practical steps to pre-assess gifted students and differentiate instruction systematically; and

• detail the exemplars and teaching materials for you to adapt and use.

We welcome your feedback about the activities and resources suggested in this book.

Comments and suggestions can be sent to the Chief Curriculum Development Officer, Gifted Education Section, Education Bureau, Rm E328, 3/F, Kowloon Tong Education Services Centre, 19 Suffolk Road, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong, by e-mail at gifted@edb.gov.hk or by facsimile on 2490 6858.

For further enquiries about any parts of this book, please contact Ms Dorothy LI Wing- sze, Curriculum Development Officer, Gifted Education Section, Curriculum Development Institute, Education Bureau, on 3698 3476 or 3698 3472, or by email (email address: cdoge4@

edb.gov.hk).

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Acknowledgements

We extend our gratitude to the teachers as follows for their devotion and effort in identifying target classes, piloting differentiation strategies, facilitating administrative arrangements for student grouping, developing and evaluating learning and teaching materials for this book:

Ms Helen AU Man-yi, Principal, Holy Angels Canossian School

Ms Karen CHAN Ka-wing, English Language Teacher, St. Teresa Secondary School

Ms Winne CHAN, English Language Teacher, Creative Primary School Ms Esther CHAU Suk-ching, English Language Teacher, Holy Family Canossian School

Ms Olivia CHEUNG Oi-li, English Language Teacher, St. Mary’s Canossian College

Ms Winnie CHOW Pui-man, English Panel Chairperson, SKH Tin Wan Chi Nam Primary School

Ms Jesuszette DE GUZMAN, former English Panel Chairperson, Shung Tak Catholic English College

Ms Julia ENG, former English Language Teacher, W F Joseph Lee Primary School

Ms Jocelyn FUNG Wing-yee, English Panel Chairperson, Creative Primary School

Ms Connie HUI Lai-yin, former English Panel Chairperson, Madam Lau Kam Lung Secondary School of MFBM

Ms Kitty POON Oi-ling, Vice-principal, Holy Family Canossian School Ms LAM Chi-yan, English Language Chairperson, Holy Family Canossian

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Ms Emily LEUNG, English Language Teacher, TWGHs Lui Yun Choy Memorial College

Ms Aminah MAI Wai-mun, former English Panel Chairperson, TWGH Lui Yun Choy Memorial College

Mr King PANG, English Language Teacher, Creative Primary School Ms June TAM, English Language Teacher, Creative Primary School

Ms Maggie TANG Ping-yee, English Panel Chairperson, Creative Primary School

Ms Vanessa WONG Wai-shan, English Panel Chairperson, Holy Angels Canossian School

Ms Stella YAN Suk-yee, English Language Teacher, Methodist College Mr Vincent YEUNG Wing-shing, English Language Teacher and Liberal Studies Panel Chairperson, Po Leung Kuk Tong Nai Kan Junior Secondary College

Special thanks to Dr Cheri Chan, Assistant Professor in the Division of English Language Education at The University of Hong Kong, for her valuable insights and advice on this book.

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Contents

Special Features of This Book

3-4

How to Use This Book

5-7

Preface

8-9

Acknowledgements

10-11

Chapter 1 Background

15-22

1.1 What are the Common Characteristics of Gifted Students? 15-17 1.2 What do Gifted Students Expect from School? 17 1.3 What do Experts Say about Gifted Students? 18-20 1.4 What Can We Do With Gifted Students for 21-22

the 21st Century with This Book?

Chapter 2 Rethinking about Differentiation

23-28

2.1 What Do We Understand about Differentiation? 23-26 2.2 What do Experts Say about Differentiation? 27 2.3 To Differentiate or Not to Differentiate Instruction, 28

What Can Be the Questions?

Chapter 3 Road Map for Putting Theory into Practice

29-34 3.1 Pre-assessment of Your students and Yourself 29-31

3.2 Steps to Differentiate Instruction 32

3.3 Taking Action 33-34

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Chapter 4 Exemplars and Materials

35-285

4.1 Differentiation by Content 35-83 4.1.1 Exemplar 1: Exploring Choice through Reading Poems 36-50 4.1.2 Exemplar 2: Seeing Writing Poems as 51-74

a Self-Empowerment Process

4.1.3 Exemplar 3: Looking for the Uniqueness of Film Reviews 75-83

4.2 Differentiation by Process 84-195 4.2.1 Exemplar 4: Examining Characterisation Techniques 85-131

through Reading Circles

4.2.2 Exemplar 5: Using Learning Stations and 132-152 Tomlinson’s Equalizer to Create Time

for Enrichment in Class

4.2.3 Exemplar 6: Using Differentiated Questioning to 153-158 Integrate Social Issues into

a Reading Lesson as Enrichment

4.2.4 Exemplar 7: Using Literature Theatre to Foster 159-165 Collaborative Learning for Enrichment

in Senior Secondary English Classrooms

4.2.5 Exemplars 8–12: Quick Ways to Differentiate Learning 166-195 for Boarder Perspectives

4.3 Differentiation by Product 196-251 4.3.1 Exemplar 13: Using Tomlinson’s Equalizer to 197-206

Develop Student Autonomy for Differentiated Products to Flourish

4.3.2 Exemplar 14: Differentiating Learning by 207-219 Engaging Students in a Debate Forum

4.3.3 Exemplar 15: Using Track-and-Freeze to Help 220-235 Students Make Choice of Product

4.3.4 Exemplar 16: Integrating Mind Maps into 236-251 a Standards-oriented Classroom

to Foster Assessment as Learning

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4.4 Differentiation by Learning Environment 252-285 4.4.1 Exemplar 17: Using Challenge Corners to Cultivate 253-259

a Learning Environment that Values Persistence

4.4.2 Exemplar18: Using Flexible Grouping to Plan 260-278 a Differentiated Learning Environment

with Limited Space

4.4.3 Exemplar 19: Internalising Criteria into 279-285 Self-Directed Knowledge

Building Processes

Teacher Reflection

286-290

Epilogue

291

References

292-294

Glossary

295-296

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Chapter 1

Background

1.1 What are the Common Characteristics of Gifted Students?

According to the Education Commission Report No. 4 (1990), gifted children are broadly defined as children with exceptional achievement or potential in one or more of the following aspects:

(a) a high level of measured intelligence;

(b) specific academic aptitude in a subject area;

(c) creative thinking;

(d) superior talent in visual and performing arts;

(e) natural leadership of peers; and/or

(f) psychomotor ability – outstanding performance or ingenuity in athletics, mechanical skills or other areas requiring gross or fine motor co-ordination.

From the observations of the teachers in the Gifted Education Teachers Network (English Language), we gathered the following views about gifted students in general:

“They [gifted students] ask unforeseen questions which sometimes leave me at a loss.”

“They are curious.” “They are selectively, highly attentive to the things which they are wildly fond of.”

“I have a student who created a play about life and relationship happening in 2033, while the rest of the class was extending a story from a given beginning.”

“The other day as we discussed the five-paragraph essay, Ryan suddenly shouted out loud,

‘Anyway, it’s all just about one paragraph thing—there’s a strong line threading through all the points, and all arguments and examples work for one strong line.’”

“She [the gifted student] never does or practises anything more than twice.

Doing something the second time, as she once confided to me, is somehow meaningless but to comfort me!”

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“Having students work in groups productively is always a headache. Gifted students learn like big fish in a big pond if they work with peers with similar intellectual levels. Putting the gifted ones in average groups bore the smart ones sometimes but this helps if I need them to assist the weaker ones like junior tutors.”

“‘That’s impossible to indicate on a timeline the points of simple present, simple past, present continuous, present perfect and so on because all interlock with one another!’

John muttered to me in a detention class today.”

“Being called ‘Sea Lion’ seems to be rather embarrassing, but Brian, I have to admit that, has the powers to make people grin, as long as you can be patient enough before you get the wits from his jokes!”

“Ann has read nine out of the 10 short stories I assigned for her language arts project at the beginning of the year. She is likely to complete the project before anyone else in the class before the project is due. She is now thinking about how to put her thoughts on Elinor and Marianne from ‘Sense and Sensibility’, the book she is almost finishing, in her project.”

To summarise the behavioural characteristics of gifted students from the observations quoted above, we may have some conclusive points. Gifted learners tend to:

• pose unanticipated questions;

• be curious;

• be selectively mentally engaged;

• work beyond the general group;

• be impatient with excessive repeated practice of a skill;

• prefer in-depth, complex ideas;

• prefer the company of intellectual peers;

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I want to learn something new and useful in each lesson.

I want to learn to form relationships between knowledge and daily life, people, and the world.

I want to have the space to learn according to the pace that fits my learning interest but not deadlines all the time.

I hope my teachers to help me understand my interests, and how I can contribute with my strengths to the community and the world.

I want to learn something or do some work that is regarded significantly outside of school by experts, families, and employers.

I want to engage in deep practice of the skills I need to learn, instead of moving on immediately to the next ones.

I want to explore and make mistakes, and learn from them without being blamed as a failure.

I want to have real choices about what, when, and how I will learn and demonstrate my abilities.

I hope to learn at my own pace at times, but not at a constant pace decided by teachers.

I want to apply what I learnt in real- world settings.

• be keen on original ideas;

• enjoy self-directed learning; and/or

• be demotivated by grades.

Based on the above observations, we explored the possibility of changes to improve the learning and teaching in classrooms.

1.2 What do Gifted Students Expect from School?

From the dialogues with the students in and out of the trial lessons, we heard the students’

voices about their expectations of school:

As we are engaged in different school matters, listening to students’ voices is one of the ways to collect feedback to help us enhance the effectiveness of learning and teaching. We build knowledge as we listen to our students.

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1.3 What do Experts Say about Gifted Students?

There have been discussions and debates over the terms of “gifted” and “talented”. It is not necessary to look into all the definitions as we analyse the needs of our gifted students; however, the knowledge of the terms will help us conceptualise the rationale of the instruction tailored for our gifted students based on their needs. The following are some definitions which worth our attention:

Academics Definition of Giftedness

François Gagné (2003) Gifted students are those whose potential is distinctly above average in one or more of the following domains of human ability: intellectual, creative, social and physical. Talented students are those whose skills are distinctly above average in one or more areas of human performance.

Joseph Renzulli (1986) Highly productive people are characterised by three interlocking clusters of ability--these clusters being above average (though not necessarily superior) ability, task commitment, and creativity.

Robert J. Sternberg (1995) Students are not simply gifted or non-gifted; rather, there are various types of gifts and many ways to capitalise on strengths and to correct and compensate for weaknesses of all students. Therefore, schools need to do a better job of identifying giftedness in all its forms. Giftedness is not just a state but also a process. Given the right opportunities, many students who now perform only adequately could become expert learners if their teachers understood how to develop competencies within students.

Howard Gardner (2011) Intelligence is the capacity to do something useful in the society in which we live. Intelligence is the ability to respond successfully to new situations and the capacity to learn from one’s past experiences.

Deborah Eyre (2007) Gifted and talented students will tend to:

• show a passion for particular subjects/areas of interest and seek to pursue them;

• master the rules of a domain easily and transfer their insights to new problems;

• analyse their own behaviour and hence use a greater range of learning strategies than others (self-regulation);

• make connections between past and present learning;

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with subject material;

• actively and enthusiastically engage in debate and discussion on a particular subject; and

• produce original and creative responses to common problems.

In addition, gifted and talented students may develop particular characteristics as they progress through the secondary/tertiary phase such as:

• a tendency to question rules and authority;

• a well-developed sense of humour; and

• growing self-determination, stamina and powers of concentration.

In short, there are common, observable behavioural characteristics of gifted and talented students although variations exist among individuals because of students’ uniqueness in terms of pace of development, individual personality, learning style, and family background.

The following table serves as a list of common traits and behaviour demonstrated by gifted students for quick reference:

+ Behaviour 1. Hooked on task 2. Caring

3. Optimistic

4. Enjoy learning and creating

5. See exceptions 6. Keen to find out the

truth 7. Adaptive

8. Independent (thinkers) 9. Responsive

10. Intrinsically motivated 11. Meticulous to details 12. Ask “what if” questions 13. Speak and work for

justice

Characteristics 1. Energetic

2. Passionate 3. Humorous 4. Intense interests 5. Quickly and easily

see relationships and connections in ideas, objects, or facts 6. Excellent reasoning

skills

7. Overflow with ideas 8. Strong-minded 9. Learn quickly 10. Long attention span 11. Very observant 12. Extremely curious 13. Concerned about

fairness and injustice

- Behaviour 1. Seem off task 2. Very sensitive 3. Impolite or even

offensive

4. Bad at managing time 5. Seem go astray from

procedures

6. Question authority 7. Seen as outliers 8. Dominating 9. Impatient 10. Addicted

11. Critical of others’

mistakes

12. Ask too many questions 13. Cynical

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With more understanding of our gifted students, we will be more aware of their needs and the possible reasons for the gaps between their potential and actual performance when there is any.

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1.4 What Can We Do with Gifted Students for the 21

st

Century with this Book?

This book offers you the exemplars which demonstrate how curriculum components, as ticked off below, can be covered as you differentiate the instruction in daily classrooms for the needs of the 21st century.

I. Key Learning Areas and the Key Tasks

• English Language 

• Arts 

• Moral and Civics 

• Reading to Learn 

• Information Technology for Interactive Learning 

II. 21

st

Century Cross-Disciplinary Themes

• Global Awareness 

• Entrepreneurial Spirit 

• Civic Literacy 

• Health Literacy 

• Environmental Literacy 

III. Learning and Innovation Skills

• Creativity 

• Critical Thinking and Problem Solving 

• Communication and Collaboration 

IV. Technological Literacy

• Technological Awareness 

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V. Life and Career Skills

• Flexibility and Adaptability 

• Initiative and Self-Direction 

• Social and/or Cross-Cultural Skills 

• Leadership and Responsibility 

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Chapter 2

Rethinking about Differentiation

2.1 What Do We Understand about Differentiation?

Differentiation is regarded as a way of teaching to enhance students’ learning based on their readiness, interest and learning style.

The following list of questions is a quick checklist that will help you self-assess how much you understand about differentiation. It will also guide you to find out more about it for the benefit of your students.

Read the statements below. Tick the boxes as appropriate.

1. Differentiation is something extra: extra questions, problems, or assignments.

2. Differentiation refers to individualised instruction.

3. The purpose of a differentiated classroom is to make students do something different in groups.

4. Differentiation should take place in every lesson; I can’t afford the time to differentiate when I have to work with my students to prepare for “high-stakes testing”.

5. Differentiation is for gifted and talented students only.

6. This is hard to assess student performance in a differentiated classroom.

7. Differentiation is to allow students to work on a rotation of tasks and activities according to their choice.

8. Differentiation is to have students spend time exploring in interest centres.

9. Differentiation is to encourage students to create their own product assignments by interest.

10. Differentiation is to assign some students to work as junior tutors in class most of the time.

Statement True False

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Now, have a look at the following diagrams to solve the puzzles about differentiated instruction.

Reality:

Differentiation is a way of teaching in which teachers adopt to tailor instruction based on students’ readiness and learning style to address their diverse needs. It is a common approach adopted for quality education in which teachers aim at developing the potential of all students, including the gifted.

Myth 1:

Differentiation is something extra: extra questions, problems, or assignments, and work.

Myth 2:

Differentiation refers to individualised instruction.

Reality:

Differentiation is an act or a process of making teaching responsive to the uniqueness of students in terms of motivation, mastery level, learning style, interest and so on. In this sense, all teachers individualise instruction to some extent. Differentiated instruction, however, covers a range of pedagogical decisions of when and how to employ strategies to enhance student learning by content, process, product and learning profile, as well as giving individualised instruction.

Myth 3:

The purpose of a differentiated classroom is to make students do something different in groups.

Reality:

The purpose of a differentiated classroom is to allow all students to be engaged in relevant, meaningful and challenging learning opportunities individually, in pairs or in groups, depending on the objectives of the tasks.

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Reality:

There is value in any teaching approaches and strategies, including lectures which are considered traditional. All strategies work, given that they are employed for the right students in the right contexts at the right time. Preparing our students for the 21st century occurs in the selection of curriculum content and pedagogical strategies to support them in meeting local learning standards while at the same time providing them with opportunities to learn to respond to issues of global significance. Students do not develop the skills, competencies and attitudes necessary for this century after they gain fundamental disciplinary knowledge and skills, but rather while they are gaining such knowledge and skills. Differentiation is a way to achieve this.

Myth 4:

Differentiation should take place in every lesson; I can’t afford the time to differentiate when I have to work with my students to pre- pare for “high-stakes testing”.

Myth 5:

Differentiation is for gifted and talented students only.

Reality:

Differentiation is for all students, including the gifted and talented. A differentiated classroom is centered on student readiness, interest, and learning profile--not necessarily on ability alone.

Myth 6:

It is hard to assess students’

performance in a differentiated classroom.

Reality:

It is hard to assess a student’s performance in valid and reliable manners. It is not an exclusive issue in a differentiated classroom.

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Reality:

Differentiation is to encourage and guide students to invest time in projects and independent studies in different forms of grouping to achieve effective learning.

Myth 8:

Differentiation is to have

students spend time exploring in interest centres.

Reality:

Differentiation is to allow students to make their choice of tasks which are carefully planned, organised, or guided, by teachers according to student readiness, interest and learning profile. Differentiated instruction does not simply allow students to work on a random rotation of tasks and activities according to their arbitrary choice.

Myth 7:

Differentiation is to allow

students to work on a rotation of tasks and activities according to their choice.

Myth 9:

Differentiation is to encourage students to create their own product assignments by interest.

Reality:

Differentiation is to encourage students to demonstrate the concepts, knowledge, skills, perspectives and/or values they gained in a product form flexibly against the criteria relevant to the required elements of learning.

Myth 10:

Differentiation is to assign some students to work as junior tutors in class most of the time.

Reality:

Assigning students to work as junior tutors can be an authentic way to motivate gifted students to learn to co-work with partners with different abilities or knowledge.

Whether it is an effective way of grouping depends on the objectives of a specific task and the learning pace of the students.

Flexible grouping, instead of a fixed, single way of grouping, is therefore a strategy that will maximise the effectiveness of a

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2.2 What do Experts Say about Differentiation?

➢ Differentiated instruction is the process of ensuring that what a student learns, how he or she learns it, and how the student demonstrates what he or she has learned is a match for that student’s readiness level, interests, and preferred mode of learning (Tomlinson, 2008).

➢ Differentiation is a way of teaching; it’s not a program or package of worksheets.

It asks teachers to know their students well so that they can provide each one with experiences and tasks that will improve learning. Differentiating instruction means that you observe and understand the differences and similarities among students and use this information to plan instruction (Robb, 2008).

➢ Differentiating instruction involves responding constructively to what students know. It means providing multiple learning pathways so that students can have access to the most appropriate learning opportunities commensurate with their capacity to learn. It involves matching students’ approach to learning with the most appropriate pedagogy, curriculum goals and opportunities for displaying knowledge gained (Anderson, 2007; Ellis, Gable, Gregg, & Rock, 2008). This requires the differentiation of regular curriculum (Munro, 2012).

➢ The process of differentiation is the deliberate adaptation and modification of the curriculum, instructional processes, and assessments to respond to the needs of gifted learners (VanTassel-Baska & Stambaugh, 2005).

➢ Differentiating does not mean providing separate, unrelated activities for each student but does mean providing interrelated activities that are based on student needs (Good, 2006).

➢ Differentiating instruction as a form of instruction that seeks to maximize each student’s growth by recognizing that students have different ways of learning, different interests, and different ways of responding to instruction (Ravitch, 2007).

➢ Differentiation results in teachers who welcome and celebrate the diversity of the lives, talents, interests and passions of their students. Differentiation creates schools that take pride in being a learning community (Heacox & Cash, 2014).

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• How can I identify gifted students’ learning needs?

• How can I assess students’ learning using formative assessment to adjust lesson content to meet their needs?

2.3 To Differentiate or Not to Differentiate Instruction, What Can Be the Questions?

An effective curriculum impossibly remains static. There is no magic solution to any challenges arising in the course of curriculum development—a curriculum works only for students, including the gifted, when it is essentially modified to meet their needs. The unique characteristics of the students must serve as the basis for decisions on how the curriculum should be modified and differentiated (Feldhusen, Hansen, & Kennedy, 1989; Maker 1982;

TAG, 1989; VanTassel-Baska et al., 1988).

With the above rationale in mind, ask yourself the following questions for possible answers from the sections in this book. Generate ideas for solutions that will work for your gifted students.

• How can I teach to the standards of the curriculum, public assessments or examinations in ways which will keep gifted students interested, actively engaged and motivated to learn?

• How can I differentiate the instruction by teaching the same material to all students using a variety of instructional strategies or by varying levels of difficulty of the content?

• How can I ensure my support to students to be appropriately

• How can I manage to guide students to perform multiple tasks without losing control of my classroom?

• How can I assign students to complete activities that will demonstrate their mastery of a concept or skill in a way that Chapter Section

3 3.1 3.2 3.3 4 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4

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Chapter 3

Road Map for Putting Theory into Practice

3.1 Pre-assessment of Your Students and Yourself

According to John Munro (2012), differentiating instruction involves responding constructively to what students know. The prerequisite for creating an effective differentiated classroom is to pre- assess the needs of your students and yourself.

What should we pre-assess?

Figure 1 tells some answers.

Figure 1 Pre-assessment of Students’ and Teachers’ Readiness for Differentiation

• Subject Matter

• Content Knowledge

• Experiential Knowledge

• Social Knowledge

• World Knowledge

• Declarative Knowledge

• Procedural Knowledge

• Motivation

• Interests

• Values and Beliefs

• Learning Profiles

• Generic Skills

• Domain-specific Skills

• Metacognitive Skills

• Subject Matter

• Content Knowledge

• Pedagogical Knowledge

• Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge

• Knowledge of Differentiation

• Knowledge of Student Readiness

• Motivation

• Interests

• Values and Beliefs

• Teaching Styles

• Generic Skills

• Domain-specific Skills

• Practical Skills

Students Teachers

Knowledge

Attitudes Skills

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Figure 2 elaborates what and how to tap information from students.

Figure 2 Guiding Pre-assessment Questions for Students

Guiding Questions Methods

Knowledge

• What do the students know about this particular unit, skill, or concept?

• What misconceptions do the students hold?

• How did the students learn the topic and skill before?

• How do the students relate their knowledge of the topic or skill to daily life or their perceptions of life?

• How do the students connect the topic, skill or concept with the world?

• How do the students organise their knowledge of the topic or concept?

Skills

• How well do the students master the generic skills?

• How do the students apply the generic skills in contexts?

• How do the students employ the generic skills to achieve different learning purposes and goals?

• How do the students adjust their strategies of using the skills necessary for a task or a context and their effectiveness?

Attitudes

• To what extent are the students willing to invest time and effort in continued engagement in a task or learning when difficulties arise?

• What are the students’ areas of interest?

• What are the students’ preferred modes of learning, grouping, and ways of demonstrating their progress or learning outcomes?

• How do the students interact with the environment, including teachers and peers, to co-construct learning experiences?

• Pencil and paper tests and quizzes

• Concept pictures

• Graphic organisers

• Journal responses

• Entrance and exit cards

• Essay questions

• Performance-based assessments

• End-of-unit assessments Previous year-end assessments

• Entrance and exit cards

• Performance-based assessments

• Open-ended

questions

• Short tasks with options

• Projects

• Questionnaires

• Interest surveys

• Conversations

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Figure 3 lists the questions to guide you to pre-assess your readiness for differentiation.

Figure 3 Guiding Pre-assessment Questions for You

Guiding Questions My Responses

Knowledge

• In what way does this particular unit, skill or concept mean to my gifted students?

• What should I select to teach?

• In what way should I teach or work with my gifted students so that they can make connections among concepts and the world?

• How much do I know about differentiation, the skills and strategies possible for use with my gifted students to help them learn better the subject matter and even cross- disciplinary themes?

• How much do I know about the behavioural characteristics, cognitive and affective needs of gifted students?

• To what extent can I differentiate instruction based on my gifted students’ readiness to enhance their learning?

Skills

• In what way can I combine, organise, sequence and prioritise the knowledge, skills, attitudes and values for my gifted students?

• What are the possible ways do I know to put theory into practice to suit the needs of my gifted students?

• What can I do to allow gifted students to develop their generic skills, including language skills, in my English class?

• What could be the methods I know to create space and flexibility for differentiation while classes run according to the school timetable?

Attitudes

• Why do I want to differentiate my instruction?

• In what way do I believe differentiation will work for my students?

• Why do I think differentiated instruction will enhance the effectiveness of my teaching for gifted students?

• To what extent do I believe differentiated instruction is an approach to inclusively preparing my students for the needs of the future as well as for examinations?

Whatever will be in the “my-responses” column, they can be the entry points from where you will start with your gifted students to make a difference for your classrooms to flourish with the course

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3.2 Steps to Differentiate Instruction

Based on the pre-assessment of your gifted students and yourself, you will be ready to begin planning step-by-step. Let’s take a look at the following examples of how to take the initial steps to differentiate instruction in terms of knowledge, skills, and attitudes:

Realistically, pre-assessment will hardly guide you to have yes-or-no answers for quick decisions.

The steps suggested above, however, explain how pre-assessment is a prerequisite for the Differentiate instruction based on a big/overarching question and a framework such as the Parallel Curriculum Model or the HEROIC Questioning and Feedback Loop to probe the students into developing habits of mind to quest for insights from the knowledge building processes.

Differentiate instruction by the Parallel Curriculum Model with an emphasis on the Curriculums of Connection and Practice to invite the students to build relationships among concepts and rationale behind their application of skills and methods as practitioners in a specific field.

Differentiate instruction by the Torrance Incubation Model with an emphasis on its Stages II and III to engage the students in deeper exploration of a topic with a sense of fulfillment and persistence.

Knowledge:

Do my gifted students know a lot about the topic I am going to teach?

Skills:

Do my gifted students master the generic skills in general?

Attitudes:

Are my gifted students willing to invest time and effort in a task when difficulties arise?

Differentiate instruction by content and inquiry- based process.

Differentiate instruction by the Parallel Curriculum Model with an emphasis on the Curriculums of Core and Connection to guide the students to apply skills as they learn knowledge in contexts.

Differentiate instruction by the Torrance Incubation Model with an emphasis on its Stages I and II to motivate the students to pursue accomplishments with the curiosity to know and find out more.

Yes

Yes

Yes No

No

No

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3.3 Taking Action

There are multiple ways for teachers to differentiate instruction. Figure 4 outlines the key concepts and the advantages of the five models manifested in the trial lessons through the Gifted Education Teachers Network (English Language). You may find how the models can work for differentiated lesson design in Chapter 4. Details of the models are available in the Reference or the Glossary. Or alternatively, you may contact the Gifted Education Section, Curriculum Development Institute, Education Bureau via the contact information on p.9 if you may wish to know more about the models.

Figure 4 Key Concepts and Advantages of the Five Piloted Models

Model Advantages to Differentiate

Instruction for Gifted Students Key Words

• Cognitive domain:

remember, understand, apply, analyse, evaluate, create

• Affective domain:

receiving phenomena, responding to phenomena, valuing, organising values, internalising values

• Foundational or transformational

• Concrete or abstract

• Simple or complex

• Fewer or more facets

• Smaller or greater leaps

• More structured or more open

• Clearly defined or fuzzy

• Less or more independent

• Slower or quicker

• Head towards a goal

• Elicit insights

• Value the right feedback at the right time

• Own the knowledge

• Internalise the feedback

• Challenge the status quo

The Taxonomy will provide you with different lens of enhancing gifted students’

high-level thinking skills not sequentially but in complementary ways.

The Equalizer will help you design your lessons in terms of content, process, product, and learning environment with a dynamic mindset.

The Loop will offer you multiple paths to give gifted students feedback, including questions, comments and recognition, in order to faster and sustain their motivation and passion for learning.

Bloom’s Taxonomy

Tomlinson’s Equalizer

The HEROIC Questioning and Feedback Loop

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Model Advantages to Differentiate Instruction for Gifted Students Key Words

• Core Curriculum

• Curriculum of Connections

• Curriculum of Practice

• Curriculum of Identity

• Stage 1: Heightening Anticipation

• Stage 2: Deepening Expectations

• Stage 3: Extending the Learning

The Model will support you in designing curriculum to enlighten gifted students by experiencing with them the processes of knowledge building, application, and reflection as parts of the whole.

The Model will guide you to integrate creativity content into different content areas in order to optimise the imagination of the gifted for the generation of original, innovative ideas and possibilities.

Parallel Curriculum Model

Torrance Incubation Model

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Chapter 4

Exemplars and Materials

In this chapter, you will find the 19 exemplars comprising lesson plans, materials, and selected student work generously contributed by the participating teachers. You may use the exemplars as reference for adaptation and modification to suit your students.

4.1 Differentiation by Content

As a teacher analyses what his/her students need to learn and how they will get access to the information in order to tailor the teaching to their needs, the teacher is differentiating the instruction by content.

According to Tomlinson (2014), modifications to content for gifted students should:

• be more abstract;

• be more complex;

• be more varied;

• include study of creative works and people;

• require application of inquiry methods true to the field of study;

• be concept-based instruction;

• encourage rich connection-making; and/or

• be interdisciplinary.

In this Section 4.1, Exemplar 1 to 3 will introduce how the following models and strategies can be employed to structure and enrich the content of the classroom to enhance students’ learning:

Classroom Element Content

Exemplar 1 2 3 Focused Strategies

Torrance Incubation Model 

The HEROIC Questioning and Feedback Loop  

Bloom’s Taxonomy 

Jigsaw Reading and Discussion 

Choice Board 

Flipped Classroom 

Multiple Texts 

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4.1.1 Exemplar 1 Exploring Choice through Reading Poems

This exemplar will help you understand:

1. how Torrance Incubation Model can be based on to develop content with appropriate depth for students to achieve the learning objectives;

2. how the HEROIC Questioning and Feedback Loop can guide students to analyse an abstract topic to explore and make choices as they write as writers in the upcoming learning activities and future; and

3. how Bloom’s Taxonomy can serve as an aid to differentiating the content for different ability students to construct knowledge based on their readiness.

Lesson Piloted by: Ms Olivia CHEUNG Oi-li, St. Mary’s Canossian College Level of Students: Secondary 2

Focused Differentiation Strategies: Torrance Incubation Model, The HEROIC Questioning and Feedback Loop, Bloom’s Taxonomy

Aim: The lessons aim to develop students’ knowledge and skills of reading poems with the five senses and associations.

Core Objectives (for all students):

By the end of the lessons, students will be able to:

1. observe daily surroundings and happenings for ideas; and

2. apply and analyse the use of poetic techniques, namely rhyme, rhythm, image, and imagery in poems.

Extended Objectives (for high ability/gifted students):

By the end of the lessons, the high ability/gifted students will be able to:

1. analyse the use of poetic techniques for expressing the themes of selected poems; and

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Lesson Flow:

Objectives Learning Activities/Procedure Materials 1. Warm-up

• Show pictures of Hong Kong, e.g. wet markets, Ocean Park, Disneyland, and a clip about Hong Kong1. Have students identify the things or people from the pictures or the clip to locate any representations of Hong Kong. See Appendix 4.1.1a for ideas of how to pre- assess students’ readiness.

• Put students’ ideas and vocabulary on the board.

Assess your students’ sensitivity to surroundings and details, vocabulary repertoire and prior knowledge of the theme/issue addressed in the clip or pictures.

2. Using the pre-assessment data to prepare students for advanced study

• Assign students in pairs or groups to read a poem out of 2 to 3 according to the pre- assessment data2. Have students analyse the writer’s sensitivity to surroundings and the techniques used to express the sensitivity in the poems. See Appendix 4.1.1b for some suggested guiding questions for students.

• Invite students to contribute and explain the examples by illustrating how the writer’s sensitivity is expressed. Introduce the target poetic technique terms (i.e.

rhythm and repetition, images and imagery) to elaborate the examples from students.

Stage I of Heightening Anticipation:

To discuss the key features and the representative meanings of the selected tourists attractions

Pictures

Appendix 4.1.1a

Poems

Appendix 4.1.1b

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3. Differentiated activities: Expert groups think alike

• Students work in groups on different aspects of the target poetic techniques to explore answers to the evaluative question as follows:

Does the technique I am investigating make the poem more poetic?

• Have students who talked more about rhythm and repetition in Activity 2 work in the Rhythm Group while the others in the Imagery Group. See the task sheets for

the two groups in Appendix 4.1.1c. Appendix 4.1.1c The pre-assessment provided the teacher

with the information about how well the students had already mastered a learning focus to make timely and responsive instructional decisions.

This evaluative question will intrigue gifted students’ curiosity to argue, define, inquire, and clarify concepts. These thinking processes will provide students with an authentic and immediate need to seek different perspectives before they reach a sound conclusion to the question, as the Heightening Anticipation Stage of the Torrance Incubation Model promotes.

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4. Gathering thoughts—Do minds think alike?

• Students summarise and share their thoughts. You may encourage all to clarify thoughts for conclusive answers to the evaluative question as a whole.

5. Owning the knowledge

• Have students create or rewrite a poem they have read with the techniques they have studied. Encourage students to add new content to the poem with what they learnt if they choose to revise a poem Stage II of

Deepening Expectations:

To construct knowledge and develop perspectives

Stage III of Extending the Learning:

To personalise theory through practice and creation

➢ One of the purposes of differentiating instruction is to help

students advance their understanding and application of a concept or a skill based on what they have already mastered.

➢ The task sheets for the Rhythm and Imagery Groups, as described in Appendix 4.1.1c, demonstrate how differentiated tasks can lead gifted students to find out more but not to ask them to do more of a repeated concept or skill.

➢ This is an example of how gifted students can be engaged in the Stage II of Deepening Expectations.

Every lesson rewarded the teacher and the students with moments of concerted efforts.

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instead of creating one.

To facilitate gifted students to continue learning with enhanced anticipation, you should connect students’

curiosity with their application of knowledge through creating or rewriting a poem. This is how Stage III of

Extending the Learning from the Torrance Incubation Model can be realised.

Notes:

1. The suggested clip is available at:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZPNxBSAw0Yw (Length: 11 mins and 38 secs).

2. You can use your students’ favourite poems about Hong Kong, or alternatively, any poems from the suggested links below, given that the writers are properly acknowledged or permission for educational use is sought where appropriate:

• Ho, M. K. (30 November 2015). My Hong Kong. 2009/2010 Hong Kong Budding Poets (English) Award Anthology. Gifted Education Section, Curriculum Development Institute, Education Bureau, HKSARG, 77. Retrieved from

http://resources.edb.gov.hk/gifted/ge_resource_bank/files/Awards/NEW-BPA%20 Anthology-2009-10(full).pdf

• Chin, H. T. (30 November 2015). What they say about Victoria Harbour. 2010/2011 Hong Kong Budding Poets (English) Award Anthology. Gifted Education Section, Curriculum Development Institute, Education Bureau, HKSARG, 62, 88-89. Retrieved from

http://resources.edb.gov.hk/gifted/ge_resource_bank/files/Awards/BPA%20Anthology- 2010-11(full).pdf

• Harrison, M. ((30 November 2015). On taking the star ferry. Retrieved from http://matthewharrison.hk/english-poems/hong-kong-on-taking-the-star-ferry/

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Appendix 4.1.1a Using a Clip to Pre-assess Students’ Readiness

(Teachers’ Copy)

The purpose of using the suggested clip as pre-assessment is not only to get students warmed up but also to understand how well students can read and observe happenings around such as the history, culture, and ways of living of Hong Kong, as piloted in this exemplar.

The major advantage of this clip is that the attractions in Hong Kong are presented solely by sound and images of places with the least use of words. It provides students with the room to associate meanings with the given information based on their prior concepts and skills, which will serve the purpose of the pre-assessment.

The following table lists some possible points expected from gifted and more able students. The points can also be used as leads-in for advanced discussion or study.

Attraction Representations Skills or Images

Presented in the Clip Key Features

Victoria Harbour

MTR stations

Central Business District

Food

The evolving roles of the Harbour arise from the changing needs of the city.

Busy lifestyle is represented.

Urban and

transport planning and management are demonstrated.

Different kinds of food, from pizzas available at sidewalk food stalls to Guangdong dishes served in restaurants, are available in Hong Kong.

The parallel between the ferry and the fishing boat

Time-lapse sequences

The heavily-commuted roads and highways

Change of shots There are high-rise

buildings and differences between day and night on the sides of the Harbour.

The overcrowdedness and the hectic pace of living are presented.

Urban planning and structure is seen.

The food is appealingly presented. There are diverse and handy choices.

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Attraction Representations Skills or Images Presented in the Clip Key Features

Tian Tan Buddha Po Lin Monastery Wan Chai Street Market

Tai O Village

Happy Valley Racecourse

The Ding- Ding Ride

The Peak

The effort needed in pursuit of any accomplishments is represented.

The variety of lifestyles is represented.

The diverse milieu of Hong Kong is expressed.

The racecourse represents a diversity of entertainment. A sensible mind is needed for making choice.

Cultural heritage, a sense of

competition and survival are presented metaphorically.

A round-the-clock city is symbolised.

The fast shot of people ascending the stairs

Steady, record shots intertwined by time- lapse sequences and ended with an overview shot from a tram

An array of street and life snapshots to create a sense of richness for exploration

The features are expressed from the perspective of spectators, which emphasise the excitement on the spot.

The time-lapse sequence along the track among other advanced modes of transport

The bird’s eye view of Hong Kong with neon lights flashing on the high-rise buildings The long staircase that leads

to the Buddha atop the hill is highlighted.

There are groceries, toys, meat stalls, and other daily necessities of life.

There are avenues, sampans, the houses on stilts, stacks of hanging salted fish, villagers on bicycle, and Hong Kong pink dolphins.

Luck, competition, sports, gambling, excitement, entertainment are found in the racecourse.

Trams, the old-fashioned form of transport, compete with the modern, efficient ones.

The Peak Tram, the night scenery, and the Peak Gallery are shown.

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Tips for Assessing Students’ Responses and Assigning Appropriate Tasks to Students based on pre-assessment:

1. The purpose of this pre-assessment is to provide you with information about your students’ readiness such as observation skills, interpretative skills, summarising skills, understanding of the cultures in Hong Kong, sensitivity to sound and images for expressing meanings and so on before you plan meaningful instruction. Judgment of ideas should be avoided. Students’ participation matters the most.

2. Accept any sensible observations and associations students make between the images and any topics of Hong Kong. The more relevant observations and associations a student can generate from the clip, the higher level of readiness the student possesses and hence higher expectations that the student will likely to have in the coming activities.

3. Document students’ responses on a board. It will help you make instructional decisions with students based on your observation of students’ learning to put assessment for learning into practice.

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Appendix 4.1.1b Guiding Questions to Analyse a Writer’s Sensitivity

Whether a writer succeeds in presenting a theme or feelings in his/her poem, it depends on his/

her sensitivity to:

i) choose and prioritise the materials to present the content in a way that makes the theme stand out;

ii) choose the resources of a language, e.g. sound, rhythm, diction, syntax, image, imagery, and poetic techniques to enhance the theme; and

iii) the readers’ backgrounds, if the poem is written for a target group or for a particular purpose.

Let’s focus on point (i) for now.

Read the selected poem carefully. Find out:

1. What can you see/visualise from the poem?

2. What sounds are portrayed in the poem?

3. What movements can you feel in the poem?

4. What is the setting of the poem?

5. What features of the place do the sense(s) intended to express? How? Why do you think the writer would make such a choice in using the sense(s) to express the features?

6. What feelings can you tell from the poem?

You may use a mind map to present your analysis of the writer’s sensitivity.

Find an example of mind map for use or reference on the next page.

Checkpoint:

The HEROIC Questioning and Feedback Loop

E -- Elicit insights 

C -- Challenge the status quo 

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Theme: Title:

Things to visualise:

W ha t is the setting of the poem? W ha t f ea tur es of the plac e do the fiv e senses e xpr ess? Ho w and W hy ? W ha t f eelings can y ou t ell fr om the poem?

Movements to feel: Sounds to hear: Expressions of movements:Words of sound:Images:

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Appendix 4.1.1c

Rhythm Group (Students’ Copy)

Challenge Question:

Why is this group called “Rhythm Group”, but not “Rhyme Group”?

Think about the Challenge Question before you start to discuss with your group members.

See how well you will be able to answer the Challenge Question after the discussion.

Discussion:

1. Are there any rhymes in this poem? (If so, go to Question 2. If not, go to Question 3.)

2. Underline all the rhymes. (Then, go to Question 4.)

3. Without rhymes, in what way does the poem express the sound, pace and rhythm that the writer intends to convey? (Then, go to Question 5.)

4. How many types of rhymes can you identify? Classify them in groups. Name the groups. (Then, go to Question 6.)

5. Must a poem rhyme? Why or why not? (Summarise your thoughts from the discussions to answer the Challenge Question now.)

6. In what way do the rhymes enhance or weaken the rhythm and/or the theme of the poem? (Summarise your thoughts from the discussions to answer the Challenge Question now.)

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Rhythm Group (Teachers’ Copy)

Challenge Question:

Why is this group called “Rhythm Group”, but not “Rhyme Group”?

Think about the Challenge Question before you start to discuss with your group members. See how well you will be able to answer the Challenge Question after the discussion.

Discussion:

1. Are there any rhymes in this poem? (If so, go to Question 2. If not, go to Question 3.)

2. Underline all the rhymes. (Then, go to Question 4.)

3. Without rhymes, in what way does the poem express the sound, pace and rhythm that the writer intends to convey? (Then, go to Question 5.)

4. How many types of rhymes can you identify?

Classify them in groups. Name the groups. (Then, go to Question 6.)

5. Must a poem rhyme? Why or why not? (Summarise your thoughts from the discussions to answer the Challenge Question now.)

6. In what way do the rhymes enhance or weaken the rhythm and/or the theme of the poem?

(Summarise your thoughts from the discussions to answer the Challenge Question now.)

➢ Given the diversity of student readiness, you may consider asking students to study two or more poems which demonstrate different styles of using rhymes or creating rhythm, e.g. a rhyming poem and a free verse.

➢ Studying the rhythm of a free verse is more challenging than studying the rhythm of a rhyming poem as it requires students’ knowledge of the different resources of a language to analyse the sounds of a poem. Having said that, those students who study the rhythm of a rhyming poem can be intrigued at an advanced level by discussing whether rhyming necessarily favours the expression of a theme through a poem. This is an example of how tasks can be qualitatively differentiated.

➢ The following table summarises the levels of intellectual demand required by the questions:

Question Bloom’s Taxonomy 1 & 2 Remember

3 Understand and analsye

4 Analyse 5 & 6 Evaluate

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Imagery Group (Students’ Copy)

Challenge Question:

Why is this group called “Imagery Group”, but not “Image Group”?

Think about the Challenge Question before you start to discuss with your group members.

See how well you will be able to answer the Challenge Question after the discussion.

Discussion:

1. Are there any images in this poem? (If so, go to Question 2. If not, go to Question 3.)

2. Underline all the images. (Then, go to Question 4.)

3. Without images, in what way does the poem express the feelings and thoughts that the writer intends to convey? (Then, go to Question 5.)

4. How are the images presented in the poem? Classify them in groups. Name the groups. (Ask your teacher for hints, if needed. Then, go to Question 6.)

5. Must there be images in a poem? Why or why not? (Summarise your thoughts from the discussions to answer the Challenge Question now.)

6. In what way do the images enhance or weaken the theme of the poem? (Summarise your thoughts from the discussions to answer the Challenge Question now.)

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Rhythm Group (Teachers’ Copy)

Challenge Question:

Why is this group called “Imagery Group”, but not “Image Group”?

Think about the Challenge Question before you start to discuss with your group members. See how well you will be able to answer the Challenge Question after the discussion.

Discussion:

1. Are there any images in this poem? (If so, go to Question 2. If not, go to Question 3.)

2. Underline all the images. (Then, go to Question 4.)

3. Without images, in what way does the poem express the feelings and thoughts that the writer intends to convey? (Then, go to Question 5.)

4. How are the images presented in the poem?

Classify them in groups. Name the groups. (Ask your teacher for hints, if needed. Then, go to Question 6.)

5. Must there be images in a poem? Why or why not?

(Summarise your thoughts from the discussions to answer the Challenge Question now.)

6. In what way do the images enhance or weaken the theme of the poem? (Summarise your thoughts from the discussions to answer the Challenge Question now.)

➢ Given the diversity of student readiness, you may consider asking students to study two or more poems which demonstrate different styles of using images to create imagery, e.g. a poem that presents images through senses and another one with images presented figuratively.

➢ Studying the images figuratively presented in a poem is more demanding than identifying the explicitly presented images from a poem. A figurative poem requires a students’

knowledge and ability to interpret, make associations, imagine and visualise meanings. These questions designed for this group demonstrate how learning can be differentiated by content.

➢ The following table summarises the levels of intellectual demand required by the questions:

Question Bloom’s Taxonomy 1 & 2 Remember

3 Understand and analsye

4 Analyse 5 & 6 Evaluate

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Suggestions for Trying Things Out:

• Think about how to engage your gifted students in learning in any one of the stages of the Torrance Incubation Model, as demonstrated in the lesson plan of this exemplar.

• Use Appendix 4.1.1b as a base to develop similar questions to elicit with your students insights to guide the students to critically revisit the current knowledge they have about a text type, a grammar item, or a literary technique.

• Use Appendix 4.1.1c as a template to design a differentiated task based on Bloom’s Taxonomy for a more able/gifted group in your class.

Checkpoint:

Core Subjects:

• English Language

• Arts

21st Century Cross-Disciplinary Themes

• Global Awareness

• Civic Literacy

Learning and Innovation Skills

• Creativity

• Critical Thinking and Problem Solving

• Communication and Collaboration

Technological Awareness

• Technological Awareness

Life and Career Skills

• Flexibility and Adaptability

Figure

Updating...

References

Related subjects :