The Effect of Cultural Orientations, Academic Motivation and University Culture, on Academic Satisfaction of International Students in Taiwan

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(1)The Effect of Cultural Orientations, Academic Motivation and University Culture, on Academic Satisfaction of International Students in Taiwan. by Marcela Gisselle Pavón. A Thesis Submitted to the Graduate Faculty in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Major: International Human Resource Development. Advisor: Cheng - Ping Shih, Ph. D.. National Taiwan Normal University Taipei, Taiwan August 2017.

(2) ACKNOWLEDGEMENT. In first place, I would like to thank God, because without him I would not be alive; He is the source of my strength and hope during this difficult journey. He gave me the opportunity of receiving a degree in this prestigious university and He stood by me during each step of the process. I could never finish thanking Him for all the blessings I’ve received in this adventure in Taiwan. In second place, I am eternally grateful to all my family whom has supported me, motivated me and encouraged me to continue. My mother, my anchor to hold me through hard times, my biggest role model in life to whom I look up to, thank you for always believing in me. My best friend and boyfriend, whom keeps me grounded in sanity and strength, supporting me since day one. My sisters, father, aunts, grandparents, uncles, and cousins, each and every one of you have made this dream possible, with your words of encouragement, your prayers and all the aid you’ve provided me in this two-year journey. In third place my sincere gratitude to Dr. Tony Shih for all his advice, guidance and knowledge shared towards completing this thesis. Also, my appreciation to all the professors in the program, whom have shared their time and patience, specially my defense committee Dr. Lai and Dr. Lee, thank you for giving such careful attention to my research, and for helping me complete this goal. Dr. Wei-Wen Chang; Dr. Chu-Chen Yeh, Dr. Huang and Dr. Yi-Chun Lin, every course I have taken has made me grow as a person, thank you for contributing to the success and completion of this project. In fourth place, a special thank you to my friends and classmates. Our little intercultural ICDF family, thank you for being there throughout all the hardships, for every experience shared, we made it! A special mention to my Taiwanese family, Kate, Tracy, Jessie and Jessica, and all my classmates. Thank you for being more than our program managers, for doing more than is asked for in your duties and for looking out for us like only family does. Thank you for opening your arms towards us and welcoming us into the IHRD family, making our lives a whole lot easier in Taiwan. Lastly but not less important, my enormous gratitude to the International Cooperation Development Fund (TaiwanICDF) for providing a scholarship that has given me the opportunity.

(3) of growing and developing myself, of getting to know such an amazing country, and of learning valuable lessons in life that cannot be erased..

(4) ABSTRACT In order to maintain this status and competitivity among Asian markets, service quality has grown important, and being a collectivist society, they give great value to it. The Taiwanese government for several years has been granting scholarships and aids to attract foreign students in all levels. The challenge now is to keep attracting foreigners and to preserve the satisfaction of those already enrolled in the system. International students are valuable for all universities, for the cultural diversity they provide, furthermore preparing all students for the future workforce they will face. Therefore, this research aims in studying the effects that influence the academic satisfaction of international students studying in Taiwan, more specifically their academic motivation and cultural orientations to develop a better environment and academic culture in universities. Second, the study will also help to create and adapt the strategies already in motion in the academic system of universities of Taiwan, in this way attracting and retaining more students each year. The research methods of data collection will be a quantitative case study using a survey/questionnaire that will be developed and piloted by the researcher. The CMUA Model was created and analyzed by using Partial Least Squares (PLS) as a tool to analyze data collected, including the descriptive statistics, coefficient of determination (R2), path coefficients, t-value, bootstrapping, Cronbach’s Alpha, Composite Reliability results, average variance extracted (AVE), correlation, Standardized Root Mean Square Residual, Heterotrait-Monotrait Ratio, and Fornell-Larcker Criterion. The data for the main study was collected from 218 international students studying in Taiwan. The findings indicated that academic motivation indeed has a positive significant effect towards Academic satisfaction, and towards cultural orientations as well as university culture towards academic satisfaction. While cultural orientations proved to have a weak effect on the perception of university culture of international students. Practical implications and suggestions were also proposed to support future foreign students in preparation for adjusting and adapting to Taiwan while diminishing dissatisfaction and increasing study motivation. Keywords: academic motivation, academic satisfaction, cultural orientations, university culture. I.

(5) TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT ............................................................................................ I TABLE OF CONTENTS ........................................................................ II LIST OF TABLES .................................................................................. VI LIST OF FIGURES ..............................................................................................VII CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION ........................................................... 1 Chapter Overview ..............................................................................................1 Background of the Study ...................................................................................1 Problem Statement ............................................................................................4 Purposes of the Study.........................................................................................5 Research Questions ............................................................................................6 Significance of the Study ...................................................................................7 Limitations and Delimitations of the Study .......................................................7 Definition of Key Terms ....................................................................................8. CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW……………………………..11 Chapter Overview ..............................................................................................11 Internationalization in Taiwan’s Higher Education ...........................................11 Academic Motivation.........................................................................................12 Cultural Orientations ..........................................................................................15 University Culture ..............................................................................................22 Academic Satisfaction .......................................................................................24. CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY ....................................................... 27 Chapter Overview ................................................................................................27 Research Framework .........................................................................................27 Research Hypothesis ..........................................................................................28 Research Procedure ............................................................................................29 Data Collection ..................................................................................................31 Measurement ......................................................................................................31 II.

(6) Validity and Reliability ......................................................................................33 Data Analysis .....................................................................................................39. CHAPTER IV RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS ................................ 45 Sample Characteristics ...........................................................................................45 Descriptive Statistics Analysis ...............................................................................47 Discussion for Descriptive Statistics Analysis ......................................................53 Testing the Research Model...................................................................................56 PLS Finding Summary...........................................................................................61 PLS Comparisons on Participants Region of Nationality Central, South America and Caribbean students ........................................................................................62 PLS Comparisons on Participants Region of Nationality Asia, Pacific, and Africa Students .................................................................................................................65. CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ..........69 Conclusions ..............................................................................................................69 Recommendations ....................................................................................................70 Recommendations for further research ....................................................................71. REFERENCES ......................................................................................................73 APPENDIX A: RESEARCH QUESTIONNAIRE …….……………….....83 APPENDIX B: ONLINE QUESTIONNAIRE……….…………….............88 APPENDIX C: PLS PILOT TEST RESULT………………….……….…..99 APPENDIX D: PLS MAIN STUDY TEST FIGURES………….…….....105. III.

(7) LIST OF TABLES Table 2.1. Motivation Theories……………………………………………………….12 Table 2.2. Hofstede’s Descriptions of Expected Behaviors as a Function of Cultural Value Scores and Environment…...………………………………………………….21 Table 2.3. Types of Organizational Culture ...............................................................25 Table 3.1. Reliability of Instruments .........................................................................33 Table 3.2. Cronbach’s Alpha Results for all Dimensions..........................................36 Table 3.3. Main Study Constructs' Reliability Analysis for this Study .....................37 Table 3.4. Heterotrait-Monotrait Ratio (HTMT) Results for All Dimension ............37 Table 3.5. Fornell-Larcker Criterion Results for All Dimension...............................38 Table 3.6. Main Study Outer Loading Analysis via PLS ..........................................39 Table 3.7. Coding System Used in PLS Data Analysis .............................................41 Table 4.1. Characteristics of Sample Population Based on Demographic Variables 46 Table 4.2. Cultural Orientations; Likert’s Scales, Mean, and SD..............................48 Table 4.3. University Culture; Likert’s Scales, Mean, and SD..................................49 Table 4.4. Academic Motivation; Likert’s Scales, Mean, and SD ............................50 Table 4.5. Academic Satisfaction; Likert’s Scales, Mean, and SD ...........................52 Table 4.6. Correlation among All the Constructs ......................................................53 Table 4.7. Collinearity Statistic (VIF) Among All the Constructs ............................54 Table 4.8. Correlation Analysis .................................................................................55 Table 4.9. PLS Cronbach's Alpha, Internal Consistency and R2 in this Study .........56 Table 4.10. PLS Hypotheses Testing Results ............................................................57 Table 4.11. Most Dominant and Least Dominant Responses ....................................59 Table 4.12. Path Coefficients Results for All Dimension ..........................................59 Table 4.13. Indirect Effects Results for All Dimensions ...........................................60 Table 4.14. Total Effects Results for All Dimensions ...............................................61 Table 4.15. Research Hypotheses Results .................................................................61 Table 4.16. PLS Comparison Central America, South America and Caribbean Cronbach's Alpha, Internal Consistency and R2 in this Study ..................................62 Table 4.17. Comparison 1 Hypothesis Testing Results .............................................63 Table 4.18. PLS Comparison Asia, Pacific and Africa Cronbach's Alpha, Internal IV.

(8) Consistency and R2 in This Study .............................................................................65 Table 4.19. Comparison 2 Hypothesis Testing Results .............................................66. V.

(9) LIST OF FIGURES Figure 3.1. CMUA research framework…………...…..…….........................................28 Figure 3.2. Research process…………………...............................................................30 Figure 4.1. PLS structural model……………………………………...…………………58 Figure 4.2. PLS structural model Central, South America….……………………………64 Figure 4.3. PLS structural model Asia, Pacific and Africa.……………………………...67. VI.

(10) CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Chapter Overview The following section introduces the topic of this academic research, the chapter contains the background of the research problem, the purposes of the research, the research questions, significance of the study, the limitations and delimitations of the research and the key terms of the study as well.. Background of the Study The accelerated growth of the internationalized business environment and the maximization of global competition have induced a continually growing amount of people crossing cultural and linguistic boundaries. Globalization has made the whole world appear smaller and more accessible, according to Chen (2015), anyone can migrate to a foreign country, even when one comes from different cultural backgrounds. In 2016, Taiwan was ranked as number one in a survey held in 67 countries, of expatriates, with the best quality of life, affordability of healthcare and enviable salaries of foreigners in comparison to locals (Expat insider, 2016). Companies are bringing together professionals from various cultures; therefore, dealing with diversity of employees has become a vital task for a significant part of the business community (Lauring & Selmer, 2011). These global phenomena have influenced not only the business world, but also the area of education, through which the global interaction of markets and cultures grows. The internationalization of higher education is being increasingly adopted by many nations around the world, and the Asian nations are no exception. According to ICEF Monitor (2015), the rise of China, South Korea and India to the ten most powerful economies worldwide, has contributed to the international student mobility; China, India and South Korea are the main global sources of international students. Asia's demand has driven most of this growth, but now we also see many major emerging markets that will influence global mobility in the future. Furthermore, analysts predict that around 70 % of the global demand will be generated within the Asia-Pacific region (Olsen, 1993). The nature of competition is changing, with the most widely distributed enrollment among a larger field of destinations, including a growing number of non-English speaking countries. More and more Taiwanese universities have been developing an international learning culture to maintain national competitiveness and attract talent from around the world. A 1.

(11) study by Chou, Roberts and Ching (2012), explains that the number of foreign students studying in Taiwan shows the level of internationalization and competitiveness of the nation's education and this exhibits the nation's power and ability to attract students. The value international students bring to universities is evident: more diversity on campuses, presenting local students with the globalized workforce they are likely to face after graduation, qualifying the next generation of effective leaders, and administering different views and beliefs, which heightens their cultural intelligence, among others (Korobova & Strarobin, 2015). Taiwan is a favorite destination among students seeking to learn Mandarin Chinese language or graduate and post-graduate degree, among Asia. The universities in this country provide many benefits such as tuition exemptions, financial aid and scholarships for international students. The government of Taiwan and NGO’s offer full scholarships to attract students from countries that have political relations. Taiwan currently offers different programs of scholarships and financial aids for international students from numerous countries. Expatriates as well as international students are often influenced by the low cost of living and tuition, as well as the availability of internships and post-study work opportunities. Taiwan is also a popular destination not only because of its excellent standard of living quality, but also because it has world-renowned universities, a culture rich in traditions, friendly and attentive people, and lastly for its security. In recent years, the incessant quest for excellence by Asian universities has been rewarded in the form of enviable rankings in many international assessments. Taiwan's are no exception, in the QS World Universities ranking (2015), there were 9 universities in the Top 400, and some of them are: National Taiwan University (70), National Tsing Hua University (155), National Chiao Tung University (182), National Cheng Kung University (224) National Yang-Ming University (338), and National Taiwan Normal University (376), among others. Thus, further research of student satisfaction on higher education is vital, especially for nations that have integrated policies to attract foreign students such as Taiwan that has now included international higher education in its economic development plans. The interests of many psychologists, teachers, counselors, among all school staff is to learn more about their clients, in this case these are the students. They want to know what motivational factors help students feel satisfied in their university, how to motivate them, how to encourage commitment, and a sense of. 2.

(12) identity with their university. These queries may be used to improve the performance of students in school as well. From these questions and interests, many studies and theories have been developed, the most important theories and pioneers in the area of motivation are Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs, McGregor's theory of X and Y, Theory of Two Factors of Frederick Herzberg, and McClelland's Theory of Needs (Robbins & Judge, 2016). From these early theories of motivation have derived other more contemporary theories to explain motivation, such as the theory of selfdetermination, cognitive evaluation theory and the theory of self-communication. More specifically we will explore the academic motivation of students, their intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in their school engagement. The success and survival of companies or organizations often depends on the performance of their employees (Wiley,1997). However, to maintain high levels of performance, organizations must understand what motivates employees. Similarly, the relationship between job satisfaction and performance is of great importance. On the other hand, those who believe that performance at work causes job satisfaction should also understand what motivates employees to increase performance and, in turn, job satisfaction. Therefore, issues that border organizational culture as well as job satisfaction are key factors that cannot be ignored in the operation and maintenance of any modern enterprise or institution. According to ExpatInsider (2016) over one-third of expats in Taiwan (34%) are satisfied with their jobs, more than double the global average of 16%. Studies have shown that these factors are interconnected and have diverse effects on the behavior of employees in the workplace (Shaw, 2005). However, although many researchers have paid attention to expatriates’ adaptation, performance, satisfaction, and success, limited studies indicate whether international student performance is influenced by academic motivation, cultural contexts, or both. In this sense, this study acts as a pioneer to examine the motivational factors and cultural orientations that influence higher education international students' perception about their university culture and their academic satisfaction, specifically in the country of Taiwan.. 3.

(13) Problem Statement Taiwan is attracting more and more students of higher education each year through different educational programs such as: exchange programs, government grants, scholarships, and financial aid. There are some students who arrive with their own financial support, attracted by the educational offerings and other characteristics of Taiwan, but there is a lot of international competition. In recent years, an astonishing number of international students in the US, Canada, UK, Australia and New Zealand have come from China and India, a strong dependence on these two key markets has raised alarms for some educational institutions and industry experts. According to ICEF monitor (2015) approximately five million students emigrated in 2014, which indicates more than triple of the international enrollment since 1990. However, these cross-cultural opportunities have also introduced a variety of cultural tensions and some visible exclusionary practices, which are of serious concern (Chen, 2009). If Taiwan is unsuccessful in facing real international competition and the demand for academic innovation, this will cause the loss of academic advantage over neighboring countries in Asia. Developed and developing nations lean on foreign students to ensure credibility in their educational institutions which leads to greater acceptance and belief in the professionals who can enroll in the future. The loss of the opportunity of its universities to continue in the ranks of excellence would place Taiwan behind in this international competitive trend, not only academically but also economically. Any type of organization requires keeping its team motivated and committed to achieving the organization's mission and goals while meeting his or her own needs. The goal of any educational institution is the satisfaction and successful academic performance of its students. Therefore, the internationalization of education must provide the student with the necessary tools to ensure his or her satisfaction and success in an academic culture from an international point of view. For the institution to develop successfully, ideally it must provide an excellent quality of service to retain students and generate academic satisfaction of international students. In higher education, the student is the client whom tends to remain in its institutional education during the duration of the program, which could be a short or long time. But it can transcend if it is successfully achieved and ensure a strong retention rate and encourage positive feedback from word of mouth, which would attract more students. In the past, students have been studied in regard to their world views (Anderson, 1988), learning styles, attitudes, (Atwater,. 4.

(14) Wiggins, & Gardner, 1995) and their belief systems, but as universities are becoming increasingly diverse in their outlook and clientele, any examination of the interaction of culturally sensitive factors of students learning environments, is now of critical importance. According to Titus (2004), an institution's inability to keep its enrollment numbers affects its retention and graduation rates and performance indicators for institutions of higher education. There are currently over 150 colleges and universities in Taiwan, with a population of international students growing more and more each year, which supports the importance of the study. Organizational culture is thus an important and significant addition to the practice of high quality management and, to the strategic development of the university (Nauffal & Nasser, 2007). The high level of satisfaction is the result of many internal factors such as personal motivation and cultural orientations as well as external factors like the organizations´ culture. No research has been done on how these factors come into play to maintain customer satisfaction in higher education, for international students more specifically in Taiwan. As a result, this researcher will pursue this area to shed some light on the issues faced by international students to both foreign students and interested staff from private and public universities in Taiwan, and especially the Taiwanese government and non-governmental sponsoring institutions.. Purposes of the Study The purpose of this research is to explore the factors that influence the academic satisfaction of international students studying in Taiwan, to contribute into creating a better environment and academic culture in universities. The study will also help to further understand the motivation and drive behind students’ satisfaction in their own campus, more specifically to fulfill the following objectives: 1.. To find out the effect of academic motivation on academic satisfaction.. 2.. To find out the effect of cultural orientations on academic motivation.. 3.. To find out the effect of cultural orientations on academic satisfaction.. 4.. To find out the effect of cultural orientations on university culture.. 5.. To find out the effect of university culture on academic satisfaction.. 5.

(15) Research Questions Based on the purposes of this study, the researcher attempts to answer the following research questions: 1.. Does academic motivation (with variables intrinsic motivation to know, intrinsic motivation to accomplish, and intrinsic motivation to experience stimulation; identified regulation, introjected regulation, and external regulation) have an effect on academic satisfaction (with variables responsiveness of academic staff, academic feedback empathy, tangibles, administrative service and academic programs) among international students studying in Taiwan?. 2.. Do the cultural orientations (with variables: power distance, masculinity, uncertainty avoidance, and collectivism) have an effect on the academic motivation (with variables intrinsic motivation to know, intrinsic motivation to accomplish, and intrinsic motivation to experience stimulation; identified regulation, introjected regulation, and external regulation) among international students studying in Taiwan?. 3.. Do cultural orientations (with variables: power distance, masculinity, uncertainty avoidance, and collectivism) have an effect on the academic satisfaction (with variables responsiveness. of. academic. staff,. academic. feedback. empathy,. tangibles,. administrative service and academic programs) among international students studying in Taiwan? 4.. Do cultural orientations (with variables: power distance, masculinity, uncertainty avoidance, and collectivism) have an effect on the university culture (with variables managing change, achieving goals, coordinated teamwork and cultural strength)?. 5.. Does the university culture (with variables managing change, achieving goals, coordinated teamwork and cultural strength) have an effect on academic satisfaction (with variables responsiveness of academic staff, academic feedback empathy, tangibles, administrative service and academic programs) among international students studying in Taiwan?. 6.

(16) Significance of the Study Taiwan is one of the leading countries among Asia with a considerable population of foreign students, and increasing every year. As the global business environment changes, the leaders in the educational institutions must constantly anticipate the necessary changes and track actively the relationship between the demands from international markets and the capabilities of their organization. It is also important to observe the education trend of international students in Taiwan, in order to understand how Taiwan is using its educational market and system to attract international students, and from this we can learn how to improve it and obtain an advantage of strategies over the neighboring countries in Asia. First this study aims to comprehend the factors that influence the academic satisfaction of international students studying in Taiwan, more specifically their academic motivation and cultural orientations to develop a better environment and academic culture in universities. Second, the study will also help to create and adapt the strategies already in motion in the academic system of universities of Taiwan, in this way attracting and retaining more students each year. With the current student population being so culturally diverse, it is critical that students possess an understanding and appreciation of those who are culturally dissimilar (Chen, 2015). And finally, to provide important data to all the parties involved in the system which are: foreign students’ staff from private and public universities in Taiwan, and the government and non-governmental sponsoring institutions.. Limitations and Delimitations of the Study Delimitations In order to manage and control the scope of this academic study the researcher highlights the following delimitations: . The study will be developed with international students studying in higher education in Taiwan as the sample group; therefore, the results should not be generalized to other populations like high schools or any other educational programs.. . The study is delimited to international students enrolled in different universities in Taiwan; hence the results cannot be generalized to other countries.. 7.

(17) . The study is also delimited to the effects of the factors cultural orientations, university culture, academic motivation, and academic satisfaction.. . Finally, the research is delimited to international students who take courses in English, since the questionnaire is administered in English.. Limitations  The study only explored the effect of cultural orientations, university culture, and academic motivation on international students’ academic satisfaction, although there are many other factors that could be taken into consideration, and these factors can also be analyzed individually.  The study only explores the effect of these factors on international students without interviewing the local students in Taiwan.. Definition of Key Terms The key terms in this academic study are cultural orientations, university culture, and academic motivation and academic satisfaction. Their definitions are presented here:. Organizational Culture Conceptual Definition: “The shared, basic assumptions that an organization learnt while coping with the environment and solving problems of external adaptation and internal integration that are thought to new members as the correct way to solve those problems” (Al-Alawi, AlMarzooqi, & Mohammed, 2007). Operational Definition: The four variables measured in this section are: Managing Change (UC_MC), Achieving Goals (UC_AG), Coordinated Teamwork (UC_CTW) and Cultural Strength (UC_CUST). A 14-item section adapted from the on the work of Dr. Talcott Parsons, Organizational Culture Assessment Questionnaire (OCAQ).. Cultural Orientations Conceptual Definition: Culture is a collective programming of the mind, which distinguishes the members of one category of people from another. Four dominant collective and individual orientations developed by Hofstede (2001): Individualism/collectivism, power distance, uncertainty avoidance, and masculinity. Operational Definition: For the purpose of this study we considered the dimensions including individualism/collectivism (CO_CI), power distance (CO_PD), and uncertainty avoidance 8.

(18) (CO_UA). This measurement has 12 items from the scale developed by Dorfman and Howell (1988) as adapted by Clugston, Dorfman, and Howell (2000).. Academic Motivation Conceptual Definition: Pinder (1988) defines motivation as “a set of energetic forces that originate both within as well as beyond an individual’s being to initiate behavior and to determine its form, direction, intensity, and duration”. Operational Definition: for this study, we will analyze the following intrinsic motivation to know (IM_TK), intrinsic motivation to accomplish (IM_TA), and intrinsic motivation to experience stimulation (IM_ES) (Vallerand et al., 1992). Intrinsic motivation refers to doing an act for the sake of it, or for the pleasure and satisfaction it engenders (Deci, 1975). Whereas extrinsic motivation does not result from the sake of the act being performed but from the behavior as a means to an end (Deci, 1975). The three types of extrinsic motivation we will utilize in this study from the academic context are: identified regulation (EM_ID), introjected regulation (EX_IN), and external regulation (EM_ER), (Deci & Ryan 1985, 1991). Academic Satisfaction Conceptual Definition: for Sweeney and Ingram (2001), academic satisfaction, is the insight of happiness and success in the learning atmosphere by students, during the process of their studies. Tough (1982) defined student satisfaction as the following: student satisfaction refers to the student’s perception or attitude towards the learning activities. Operational Definition: for this study, academic satisfaction was developed as with the dimensions of responsiveness academic staff (AS_RAS), academic feedback (AS_AF), empathy (AS_EM), tangibles (AS_TA), administrative service (AS_AD), academic programs (AS_AP) (Ahmed & Masud, 2014).. 9.

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(20) CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW Chapter Overview The following chapter is a summary, description and analysis of the literature pertinent for the variables selected for this research. The researcher presents a review of the existing theories, works, and research done on the topics of cultural orientations, academic motivation, university culture and academic satisfaction. The primary goal is to support theoretically the relationship among the variables of this academic research.. Internationalization in Taiwan’s Higher Education The number of incoming international students has increased dramatically, and this is due to the efforts from the Taiwan Ministry of Education (MOE) to increase the number of international students (Chang & Lee, 2007). The basic development of the country’s knowledge system through intercultural interactions appears to be the driving force but because of the shift towards globalization, many nations, are being pushed to open their education systems to an increasing number of students. A study by Knight (2002) points out four main advantages and reasons behind the internationalization of education in countries: the first is the political standpoint to help developing countries in the formation of their identity through globalization; the second is the economic rationale , where the country is exporting educational products which allows additional funds and workforce: the third is the academic aspect in which a nation would excel in educational standards and awards: the last aspect is the social benefit of promoting their culture. For many reasons, such as: an optimal Chinese learning environment, the advantage of learning traditional Chinese characters, scholarships, and recommendations from friends, many international students are choosing Taiwan. Other aspects that have encouraged this trend are Taiwan’s academic, political, economic, social, and educational environment (Chuang, 2012; Han, 2009). Although there has been such an increase in enrollment from international students, there is a high competition globally and increasingly high in Asia, which demands a high level if education standards. The increment in the number of international students has transformed Taiwanese school campuses in general, into more diversified communities. This type of community requires students to possess cross-cultural competence to work and live with people from diverse cultural backgrounds (Chen, 2015). Hofstede (2001) expressed that this competence can be taught and 11.

(21) defined it as an array of congruent attitudes, behaviors, and policies that converge in a system, or among professionals and supports effective working or functioning in cross-cultural situations (Cross, Bazron, Dennis, & Isaacs, 1989). In order for Taiwan to succeed in this competition and continue in the ranks of best universities in Asia and the world they must prepare their students and future professionals to meet these requirements of cross cultural environments. The study of the cultural dimensions on students is relevant, since this would lead to the understanding of different values and worldviews. Chen’s research (2015) in Taiwanese universities highlights the importance of teachers as well as families in the cross- cultural practices, faculties and students are situated in the frontline as these ambassadors.. Academic Motivation Motivation Definitions. In the past, there has been a great amount of studies and research done, pertaining motivation, countless theories describing the typology and dimensions behind motivation. Here is presented a summary of the most important theories and models created in the table below. Table 2.1. Motivation Theories Maslows’s Hierarchy of needs. Two-factors Theory. McClelland’s Theory of needs. Physiological. Achievement. Need of achievement. Effort-performance. Safety. Recognition. Need for power. Social. Advancement. Need for affiliation. Performance-reward relationship. Esteem. Growth. Self-actualization. Status. Expectancy Theory. Rewards-personal goals relationship. Note. Adapted from “Chapter 7 Motivation: from concept to application,” by S. Robbins, T. Judge, B. Millet, and M. Boyle. 2016, p. 250, Organizational Behavior, Copyright 2016 by Pearson Education, Inc.. 12.

(22) From this data, we are going to use the definitions for intrinsic and extrinsic motivation as the theory of needs declares we can either have needs for achievement which is the external motivation or needs for affiliation which is internal motivation. As the expectancy theory demonstrates as well, we can either be focused on performance rewards, which is the extrinsic focus or to work towards personal goals which are the intrinsic motivators. Vallerand et al., (1992) have identified three types of intrinsic motivation within the academic context as intrinsic motivation to know, to accomplish, and to experience stimulation. Academic Motivation and Higher Education. According to Lin, McKeachie and Kim (1999), one of the objectives of higher education is to increase motivation for life-long learning, hence the teachers’ job would be to motivate intrinsically. Yet, other studies provide data for this theory and have shown that students have various learning goals. A plethora of dichotomies have been proposed to explain students’ goals and motivation, probably one of the first of these terms is intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. For intrinsic motivation, college students want to excel in expert knowledge in their fields. Furthermore, for extrinsic motivation they want to get good grades and demonstrate their competence, a performance goal. Performance goals and mastery could play interdependent roles in motivating student learning, which indicates that there isn’t necessarily a division between them. Intrinsic motivation (IM) suggests that one engages in a behavior or activity for internal reasons such as enjoyment (Tóth-Király et al., 2017). Three types of academic IM can be observed according to Vallerand et al. (1992): 1. IM to know alludes to gaining new knowledge about a given topic. 2. IM toward accomplishment is related to the aim of overcoming goals or surpassing oneself. 3. Experiencing stimulation where one is rewarded by the experienced subjective sensations of the activity. The study presented by Lin et al. (2003) conducted with the Motivated strategies for learning questionnaire (MLSQ), concluded that teachers do not need to eliminate motivation for good grades in order to achieve both cognitive and lifelong learning goals. Pascarella and Terenzini (2005) analyzed that the “impact of college is largely determined by individual effort and involvement in the academic, interpersonal, and extracurricular offerings on a campus” and the best predictors of the students’ successful graduation are academic preparation, motivation, and student engagement.. 13.

(23) In another research by D’lima, Kitsantas, and Winsler (2014) performance goal orientations were negatively associated with grade point average whereas mastery orientation, intrinsic, and extrinsic motivation were positively associated with academic performance. This researcher affirms that understanding the early student motivation, the freshman, may aid in giving instruction in a way that will support students’ motivation to successfully finish their college education. This study which also used the MLSQ as measure for intrinsic and extrinsic motivation relates that intrinsic motivation has a positive significant relationship with lecture engagement, SAT scores, mastery goals, academic performance, and meaningful cognitive engagement (Church, Elliot, & Gable, 2001). The conclusions from this study suggest that there are important cultural differences in students with potential for future research. Academic Motivation and International students’ satisfaction. Usually studies on international student focus on their cultural adaptation and cultural intelligence but their motivation is equally important. Wiers-Jenssen (2003) recognizes intrinsic motivation as the main factor for studying abroad, while Kitsantas (2004) describes how students’ motivations affect their intercultural learning. These results demonstrate how students with motivations such as development of cross-cultural competence score higher on cross-cultural skills and global understanding after their stay abroad (Holtbrügge & Engelhard, 2016). To date, research has proved the hypothesis that students’ motivation to going abroad can vary in its degree of self-determination (Chirkov, Vansteenkiste, Tao, & Lynch, 2007). When students decide to study abroad independently, they will be more likely to learn and modify their actions, which produce more positive result for their satisfaction (Deci & Ryan, 2008). Therefore, the intrinsic motivation on studying abroad is based on the perception that this is exciting, interesting and satisfying, and the commitment to the location comes from an internal integrated regulation (Holtbrügge & Engelhard, 2016). As, Deci and Ryan (1985) presented, to learn the culture and language of the host country is considered as intrinsic motivation, compared with other motivations for studying abroad, the need for autonomy, relatedness, and competence is the highest. The experience of studying abroad is positive for both the foreigner and the local, since they will find them approachable and interested in learning about their culture, which in turn results into higher CQ, academic satisfaction and better performance.. Hypothesis 1: Academic motivation has no effect on academic satisfaction. 14.

(24) Dimensions of Academic Motivation. There are countless theories and philosophies supporting motivation and for this study we will use Pinder’s observation (1988) where he defines motivation as “a set of energetic forces that originate both within as well as beyond an individual’s being to initiate behavior and to determine its form, direction, intensity, and duration”. Which assumes that our behavior is determined by both internal and external forces. From the same line of thinking we can adopt the selfdetermination theory which supports this dichotomy as well by Deci and Ryan (1985). According to Akoto, Hough and Mosley (2014) it is relevant to study the higher education students’ academic motivation because it is essential in the academic setting, nevertheless research examining the cultural values as determinants of motivation has focused solely in the work context, with very limited study in the academic context. According to Lin and McKeachie (1999), one of the objectives of higher education is to increase motivation for life-long learning, hence the teachers’ job would be to motivate intrinsically. The six dimensions adapted from Vallerand et al. (1992) have the three types of intrinsic motivation within the academic setting as intrinsic motivation to know (IM-to know) defined as “performing an activity for the pleasure and satisfaction that one experiences while learning, exploring or trying to understand something new” (Vallerand et al., 1992).; intrinsic motivation to accomplish (IM-to accomplish) defined as “engaging in an act for the pleasure and satisfaction involved when attempting to accomplish or create something (Vallerand et al., 1992) and intrinsic motivation to experience stimulation (IM-to experience stimulation) involves activities that engender stimulating sensations. As well as three types of external motivation adapted from Deci (1975) and Deci and Ryan (1985, 1991) in the academic setting are: identified regulation, occurs if one’s behavior becomes valued and judged to be important for the individual; introjected regulation, refers to the internalization of the reasons for an action, and external regulation involves acts that are regulated through external means like rewards and constraints.. Cultural Orientations The definition for culture is so broad with a plethora of concepts from numerous authors and researchers therefore for the purposes of this study the term cultural orientations will be adapted from Geert Hofstede’s five value dimensions of national culture. He pointed out that 15.

(25) culture is a collective programming of the mind, which distinguishes the members of one category of people from another (Hofstede, 2001). In the late 1980s Hofstede identified what he called the four dimensions of cultural differences, which he labeled within a large-scale study of employees in 40 different countries for the company IBM. The comparison of nations was developed in terms of power distance, uncertainty avoidance, individualism and masculinity. There is a recent addition to these orientations, which are related to traditional values, long term and short-term orientation; these will not be measured in this research. Culture and International students. International students come from nations with widely different cultural practices and the teaching and learning strategies adopted in classrooms can conflict with the learning strategies from the foreign learner. Students, who come from different nations, will logically display a distinct culture. Differences in students’ attitudes or learning styles can be explained more comprehensively if the students’ culture of origin is taken into consideration. People are not born with a culture, culture is learned. (Stull & Von Till, 1995). For this reason, there is an increasing need for professors to be aware about the cultural atmosphere into which their teaching is placed (Thaman, 1993). Teachers have a main role into the cross-cultural education and training for students. While there are many research studies relating to culture and education generally (Atwater, 1993, 1996; Maddock, 1981), in comparison there is little research examining the interaction that occurs between students' culturally sensitive learning environment and their learning. In the different universities, the faculty needs to take into consideration how different learning conditions should be used according to the students' different perceptions of these culturally sensitive factors of their learning environments. The adaptation students have to go through when introduced into a new culture can be stressful, and consequently affect their satisfaction and level of performance. Cultural Orientations at Country level. Hofstede’s index has been popular for various reasons: in first place, the cultural orientations fully comprise and extend major conceptualizations of culture developed through many years. Through a comprehensive analysis of culture literature, Clark (1990) claimed that the different typologies of culture are very similar, and their orientations are well captured in Hofstede’s typology (Dong, 2009). 16.

(26) The research made by (Dong, 2009) analyzes the cultural orientations from Hofstede and Bond into understanding the Western cultures and China. This researcher emphasized on the importance of cross- cultural competence and training, especially in the aspect of communication because of historical issues between these two cultures. This researcher found that China in general, stresses the social role of the group, while Western culture emphasizes individuality. This is only one of the many dimensions that differentiate these two cultures and that demonstrate how the cultural distance between two nations can hinder a business alliance (Johanson & Wiedersheim-Paul, 1975; Malik & Zhao, 2013). Therefore, cultural distance is the principal forthcoming variable for the success of the business or learning alliance (Lenartowicz & Roth, 2004; Westwood & Posner, 1997) and its stability (Meschi & Riccio, 2008). If we assume that knowledge is context dependent, cultural distance between exchange partners can also delay knowledge transfer. Cultural Orientations at Individual level. In the past, the definition of national cultural orientation has been very useful for the study of nations and societies, after Hofstede introduced his index. Nevertheless, blindly looking at national culture and using that as a measure to target individual consumers may not work. (Donthu, Lenartowicz, & Yoo, 2011). Business strategies would be most effective when a measure at individual level is developed and applied (Farley & Lehmann 1994). In most studies culture is measured at the national level, but whether an individual displays a cultural dimension consistent with his or her national culture needs to be measured. For example, according to study made by Dong, (2009), the Chinese culture is more collectivist than the Western culture, but it is important to measure whether a Chinese student would have the same inclination towards collectivism, or whether a western student would have less inclination towards it. This concern is more important nowadays with globalization, especially in universities which now consist of heterogeneous population with different cultural backgrounds. The reflection of culture at the individual level is more important and relevant for managerial conditions as well (Kamakura & Mazzon, 1991; Kamakura & Novak, 1992). In their study Donthu, et al., 2011 also mentioned researchers can avoid the ecological fallacy that occurs when ecological or country-level relationships are interpreted as if they are applied to individuals, hence they created the CVSCALE—Individual Cultural Values Scale. These scale benefits researchers who deal with. 17.

(27) individual consumers across cultures, like the international students, hence this questionnaire was adapted to fit this academic research, and measure the cultural orientations. Cultural orientations and Academic Motivation. In todays globalized and fast- paced world, the motor behind peoples’ motivation is very valuable for any business. In the education business, the main goal is to anticipate what the source of the students’ internal motivation is. Adding to the challenges that this endeavor already poses, we have the international student’s cultural background, which proposes another challenge. Most of the research done between these two variables has been on the labor sector, since it has been of more interest than the educational sector. Following Hofstede’s cultural index, there are various researches studying these variables on several motivation theories, such as the expectancy theory among others. (Dorfman & Howell, 1988; Emery & Oertel, 2006; Erez & Earley, 1987; Lam, Chen, & Schaubroeck, 2002). A holistic literature review done by Gibson, Kirkman, & Lowe (2006) analyzing the influence of the cultural dimensions on other variables proves its relationship to motivation among others. For the purpose of this study we can observe a research by Akoto, Hough, and Mosley (2014) in which the relationship between individual level cultural orientations, by Hofstede, and the multi-dimensions of academic motivation based on self-determination theory, were tested. The result of this study developed with international business students shows that low power distance orientation is positively related to intrinsic motivation and the population exhibited low masculinity. Previous research by Huang and Vliert (2003) also found a significant relationship between intrinsic motivation and power distance at the individual level. As for the national cultural dimensions, prior studies claimed that individuals in low-power distance societies are more empowered to perform successfully than those in high power distance societies (Dimitrov, 2006) Hence, measuring international student’s cultural perceptions and the relationship with academic motivation will increase our comprehension of student’s motives and drives; we need to know where our students come from to understand where they are going next.. Hypothesis 2: Cultural orientations have no effect on academic motivation.. Cultural Orientations and Academic Satisfaction.. 18.

(28) Although cultural orientations are not a new term, the relationship with academic satisfaction has not been studied as much as with other factors. Therefore, we will use job satisfaction from other research to explain the relationship between these variables. A quantitative study developed in Finland, the Philippines, Belgium, and the US, collectivism was found positively related to team members' job satisfaction and organizational commitment (Gibson et al., 2006). Reviewing the difference between measuring individual or national level; at the individual level, collectivism was positively linked to job satisfaction (Kirkman & Shapiro, 2001), whereas, at the national level the relationship was negative (Cooper, Sparks, & Spector, 2001). In the area of international education, a study by Feldman and Bolino (2000), among a sample of United States MBA students in overseas internships: declared that cultural distance, or the difference among the power index for nations, was not related to internship satisfaction, opportunities to learn or further develop skills, or organizational commitment. At the organizational level, Dorfman and Howell (1988) determined that cultural socialization mediated the relationship between both subordinate performance and satisfaction and leadership in a sample of Taiwanese, US, and Mexican managers working in Mexico and Taiwan. Finally, Lam, Schaubroeck, and Aryee (2002) found that lower power distance has a strong relationship among job satisfaction, performance, and absenteeism.. Hypothesis 3: Cultural orientations have no effect on academic satisfaction.. Cultural Orientations and Organizational culture. In this research, we will focus on measuring the cultural orientations from an individual which derive from the persons’ national culture. We will also address the relationship between the cultural orientations and the university’s culture. So as to not confuse these terms one of the main differences between them is that organizational cultures are susceptible to change; whereas, national culture is a “complex and deep-rooted phenomenon that in most management situations must be taken as a given” (Jaeger, 1986). The analysis between these two variables has proven to be relevant to organizational scientists, since the person - organization fit has a myriad of implications. One of them being that people tend to be happier satisfied when they are in environments that match their specific needs and that are compatible with their dispositions (Diener, Emmons, & Larsen, 1984). Another of the 19.

(29) implications is the relationship with behavioral and affective results such as better job performance, longer tenure, and commitment to the organization (O'Reilly, Chatman, & Caldwell, 1991). Adapted into this research we can assume that the student- university fit, according to their personal values matching the universities’ culture will result in better academic performance, satisfaction and commitment. A study by Walker, Ross, and Steinberg (2016) explains how in a highly collectivist society, such as Taiwan, customer service is of extreme importance in business. This data displays the importance of comprehending the fit between the individuals' preferences and organizational cultures. (O’Reilly et al., 1991).. Hypothesis 4: Cultural orientations have no effect on university culture.. Cultural Orientations dimensions. Power Distance. According to Hofstede’s (1980, 2001) on his metric of culture, power distance is “the extent to which the less powerful members of institutions and organizations within a country expect and accept that power is distributed unequally.” High power distance would mean students are highly dependent on superiors at home and school, whereas low distance students are autonomous and view teachers only as counselors yet don’t depend on them. Masculinity. Masculinity refers to “the dominant male sex role pattern in the clear majority of both traditional and modern societies.” Hofstede (1980, 2001). Societies that have high masculinity orientation are driven toward financial success and high quality of life, as oppose to high femininity in which people are more oriented to relationships and view work only as a means to an end.. Individualism/Collectivism. Hofstede (2001) defines individualism orientation as “standing for a society in which the ties between individuals are loose, with a focus on one’s immediate interest”. High individualism would cause students to become more independent on their academic decisions vrs. Collectivism which influences them to becoming part of a group. Uncertainty Avoidance. 20.

(30) Uncertainty avoidance orientation is referred as to “the extent to which the members of a society feel threatened by uncertain or unknown situations” (Hofstede, 2001). When societies have a low level of uncertainty avoidance they are more open and flexible towards the unknown, and the opposite for the high-level society.. Table 2.2. Hofstede’s Descriptions of Expected Behaviors as a Function of Cultural Value Scores and Environment in School Low Power Distance. High Power Distance. a) Student-centered education (student initiative) b) Learning represents impersonal ‘truth’ At Work Place a) Hierarchy means an inequality of roles, established for convenience b) Subordinates expect to be consulted c) Ideal boss is resourceful democrat. a) Teacher-centered education (order) b) Learning represents personal ‘wisdom’ from teacher (expert, guru). High Collectivism. High Individualism. Formal learning is for the young only Learn how to do. Education be lifelong Learn how to learn. High Femininity a) Average student is norm b) System rewards student’s social adaptation c) Student’s failure at school is relatively minor accident. High Masculinity a) Best students are norm b) System rewards student’s academic performance c) Student’s failure at school is disaster, may lead to suicide. a) Hierarchy means existential inequality b) Subordinates expect to be told what to do c) Ideal boss is benevolent autocrat (good father). (continued) Table 2.2. (continued) Low Uncertainty Avoidance. High Uncertainty Avoidance. Students comfortable with: - Unstructured learning situations - Vague objectives - Broad assignments. Students comfortable with: - Structured learning situations - Precise objectives - Detailed assignments 21.

(31) - No timetables Teachers may say “I don’t know”. - Strict timetables Teachers should have all the answers. Note. Adapted from “Teaching students from Confucian cultures,” by R. Littrell. 2005, Business and Management Education in China, p.115-140. Copyright 2005 by the World Scientific Publishing.. University Culture Organizational culture carries the same meaning and background as culture but within the members of an organization, which in this study will be specifically adapted for the university. Schein (1984) believed that we cannot hold this definition; we must go deeper into the core forces behind the organizations history, development and life. He defined it as: “the pattern of basic assumptions that a given group has invented, discovered or developed in learning to cope with its problems of external adaptation and internal integration, and that have worked well enough to be considered valid and therefore, to be taught to new members as the correct way to perceive, think and feel, in relation to those problems”. Ultimately to measure these underlying assumptions which late become the core values of the organization requires a profound study, which can sometimes be considered problematic and time costly. In this same study, Schein identifies differences among western and eastern culture, which are the same as exposed by Dong (2009) in his research, stating eastern cultures give more importance to the group rather than the individual. Therefore, understanding the persons’ individual values and cultural beliefs lead to an understanding of the persons’ adaptation the culture of the organization, and vice versa. In sum, the measurement and understanding of the organizations culture, in this case the university is vital for a successful management process. Organizational culture is one of the most important theoretical levers needed to understand organizations. Analyzing and utilizing those theories minimally requires differentiation between the cultures of various organizations, which thusly suggests the identification of common dimensions for measuring organizational culture. Organizational culture and International Students. A significant factor affecting the performance and satisfaction from international students comes from the issue between their native university culture and their new culture as they cross borders into a new country (Nayak & Venkatraman, 2010). Biggs (1999) stated that: “Learning / teaching problems due to ‘culture’. In short, the cultural background of many international students is thought to make it difficult for them to adapt 22.

(32) to the style of tertiary teaching adopted in the host country. Many international students are too teacher-dependent, too uncritical of material they have been taught, prone to rote memorization; they misunderstand the cardinal sin of plagiarism, and lack knowledge of the genres of academic writing……How to cope with this is the problem, if it is a problem.” This same study explores how incorrect socializing may be the cause of this failure to understand and apply this new academic culture he is immersed in (Nayak & Venkatraman, 2010). Another factor is the inherent differences between both countries’ learning approaches and the new host country’s teachers’ learning expectations as well. Dimensions of Organizational Culture. Organizational culture encompasses both the values and the behaviors of the members of the organization as Denison described in his study. According to this researcher, organizational culture is the fundamental values, beliefs, and principles that work as a foundation for an organization’s management system, in addition to the set of practices and behaviors that both exemplify and support those basic assumptions (Denison & Neale, 1999). Four core dimensions will be used to measure the variables of this study, adapted from organizational culture developed by Dr. Talcott Parsons. Although many quantitative instruments have been designed to measure organizational culture, Dr. Parsons claims that these four dimensions are fundamental for all organizations endure for a significant length of time. Managing change. This explains how well the organization can adapt and deal with changes effectively in its environment (Sashkin & Rosenbach, 2002). Achieving goals. Achieving goals is described as the accomplishment of the goals and objectives of the organization; it is also facilitated when the goals of the organization's members are aligned with one another and with the overall goals. (Sashkin & Rosenbach, 2002). Coordinated teamwork. The efforts of individuals and groups within the organization are fixed together so that people’s work efforts effectively fit together which is important for the long-term survival of the organization (Sashkin & Rosenbach, 2002). In collectivistic organizational cultures, collective goals and cooperative action is the priority, and members are compensated for joint contributions to organizational accomplishments (Chatman & Barsade, 1995). 23.

(33) Cultural strength. Sashkin and Rosenbach (2002) defines cultural strength as when a certain group of values and beliefs are strongly shared by most of the organization’s members.. Academic Satisfaction Academic satisfaction Definitions. The principal clients from universities are its students, therefore it’s very clear that the satisfaction from their main customers is very valuable, their commitment and performance as well are key factors in this education business. The definition of student satisfaction is derived from customer satisfaction, Tough (1982) defined this term as the following: student satisfaction refers to the student’s perception or attitude towards the learning activities. Since nowadays many companies have realized the importance of their customer satisfaction, to enhance their productivity, this has lead educational institutions to do the same. During the past years, a plethora of studies have been finished to measure students’ satisfaction (Belcheir, 1999; Betz, 1970; Chen, 2000; Chen, Hsiao, & Lee, 2007; Chadwick & Ward, 1987; Conado & Mangano, 1979; Hendry, 1983; Nord, 1997). One of the pioneers, Betz, measured six dimensions of student satisfaction, and the later studies utilized similar scales. These researchers valued student satisfaction as vital for the success or failure of the schools’ and hence made recommendations following their studies to benefit their business. Academic satisfaction and International Students’ motivation. The current literature on customer satisfaction is very rich and varied, for this purpose we will treat students as the customers. Some authors have conflicting feelings about naming students as clients, but ultimately customer satisfaction and customer loyalty are key concepts in planning marketing strategies.. Some studies claim that international students who are more satisfied with education service augmenters are more likely to recommend their current education institutions to friends and become an advocate for their university (Paswan & Ganesh, 2009), in the case of international students, recommendations have been a key factor in taking into consideration a university to study abroad (Stewart & Felicetti, 1991). This adds a factor of familiarity to choose this institution, because someone trustworthy has given a good evaluation. Brown and Huning (2010) evaluated. 24.

(34) 364 university students to examine the relationship between intrinsic motivation and job satisfaction, and the result showed that intrinsic motivation is positively related to job satisfaction. University Culture and Academic Satisfaction. Organizational culture determines how the university provides their service to the students; therefore, it is an important framework for the strategic development and total quality management of the university (Nauffal & Nasser, 2007).. Table 2.3. Types of Organizational Culture Typology Collegial, managerial, negotiating, and developmental cultures. Tight and Loose The group, the developmental, the rational goal and the internal process Collegium, bureaucracy, corporation and enterprise. Author Bergquist Birnbaum Hooijberg and Petrock MacNay. Year 1992 1988 1993 1995. Note. Adapted from “The American higher educational model in Lebanon: organizational cultures and their impact on student outcomes and satisfaction,” by Nauffal, D. I., and Nasser, R. N. 2007, Mediterranean Journal of Educational Studies, 12(1), p. 43. The present research aims to identify the organizational cultures in the different universities in Taiwan in an attempt to analyze the impact of these cultures on the satisfaction among international students. A study by Nauffal and Nasser (2007) measuring these two variables concluded that in western context, empirical evidence has proved that college experiences and learning influence student satisfaction and development.. Hypothesis 5: University culture has no effect on academic satisfaction.. Dimensions of academic satisfaction. For the purposes of this research in order to measure the academic satisfaction of higher education of international students in Taiwan the model from Ahmed and Masud (2014) was adapted, in which they proposed seven dimensions to measure service quality. 25.

(35) Administrative service. According to Ahmed and Masud (2014) this are the services provided by the administrative staffs such as, communication with the students, knowledge about the academic systems, maintaining confidentiality and keeping accurate students’ records. Tangibles. This variable represents the physical facilities, equipment, and appearance of the school staff Ahmed and Masud (2014). Academic programmes. This refers to services at the universities based on standard courses, flexible time-tables, and provision of academic guidelines by expert academic staffs (Ahmed & Masud, 2014). Academic feedback. This depicts the academic staff’s positive attitude, good communication, allowing consultation, and ability to give constant feedback to the students. (Ahmed & Masud, 2014). Responsiveness of academic staffs. Corresponds to the academic staff disposition or availability to provide service (Ahmed & Masud, 2014). Empathy. Discusses the individualized and personalized attention to students with an understanding of their needs while keeping their best interest at heart. (Ahmed & Masud, 2014).. 26.

(36) CHAPTER III METODOLOGY Chapter Overview The following chapter contains the research framework, research methods, validity and reliability, data analysis, research procedure, population and sampling, and instrumentation sections of the entire methodology for the study. It will also explain the variables used in the framework, the approach taken in using Hofstede’s cultural orientations, university culture, academic motivation and academic satisfaction. The framework will show how the variables will be tested and the research process explains the steps that will be taken. Details of the method, procedure and instrumentation are given.. Research Framework This research framework was created in accordance with the literature review. From the review, it was noted that international students’ motivation to study and learn influences their performance and thus their level of satisfaction. Hence this study will have three dependent variables and one independent variable. One of the variables identified in affinity to Geert Hofstede cultural orientations, uncertainty avoidance. The other two variables are academic motivation with intrinsic and extrinsic motivation and organizational culture adapted to fit this model as university culture due to the population, and academic satisfaction will function as the independent variable measured in this study. The model used for this research was partially adopted from Hofstede’s (1980, 2001) fivedimension cultural orientations, Academic Motivation (AM), this section consists of 12 items adopted from the Academic Motivation Scale (AMS) developed by Vallerand et al. (1992), Organizational Culture by Parsons Sashkin and Rosenbach (2002), and Academic Satisfaction Model by Ahmed and Masud (2014). The model created for this study is the Cultural orientations, academic motivation, University Culture and Academic Satisfaction, CMUA model by ChengPing Shih and Pavon, found below.. 27.

(37) H2. CULTURAL ORIENTATIONS Power distance index (PD) Individualism/collectivism (CI) Uncertainty avoidance (UA). ACADEMIC MOTIVATION Intrinsic motivation to know (IMTK) Intrinsic motivation to Accomplish (IMTA) Intrinsic motivation to experience stimulation (IMES) Extrinsic motivation identified regulation (EMID) Extrinsic motivation introjected regulation (EXIN) Extrinsic motivation external regulation (EMER). H3. ACADEMIC SATISFACTION Responsiveness academic staff (RAS) Assurance (AS) Academic Feedback (AF) Empathy (EM) Tangibles (TA) Admin. Service (AD) Academic Programs(AP). H1. H4 H5 UNIVERSITY CULTURE Managing change (MC) Achieving goals (AC) Coordinated teamwork (CTW) Cultural strength (CUST). Figure 3. 1. CMUA model research framework. Research Hypotheses Following the literature review and research framework, five hypotheses were developed in this study, to test the relationships among cultural dimensions, intrinsic motivation, university culture, and academic satisfaction. Based on the literature review and research questions, the following null-hypotheses were created for testing the results: H1: Academic motivation has no effect on academic satisfaction. H2: Cultural orientations have no effect on academic motivation.. 28.

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