Liv e r w e ight ( g )

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Table. 2-1. Effect of FMAC on 0, 4, 8 weeks body weight of CCl4 chronic treated rats.

Body weight (g) Group Doses

(g/kg/day)

0 week 4 weeks 8 weeks

Control 244.5 ± 5.1 341.0 ± 8.0 449.3 ± 7.1 CCl4 + VEH 245.3 ± 5.4 313.7 ± 6.7# 399.2 ± 16.3# CCl4 + SIL 0.2 244.3 ± 4.2 312.6 ± 7.2# 420.5 ± 21.9 CCl4 + FMAC 0.5 248.4 ± 4.7 301.2 ± 7.0## 401.8 ± 10.39 CCl4 + FMAC 1.0 247.8 ± 5.1 308.5 ± 9.2# 407.2 ± 10.94 CCl4 was administered by gavaging twice a week at a dose of 0.5 ml/rat for 8 weeks. SIL 0.2g/kg/day or FMAC ( 0.5 or 1.0 g/kg/day) was administered orally from week 4 to the end of the experiment.Values are mean ± S.E. (n = 12) P#<0.05, P##<0.01 compared with the control group. VEH: vehicle; SIL:

Silymarin; FMAC: filtrate of fermented mycelia of Antrodia camphorata

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Table. 2-2. Effect of FMAC on liver SOD, Catalase, GSH-Px activity. in CCl4 chronic treated rats.

Group Doses (g/kg/day)

SOD (U/mg protein)

Catalase (U/mg protein)

GSH-Px (U/mg protein) Control 30.28 ± 1.5 54.43 ± 1.8 1264.5 ± 45.9 CCl4 + VEH 14.46 ± 1.2### 38.71 ± 2.6### 984.6 ± 17.6##

CCl4 + SIL 0.2 15.70 ± 2.7 42.68 ± 1.6 1019.2 ± 25.6 CCl4 + FMAC 0.5 16.42 ± 1.2 47.37 ± 4.0 997.4 ± 33.7 CCl4 + FMAC 1.0 15.57 ± 1.0 47.83 ± 3.0 1072.0 ± 87.2

CCl4 was administered by gavaging twice a week at a dose of 0.5 ml/rat for 8 weeks. SIL 0.2g/kg/day or FMAC ( 0.5 or 1.0 g/kg/day) was administered orally from week 4 to the end of the experiment.Values are mean ± S.E (n = 12).

P##<0.01, P###<0.001 compared with the control group. VEH: vehicle; SIL:

Silymarin; FMAC: filtrate of fermented mycelia of Antrodia camphorata

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Table. 2-3. List of liver genes expression in CCl4 chronic treated rats.

Gene Name ID A B B / A

CCl4 /

control ratio

CCl4 / FMAC ratio

ratio Signal transducation

Ctsl--cathepsin L H3028F03 5.614 2.087 0.37

Gnb2l1--guanine nucleotide binding pro H3083H02 6.306 2.713 0.43 Gnb2l1--guanine nucleotide binding pro H3027D10 5.191 2.34 0.45 Abl1--v-abl Abelson murine leukemia on H3019F05 4.602 2.145 0.47 Ran--RAN, member RAS oncogene family H3154A03 4.471 2.281 0.51 Gnai2--guanine nucleotide binding prot H3106F07 4.273 2.173 0.51

Matrix

Col3a1--procollagen, type III, alpha 1 H3124H10 9.813 2.196 0.22 Col1a1--procollagen, type I, alpha 1 H3119H03 7.855 2.272 0.29 Acp5--acid phosphatase 5, tartrate res H3007G06 6.35 2.135 0.34

Calr--calreticulin H3021G11 6.051 2.039 0.34

Ero1l-pendin--ERO1-like H3125G05 6.432 2.222 0.35 Lbp--lipopolysaccharide binding protein H3086G08 6.031 2.088 0.35 Krt2-8--keratin complex 2, basic, gene H3014H12 5.035 1.75 0.35 Actx--melanoma X-actin H3018D09 6.137 2.299 0.37 Lypla1--lysophospholipase 1 J1043F12 4.329 1.733 0.40 Actg--actin, gamma, cytoplasmic H3114E08 6.326 2.541 0.40 Hbb-b1--hemoglobin, beta adult major c H3123E05 4.705 1.944 0.41

Syn1--synapsin I H3028D10 5.042 2.187 0.43

Got2--glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase H3157D01 4.424 1.955 0.44 Tuba2--tubulin alpha 2 H3024D08 4.334 1.982 0.46 Apoa1--apolipoprotein A-I H3043A10 5.179 2.383 0.46 P4hb--prolyl 4-hydroxylase, beta polyp H3125C05 5.161 2.353 0.46

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Table. 2-3. (continued)

Protein

H19--H19 fetal liver mRNA H3133G06 11.203 2.004 0.18 Rps6--ribosomal protein S6 L0264E06 6.162 2.052 0.33 Rpl3--ribosomal protein L3 H3011F03 6.295 2.213 0.35 Rpl26--ribosomal protein L26 H3126H12 5.79 2.044 0.35 Rps24--ribosomal protein S24 H3145D11 5.793 2.046 0.35 Rpl5--ribosomal protein L5 H3028D03 5.123 1.869 0.36 Rps19--ribosomal protein S19 H3146B07 6.862 2.459 0.36 Rpl37a--ribosomal protein L37a H3134G11 5.925 2.307 0.39 Rpl41--ribosomal protein L41 H3157D06 5.906 2.302 0.39 Rpl7--ribosomal protein L7 H3147G04 5.403 2.084 0.39 Rplp1--ribosomal protein, large, P1 H3140H04 6.347 2.547 0.40 Rps7--ribosomal protein S7 H3122C10 6.042 2.503 0.41 Rpl13a--ribosomal protein L13a H3136G06 5.434 2.239 0.41

Plf--proliferin C0118D06 4.548 1.866 0.41

Arbp--acidic ribosomal phosphoprotein H3118D03 6.081 2.547 0.42 Rps4x--ribosomal protein S4, X-linked H3120D10 6.079 2.558 0.42 Rpl3--ribosomal protein L3 H3112F08 5.575 2.367 0.42 Rps12--ribosomal protein S12 H3112B02 6.61 2.751 0.42 Rps17--ribosomal protein S17 H3118G04 6.273 2.632 0.42 Rps5--ribosomal protein S5 H3112G01 6.223 2.656 0.43 Rps8--ribosomal protein S8 H3119A09 5.263 2.277 0.43 Rps16--ribosomal protein S16 H3115B08 5.712 2.532 0.44 Rps28--ribosomal protein S28 H3099D03 5.345 2.376 0.44 Rps15--ribosomal protein S15 H3150B01 6.028 2.75 0.46 Rps3--ribosomal protein S3 H3124H06 5.669 2.652 0.47 Rpl9--ribosomal protein L9 H3112A09 4.469 2.151 0.48 Trt--translationally regulated transcr H3113H02 4.443 2.12 0.48 Rps16--ribosomal protein S16 H3112H10 5.711 2.764 0.48 Rpl36--ribosomal protein L36 H3117D06 4.94 2.351 0.48 Pabpc1--poly A binding protein, cytopl H3107F01 3.418 1.639 0.48 Rpl29--ribosomal protein L29 H3004G11 3.839 1.898 0.49

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Table. 2-3. (continued)

Rpl23--ribosomal protein L23 H3013F03 4.822 2.435 0.50

Ubc--ubiquitin C H3124H08 4.059 2.015 0.50

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0 5 10 15 20

Liv e r w e ight ( g )

*

Control

VEH SIL

0.5 1.0 FMAC(g/kg/day) CCl4

Fig. 2-1.

Effect of the FMAC on CCl4 chronic treated rats liver weight. CCl4 was administered by gavaging twice a week at a dose of 0.5 ml/rat for 8 weeks.

FMAC (0.5 or 1.0 g/kg/day) or Silymarin (0.2g/kg) was administered orally from week 4 to the end of the experiment. Data are Values are mean ± S.E. (n = 12)

*P<0.05 compared with the CCl4 + VEH group. VEH: vehicle; SIL: Silymarin;

FMAC: filtrate of fermented mycelia of Antrodia camphorata

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0 1 2 3

Sple e n w e ight ( g )

###

Control

VEH SIL

0.5 1.0 FMAC(g/kg/day) CCl4

*

Fig. 2-2.

Effect of the FMAC on spleen weight of CCl4 chronic treated rats. CCl4 was administered by gavaging twice a week at a dose of 0.5 ml/rat for 8 weeks.

FMAC (0.5 or 1.0 g/kg/day) or Silymarin (0.2g/kg) was administered orally from week 4 to the end of the experiment. Values are mean ± S.E. (n = 12).

###P<0.001 compared with the control group. *P<0.05 compared with the CCl4 + VEH group. VEH: vehicle; SIL: Silymarin; FMAC: filtrate of fermented mycelia of Antrodia camphorata

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0 200 400 600

800 ControlCCl4 + VEH

CCl4+ SIL 0.2g/kg/day CCl4+ FMAC 0.5g/kg/day CCl4+ FMAC 1.0g/kg/day

GP T ( U /L )

4 6 8

weeks

###

###

* ###

*

Fig. 2-3.

Effect of the FMAC on GPT activities of CCl4 chronic treated rats. CCl4 was administered by gavaging twice a week at a dose of 0.5 ml/rat for 8 weeks.

FMAC (0.5 or 1.0 g/kg/day) or Silymarin (0.2g/kg) was administered orally from week 4 to the end of the experiment. Values are mean ± S.E. (n = 12).

###P<0.001 compared with the control group. *P<0.05compared with the CCl4 + VEH group. VEH: vehicle; SIL: Silymarin; FMAC: filtrate of fermented mycelia of Antrodia camphorata

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0 300 600 900 1200

Control CCl4 + VEH

CCl4 + SIL 0.2g/kg/day CCl4 + FMAC 0.5g/kg/day CCl4 + FMAC 1.0g/kg/day

4 6 8

weeks

GOT ( U /L )

###

###

###

**

* *

Fig. 2-4.

Effect of the FMAC on GOT activities of CCl4 chronic treated rats. CCl4 was administered by gavaging twice a week at a dose of 0.5 ml/rat for 8 weeks.

FMAC (0.5 or 1.0 g/kg/day) or Silymarin (0.2g/kg) was administered orally from week 4 to the end of the experiment. Values are mean ± S.E. (n = 12).

###P<0.001 compared with the control group.*P<0.05, **P<0.01 compared with the CCl4+ VEH group. VEH: vehicle; SIL: Silymarin; FMAC: filtrate of fermented mycelia of Antrodia camphorata

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0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0

A L B ( g /dl)

###

*

Control

VEH SIL

0.5 1.0 FMAC(g/kg/day) CCl4

Fig. 2-5.

Effect of the FMAC on serum albumin (ALB) concentration of CCl4 chronic treated rats. CCl4 was administered by gavaging twice a week at a dose of 0.5 ml/rat for 8 weeks. FMAC (0.5 or 1.0 g/kg/day) or Silymarin (0.2g/kg) was administered orally from week 4 to the end of the experiment. Values are mean ± S.E. (n = 12). ###P<0.001 compared with the control group.*P<0.05 compared with the CCl4 + VEH group. VEH: vehicle; SIL: Silymarin; FMAC: filtrate of fermented mycelia of Antrodia camphorata

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0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8

A /G rat io

###

*

Control

VEH SIL

0.5 1.0 FMAC(g/kg/day) CCl4

Fig. 2-6.

Effect of the FMAC on serum A/G ratio of CCl4 chronic treated rats. CCl4 was administered by gavaging twice a week at a dose of 0.5 ml/rat for 8 weeks.

FMAC (0.5 or 1.0 g/kg/day) or Silymarin (0.2g/kg) was administered orally from week 4 to the end of the experiment. Values are mean ± S.E. (n = 12).

###P<0.001 compared with the control group.*P<0.05 compared with the CCl4 + VEH group. VEH: vehicle; SIL: Silymarin; FMAC: filtrate of fermented mycelia of Antrodia camphorata

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0 10 20 30 40

P T (sec)

###

*

Control

VEH SIL

0.5 1.0 FMAC(g/kg/day) CCl4

Fig. 2-7.

Effect of the FMAC on prothrombin time of CCl4 chronic treated rats. CCl4 was administered by gavaging twice a week at a dose of 0.5 ml/rat for 8 weeks.

FMAC (0.5 or 1.0 g/kg/day) or Silymarin (0.2g/kg) was administered orally from week 4 to the end of the experiment. Values are mean ± S.E. (n = 12).

###P<0.001 compared with the control group.*P<0.05 compared with the CCl4 + VEH group. VEH: vehicle; SIL: Silymarin; FMAC: filtrate of fermented mycelia of Antrodia camphorata

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0 50 100 150 200

Liv e r Prot e in ( m g/g t is s ue )

**

###

Control

VEH SIL

0.5 1.0 FMAC(g/kg/day) CCl4

*

Fig. 2-8.

Effect of the FMAC on liver protein contents of CCl4 chronic treated rats. CCl4

was administered by gavaging twice a week at a dose of 0.5 ml/rat for 8 weeks.

FMAC (0.5 or 1.0 g/kg/day) or Silymarin (0.2g/kg) was administered orally from week 4 to the end of the experiment. Values are mean ± S.E. (n = 12). ###P<0.001 compared with the control group. *P<0.05,.**P<0.01 compared with the CCl4 + VEH group. VEH: vehicle; SIL: Silymarin; FMAC: filtrate of fermented mycelia of Antrodia camphorata

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0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0

L P O ( n mo le M D A /mg pr ot e in )

###

**

Control

VEH SIL

0.5 1.0 FMAC(g/kg/day) CCl4

Fig. 2-9.

Effect of the FMAC on liver lipid peroxidation (LPO) of CCl4 chronic treated rats. CCl4 was administered by gavaging twice a week at a dose of 0.5 ml/rat for 8 weeks. FMAC (0.5 or 1.0 g/kg/day) or Silymarin (0.2g/kg) was administered orally from week 4 to the end of the experiment. Values are mean ± S.E. (n = 12).

###P<0.001 compared with the control group. **P< 0.01compared with the CCl4 + VEH group. VEH: vehicle; SIL: Silymarin; FMAC: filtrate of fermented mycelia of Antrodia camphorata

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0 300 600 900 1200 1500 1800

H y drox y p roline ( µg/g t is s ue )

###

**

Control

VEH SIL

0.5 1.0 FMAC(g/kg/day) CCl4

Fig. 2-10.

Effect of the FMAC on liver hydroxyproline contents of CCl4 chronic treated rats. CCl4 was administered by gavaging twice a week at a dose of 0.5 ml/rat for 8 weeks. FMAC (0.5 or 1.0 g/kg/day) or Silymarin (0.2g/kg) was administered orally from week 4 to the end of the experiment. Values are mean ± S.E. (n=12).

###P<0.001 compared with the control group. **P<0.01 compared with the CCl4 + VEH group. VEH: vehicle; SIL: Silymarin; FMAC: filtrate of fermented mycelia of Antrodia camphorata

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0 1 2 3 4

GS H ( µm o le /g t is s ue )

*

Control

VEH SIL

0.5 1.0 FMAC(g/kg/day) CCl4

Fig. 2-11.

Effect of the FMAC on liver glutathione contents of CCl4 chronic treated rats.

CCl4 was administered by gavaging twice a week at a dose of 0.5 ml/rat for 8 weeks. FMAC (0.5 or 1.0 g/kg/day) or Silymarin (0.2g/kg) was administered orally from week 4 to the end of the experiment. Values are mean ± S.E. (n = 12).

*P<0.05 compared with the CCl4 group. VEH: vehicle; SIL: Silymarin; FMAC:

filtrate of fermented mycelia of Antrodia camphorata

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(A) (B)

(C) (D)

Fig. 2-12.

The photomicrographs of liver section taken from rats and stained with hematoxylin-eosin. CCl4 was administered by gavaging twice a week at a dose of 0.5 ml/rat for 8 weeks. FMAC or Silymarin was administered orally from week 4 to the end of the experiment. (A) Normal control (B) CCl4, Note that inflammatory cell infiltration, massive fatty changes and centribular necrosis was

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(A) (B)

(C) (D)

Fig. 2-13.

The photomicrographs of liver section taken from rats and stained with Masson’s trichrome. CCl4 was administered by gavaging twice a week at a dose of 0.5 ml/rat for 8 weeks. FMAC or Silymarin was administered orally from week 4 to the end of the experiment. (A) Normal control (B) CCl4. Note that displaying bundles of collagen surrounding the lobules, with hemorrhage and necrosis was observed. (C) CCl4 + Silymarin (D) CCl4 + FMAC 1.0 g/kg/day

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