FOR NEW ENGLISH TEACHERS

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UNDERSTANDING AND INTERPRETING THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE CURRICULUM

FOR NEW ENGLISH TEACHERS

English Language Education Section Curriculum Development Institute Education Bureau

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WARM-UP ACTIVITY

In groups, discuss the following:

How far do you agree with the following statements?

1. Students should do more past exam papers in class in order to get good results in the HKDSE examinations.

2. Teachers are required to teach 3 elective modules in the Elective Part.

3. Since the elective modules are not properly assessed in the HKDSE examination, they need not be taught.

4. There is a huge gap between the JS and the SS

curricula.

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BY THE END OF THE WORKSHOP, YOU WILL HAVE

 a better understanding of the design and the features of the English Language curriculum with an emphasis on the senior secondary level;

 a brief idea about the major updates of the ELE KLACG (P1-S6);

 explored strategies for curriculum planning and implementation; and

 designed task-based activities for senior secondary

students.

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Major Updates of the ELE KLACG (P1-S6)

Catering for the Needs of SEN and Gifted Students in the Mainstream English Classroom

Learning and Teaching of Text Grammar Extending from Assessment for Learning to Assessment as Learning

Integrative Use of Generic Skills Literacy Development

Values Education

Reading across the Curriculum & STEM Education (including entrepreneurial spirit) e-Learning & Information Literacy

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INSIGHTS FROM PISA

The definition of reading literacy (for 2009, 2012, 2015):

Reading literacy is understanding, using and reflecting on written texts, in order to achieve one’s goals, to develop one’s knowledge and potential, and to participate in society.

The 2018 definition of reading literacy:

Reading literacy is understanding, using and reflecting on texts, in order to achieve one’s goals, to develop one’s knowledge and potential, and to participate in society.

Can you spot the difference between the two definitions?

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Multi- modal

texts

Sound effects

Images

Written texts Spoken

language Music

LITERACY DEVELOPMENT

“Literacy” has taken on a new meaning as texts are no longer a

linear form of presentation limited to words, but are composed of

various modes of communication.

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OPPORTUNITIES FOR ACCESSING

INFORMATION FROM A VARIETY OF SOURCES

• Examples include:

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English Language Education KLA Curriculum Guides

(CDC, 2017)

(P1 – S6)

ELE KLACG

12 years

(CDC, 2004) (CDC, 2018) (CDC & HKEAA, 2007) with updates in 2015 9 (CDC, 2017)

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THE SENIOR SECONDARY

ENGLISH LANGUAGE CURRICULUM

S6

S5

S4

Elective Part (25%) Compulsory

Part

(75%)

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THE COMPULSORY PART

The learning and teaching of:

The four language skills

Language items and communicative functions

Vocabulary Text types

Module

Unit 1

Task 1.1 Task 1.2

Unit 2

Task 2.1

Organising structure of M-U-T

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THE ELECTIVE PART

While Modules, Units and Tasks are to be adopted for organising learning and teaching in the Compulsory Part, the modules in the Elective Part may not necessarily follow the M-U-T structure. However, the general approach to teaching the modules in the Elective Part remains task-based – that is, teachers are encouraged to continue with the principles and practices associated with task-based learning, namely using learner-centred instruction, providing opportunities for meaningful and purposeful communication and promoting integrative and creative uses of language.

English Language Curriculum and Assessment Guide (Secondary 4-6), p.54

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FEATURES OF A TASK

Involves learners in thinking and doing

Requires learners to draw upon a

framework of

knowledge and skills

Product Purpose

Context

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Adapted from Enhancing English Vocabulary Learning and Teaching at Secondary Level (2012)

ADOPTING A TASK-BASED APPROACH IN LESSON DESIGN

Module

Cultures of the World

Task 1

Reading an email from the teacher-

in-charge of the

“Hong Kong’s Heritage Excursion”

Task 2 Listening to an interview with the

Executive Secretary of the

Antiquities and Monuments Office

Task 4 Making

recommendations for the heritage

tour

Final Task

Writing a proposal and designing a poster Heritage ConservationUnit

Task 3

Reading leaflets about some heritage sites in

Hong Kong

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 Provides contexts for:

• integrated use of language skills

• meaningful and purposeful use of English for communication

 Facilitates effective grammar and vocabulary learning and teaching

 Uses learning and teaching resources of a variety of text types

 Promotes a learner-centred approach

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Primary curriculum

• laying the foundation of English Language development

INTERFACE BETWEEN KEY STAGES

Primary curriculum

• laying the foundation of English Language development Junior Secondary curriculum

• providing chances for the application of English for various everyday learning and developmental purposes

Senior Secondary curriculum

• providing chances for the application of English for various everyday learning and developmental purposes

• consolidating what students have learnt through P1-S3 and broadening and deepening their learning experiences

Junior Secondary curriculum

• providing chances for the application of English for various everyday learning and developmental purposes

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Junior Secondary

Exposure to a wide range of print and non-print texts

Extensive reading and RaC

Further development of reading skills and strategies

Senior Secondary

•Exposure to a widened range of more complex text types

•School-based

Assessment: critical and imaginative responses to texts

•Comprehension of more complex messages in more formal/academic texts

Primary

•Exposure to a range of text types

•Incorporation of Reading Workshops into the School-based English Language

Curriculum

•Development of basic reading skills and

strategies

LEARNING EXPERIENCE ACROSS KEY STAGES

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Junior Secondary

•Exposure to a wide range of print and non-print texts

•Extensive reading and RaC

•Further development of reading skills and strategies

Senior Secondary

•Exposure to a widened range of more complex text types

•School-based

Assessment: critical and imaginative responses to texts

•Comprehension of more complex messages in more formal/academic texts

Primary

•Exposure to a range of text types

•Incorporation of Reading Workshops into the School-based English Language

Curriculum

•Development of basic reading skills and

strategies

LEARNING EXPERIENCE ACROSS KEY STAGES

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T

EXPOSURE TO A WIDE RANGE OF TEXT TYPES

Text Types for Key Stage 1

Additional Text Types for Key Stage 2

Additional Text Types for Key Stage 3

Additional Text Types for Key Stage 4

• Advertisements

• Captions

• Cards

• Cartoons/comics

• Charts

• Diaries

• Fables/fairy tales

• Forms

• Illustrations

• Leaflets

• Lists

• Menus

• Notes and messages

• Notices

• Personal letters

• Poems

• …

• Announcements

• Autobiographies

• Biographies

• Blogs

• Brochures

• Children’s

encyclopaedias

• Discussions

• Emails

• Formal letters

• Informational reports

• Jokes

• Maps and legends

• News reports

• Plays

• Questionnaires

• …

• Book

reviews/reports

• Encyclopaedias

• Film reviews

• Interviews

• Itineraries

• Letters to the editor

• Manuals

• Memoranda

• Newspaper/

Magazine articles

• Presentations

• Short films

• Short novels

• Social media texts

• Talks

• …

• Abstracts/synopses

• Agendas

• Debates

• Documentaries

• Editorials

• Essays

• Feature articles

• Films

• Minutes

• Novels

• Proposals

• Speeches

• Resumes

• Thesauri

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Junior Secondary

•Exposure to a wide range of print and non-print texts

•Extensive reading and RaC

•Further development of reading skills and strategies

Senior Secondary

•Exposure to a widened range of more complex text types

•School-based

Assessment: critical and imaginative responses to texts Comprehension of more complex messages in more formal/academic texts

Primary

•Exposure to a range of text types

•Incorporation of Reading Workshops into the School-based English Language

Curriculum

•Development of basic reading skills and

strategies

LEARNING EXPERIENCE ACROSS KEY STAGES

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Junior Secondary

•Exposure to a wide range of print and non-print texts

•Extensive reading and RaC

•Further development of reading skills and strategies

Senior Secondary

•Exposure to a widened range of more complex text types

•School-based

Assessment: critical and imaginative responses to texts

•Comprehension of more complex messages in more formal/academic texts

Primary

•Exposure to a range of text types

•Incorporation of Reading Workshops into the School-based English Language

Curriculum

•Development of basic reading skills and

strategies

LEARNING EXPERIENCE ACROSS KEY STAGES

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Depth of Processing

Range and application of reading strategies

Text complexity

Abstractness

Organisation Density of information

Understanding

- Locating information

- Working out meaning of words and phrases

- Connecting ideas

- Identifying main ideas and supporting details

- Distinguishing facts from opinions - Organising information and ideas

Inferring

- Inferring feelings

- Deducing information and ideas

- Comparing information and ideas

- Working out main ideas and themes

Interpreting

- Analysing information and ideas

- Synthesising - Evaluating - Justifying

Reading Skills and Strategies

- Activating learners’ prior knowledge and experiences

- Selection of a wide range of texts of appropriate lengths and different topics - Interplay between texts and tasks

- The provision of teacher support and the need to promote learner independence

Underlying principles

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COMPLEXITY OF TEXTS

Easier texts More difficult texts Abstractness

 Ideas and information explicitly

stated

 Straightforward & factual information

 Ideas and information implicitly stated

 Meaning hidden between lines or beyond lines

Organisation

 Well-defined text structure

 Organisation of paragraphs following sequence of events, logical progression (general to specific)

 Use of short paragraphs,

subheadings & cohesive devices

 Lack of well-defined text structure, mix of text-types

 Organisation of paragraphs not following a common pattern (problem-solution)

 Lack of signposts to facilitate understanding of texts

Density of information

 Most sentences/paragraphs containing one piece of information

 Sentence structures and

language largely simple, with occasional use of complex structures

 High lexical density – with a large amount of information- carrying words

 A wide range of complex sentence structures and language

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Example:

2015 HKDSE Reading Paper Part B1 Easy Section (Text 3)

Example:

2017 HKDSE Reading Paper Part A Compulsory Section (Text 1)

I, Anna Rossi, of 3 Arthur Street, Yau Ma Tei, housewife, state:

On 1 December 2014 at about 3:30pm, I was about to get into my car in the car park next to the shops on Wood Road, Wan Chai.

I noticed that a silver car was driving down the aisle behind me.

I saw a green sport car reverse out of a car space and collide with the silver car.

The silver car was moving at the time of the collision.

My car was parked opposite where the accident happened.

[9] To many public officials, recycling is a

question of morality, not cost-benefit analysis.

The Mayor of New York, Bill de Blasio, declared that by 2030 the city would no longer send any garbage to landfills. “This is the way of the future”

if we’re going to save our earth,” he explained while announcing that New York would join other cities in moving toward a “zero waste”

policy, which would require an unprecedented level of recycling.

ABSTRACTNESS

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ORGANISATION

Example: 2016 HKDSE Exam

Paper Part A (Text 1) Example: 2016 HKDSE Exam Paper Part B1 (Text 7) Easy Section

[11] …Some Hong Kong people may be skeptical about this proposal, saying the food trucks will cause traffic congestion in crowded areas of the city.

However, I have not heard of such complaints regarding the Mister Softee fleet.

[12] People may also raise concerns about hygiene. This is an issue that is often raised when people are discussing the merits of street food.

However, you see stalls selling fish balls, chicken wings and other snacks.

They operate in similar conditions to food trucks.

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ORGANISATION

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Example:

2016 HKDSE Exam Reading Paper Part A Compulsory Section

Example:

2015 HKDSE Exam Reading Paper Part B2 Difficult Section

Reading text 2 Para 2

There is just one problem. Superstition doesn’t work. At least it doesn’t work in the way most people think it does.

Superstition is based on outdated and incorrect thinking. It comes from a time when people thought that luck was a strange force that could only be

controlled by magical rituals and bizarre behaviours. Several researchers have tested these age-old beliefs and found them wanting.

Reading text 5 Para 10

In my film and philosophy class, for example, I have to insist that students put their devices away while

watching movies that don’t immediately engage their senses with explosions, sex or gag lines. At first they see this as some old guy’s failure to grasp their skills at multitasking, but eventually most relearn how to give themselves to an emotional and intellectual

experience, one that is deeply engaging partly

because it does not pander to their most superficial habit of attention. I usually watch the movies with them (though I’ve seen them more than a dozen times), and together we share an experience that becomes the subject of reflection, interpretation and analysis. We even forget our phones and tablets when we encounter these unexpected sources of inspiration.

DENSITY OF INFORMATION

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Example: 2016 HKDSE Exam Paper Part B1 Q24

Para 2

Food trucks could soon be on the streets of Hong Kong, with John Tsang revealing the government is investigating introducing the concept.

Question 24

When does John Tsang want to introduce food trucks?

Understanding – Locating information

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Example: 2016 HKDSE Exam Paper Part B2 Q47

Para 1

The arrival of food trucks to New York several years ago was greeted by a city

hungry for refined street food, willing to pay higher prices to reward hard-working

culinary entrepreneurs. But, what was initially a story of success, as the Mexicue truck can attest, quickly became a

nightmare.

Question 47

Which word in paragraph 1 suggests that the food truck business can be extremely unpleasant?

Understanding – Working out meaning of words

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Example: 2015 HKDSE Exam Paper Part B1 Q50

Para 10

And what about unforeseen consequences?

Researchers can’t predict how, exactly, self- driving cars may reshape society. Maybe the vehicles will induce even more travel and congestion will get worse. Or maybe they will lead to an increase in air pollution. It’s impossible to know at this point. Still the advantages are tantalizing…

Question 50

According to paragraph 10, what two problems may self-driving cars cause?

Understanding – Identifying main ideas and

supporting details

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Understanding – Connecting ideas

Para 7

China’s higher-education system is churning out too many university graduates with high- paying expectations and too few practical skills.

Multinational managers privately complain that fresh Chinese grads are often clueless when it comes to working in an office environment.

Para 8

One western expat who helps Chinese

students enter Western colleges tells the story of a Chinese student who lived with an English host family in Britain; he was so flummoxed by the knobs and levers in the washing machine that he phoned his mum back in China for help.

Question 66

The anecdote of the Chinese student (Para 8) has been included to illustrate which point in Paragraph 7?

______________________________

______________________________

Example: 2012 HKDSE Exam Paper Part B2 Q66

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Example: 2015 HKDSE Exam Paper Part B2 Q76

Lines 66-70

Are you serious, $60,000 taken out in student loans for tuition, room and board for no prospect for a job. Better to stick to any STEM program in college (science, technology, engineering, math).

You can get the type of education discussed in the article, or even more, from your local library, with maybe $1.50 in late fines when you are finished, if you really want to explore what it means to be human. PUH-LEEZE. Clearly this article was written for the American higher education “rip-off machine”.

Question 76

What is Tom’s stance towards Liberal Education? Summarise his opinion in your own words.

Inferring – Working out main ideas/inferring views

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Example: 2016 HKDSE Exam Paper Part B2 Q55

Inferring – Inferring meanings / ideas

Para 8

Food trucks: There is nothing wrong with the individual food truck per se, but the overall trend is both ridiculous and in some cases, morally reprehensible. The food media continues to treat these as a new form of cuisine and some sort of breakthrough invention when they are nothing more than a way to deliver food to consumers, akin to the “invention” of home delivery, takeout containers or the drive through. When grouped together in parking lots, food trucks become an outdoor version of a longstanding American culinary tradition – the shopping mall food court, and nothing more. Foodwise, there is nothing new about trucks which serve foods you can already get in countless traditional eateries, albeit with much more limited menus. People act as …

Question 55

What does the writer imply when he writes, ‘People act as if tacos,

dumplings, or brick oven pizza have somehow been “discovered” by food truck cooks’ (lines 44-45)?

A. They have a good understanding of food.

B. They pretend to like the food served from food trucks.

C. They are over-estimating the originality of food trucks.

D. They have not eaten tacos, dumplings or brick oven pizza before.

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Example: 2016 HKDSE Exam Paper Part B2 Q56

Para 9

One major magazine recently suggested that food trucks had brought affordable ethnic cuisine to the people of Los Angeles –

seriously? LA has always had hundreds of brick and mortar eateries serving exactly this kind of affordable ethnic cuisine. I think that one of the reasons for their hipster popularity is that food trucks bring such cuisine to

people who are afraid to go to actual ethnic restaurants in diverse neighborhoods to eat it…

Question 56

What does the word “seriously?”

(line 47) say about the writer’s attitude to the magazine’s claims?

He thinks the claim is…

A. ridiculous B. very serious C. rather vague D. unimportant

Inferring – Inferring the author’s attitude

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Example: 2017 HKDSE Exam Paper Part A Q20 Para 17

However, according to the E.P.A.’s estimates, virtually all greenhouse benefits – more than 90 percent – come from just a few materials: paper, cardboard and

aluminum in soda cans. Once you exclude these

materials, the total annual savings in the United States from recycling everything else – plastics, glass, food, yard trimmings, textiles, rubber, leather – is only two-tenths of 1 percent of America’s carbon footprint.

Question 20

Do you think recycling is a waste of time? Provide evidence from the text to support your answer.

Interpreting - Justifying views

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ACTIVITY:

IDENTIFYING QUESTION INTENTS FOR ASSESSMENT ITEMS

Planning

&

Reviewing

AfL

Reading skills Assessment items

LPF

Locating specific information Identifying main ideas

Connecting ideas

Understanding the relationship

between ideas in the text (e.g. relating cause to effect, evidence to conclusion) Understanding text type features

Inferring the tone of the writer Working out the meaning of words/expressions

Inferring ideas

Making use of general and world knowledge

Application of grammar knowledge in context

To access the Teacher’s Copy and

more assessment

resources

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IMPLICATIONS FOR LEARNING AND TEACHING

• Expose students to a wide range of reading materials of

different subject areas and connect reading with their learning and daily lives

• Teach reading strategies explicitly

• Review the reading assessment items (e.g. levels of difficulty, range of reading skills)

• Set the right questions / tasks for different pedagogical purposes

• Provide feedback to students on their reading skills

development

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PLANNING AND IMPLEMENTING THE SENIOR SECONDARY

ENGLISH LANGUAGE CURRICULUM

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THE SENIOR SECONDARY

ENGLISH LANGUAGE CURRICULUM

S6

S5

S4

Elective Part (25%) Compulsory

Part

(75%)

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THE ELECTIVE PART

• Adds variety to the English Language curriculum

• Caters for students’ diverse needs and interests

• Broadens students’ learning experiences

• Provides them with opportunities to apply

what they have learnt in the Compulsory

Part

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THE ELECTIVE PART

Language Arts Non-Language Arts

EIGHT Electives

Modules

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Compulsory Part

Reading/ Writing Listening/ Speaking

Vocabulary

Text Types

Grammar Forms &

Communicative Functions

Speaking Skills

• pronunciation

• stress

• rhythm &

intonation

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN

THE COMPULSORY AND ELECTIVE PARTS

(AN ILLUSTRATION WITH THE DRAMA MODULE)

Elective Part (Drama module)

Dramatised Reading

Role play / Drama performance Text Types

• dialogues

• stories

Extension, application and consolidation of what has been learned

• stress &

intonation

• expression of emotions and feelings

• short scene writing

• production of an original script

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INTEGRATING VARIOUS CURRICULUM COMPONENTS

Compulsory Part and Elective Part Elective Part and SBA

Elective Modules

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COMPULSORY PART AND ELECTIVE PART

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ELECTIVE PART AND SBA

SBA

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Examining the content, language and stylistic features

of advertisements

-Examining an issue from different perspectives

-Using language functions that signal

cause and effect

Producing a leaflet giving advice on how

to be a wise and sensible consumer

INTEGRATION OF ELECTIVE MODULES

Popular Culture

Social Issues

Final

Product

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ACTIVITY

• In groups, design three tasks set against a particular context to develop or consolidate the target

knowledge and skills pertaining to any two modules in the Elective Part.

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(48)

EXPERIENCE SHARING

In your group, share with others your experience in planning and/or implementing the senior secondary curriculum. You may want to talk about:

• if your school integrates different curriculum components;

• the challenges you encountered/you anticipate in planning and delivering the curriculum; and

• how you overcame the challenges/you think the challenges could be

tackled.

(49)

USEFUL RESOURCES FOR THE

IMPLEMENTATION OF THE ENGLISH

LANGUAGE CURRICULUM

(50)
(51)

USEFUL WEBSITES

Professional development programmes (PDP)

Information on PDP by Curriculum Development Institute, EDB http://www.edb.gov.hk/en/curriculum-development/kla/eng-

edu/professional-development-programmes.html

Application and Details

http://tcs.edb.gov.hk

(52)

USEFUL WEBSITES

Learning and teaching resources

Curriculum Documents http://www.edb.gov.hk/elecg

One-stop Portal for Learning and Teaching Resources http://minisite.proj.hkedcity.net/edbosp-eng/eng/home.html

References & Resources

http://www.edb.gov.hk/eleresources

ETV Programmes

https://www.hkedcity.net/etv/en

Radio Programmes (“Teen Time”: English through Radio)

http://www.edb.gov.hk/index.aspx?nodeID=4034&langno=1

(53)

USEFUL WEBSITES

Other useful websites

Central Resources Centre by Curriculum Development Institute, EDB http://www.edb.gov.hk/crc

Language Learning Support Section, EDB

https://www.edb.gov.hk/en/edu-system/primary-secondary/applicable-to- primary-secondary/sbss/language-learning-support/index.html

NET Section, EDB

https://www.edb.gov.hk/en/curriculum-development/resource- support/net/index.html

The English Campus of HK Education City

http://www.hkedcity.net/english/

(54)

e-Learning and Information Literacy

• e-Learning Series: Media Literacy in the Junior Secondary English Classroom – Enhancing Critical Thinking Skills through the Use of Digital Texts

• e-Learning Series: Effective Use of e-Resources to Develop Students’

English Language Skills at the Secondary Level

• e-Learning Series: Effective Use of Multimodal Materials in Language Arts to Enhance the Learning and Teaching of English at the Junior Secondary Level

Language across the Curriculum

• Enriching and Extending Students’ Learning Experiences through Reading and Writing across the Curriculum at the Secondary Level

PDPS FOR 2019/20 S.Y.

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Catering for Learner Diversity

• Catering for Learner Diversity Series: Adopting e-Learning to Cater for Students with Special Educational Needs in the Junior Secondary English Classroom

• Catering for Learner Diversity Series: Stretching the Potentials of Advanced Learners in the Secondary English Language Classroom

Learning and Teaching of Grammar and Language Skills

• Adopting an Inductive Approach to Enhance Secondary Students’

Grammar Knowledge and Promote Self-directed Learning

• Grammar as Choice: The Role of Grammar in Enhancing Students’

Writing in the Senior Secondary English Language Classroom

PDPS FOR 2019/20 S.Y.

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Assessment Literacy

• Developing Reading and Listening Skills of Secondary Students with Reference to the Learning Progression Framework

• Developing Secondary Students’ Writing and Speaking Skills with Reference to the Learning Progression Framework

• Effective Assessment Practices in the Secondary English Language Curriculum

• Formative Assessment in the Literature in English Classroom

Integrative Use of Generic Skills and New Literacy Skills

• Developing Students’ Creativity and New Literacy Skills through Language Arts Elective Modules

• Developing Students’ Thinking Skills through Non-language Arts Elective Modules

• Critical Reading and Viewing: Developing Students’ Visual Literacy in the English Language Classroom

PDPS FOR 2019/20 S.Y.

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Curriculum Leadership and New Teachers Series

• Curriculum Leadership Series: Ongoing Renewal of the School Curriculum for English Panel Chairpersons (Secondary)

• Curriculum Leadership Series: Ongoing Renewal of the School Curriculum for English Teachers (Secondary)

• Understanding and Interpreting the English Language Curriculum for New English Teachers

PDPS FOR 2019/20 S.Y.

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Q & A

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THANK YOU

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References

Related subjects :