The Audacious Vision of Information Schools

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The Audacious Vision of Information Schools

ISchools 的創新視野

Harry Bruce

Dean and Professor, The Information School ,

University of Washington , U.S

.A.

E-mail: harryb@uw.edu

Keywords (關鍵詞)

:

iSchools (資訊學校聯盟)

;

Li bra叩 and Information Science

(圖書資訊學)

;

Information Education (資訊教育)

<

Abstract

>

In re臼ntyears the emergen臼 ofiSchools in

No巾 Ameri臼 and the spread of this

phenomenon to other pa巾。f the world has

attracted a great deal of attention. To be

numbered among the iSch∞Is has become an

aspirational goal for sch∞Is and ∞lieges

engaged in information education and research.

The definition of an iSch∞I has remained

abstract and general - relying upon an

overarching statement of intent - the study of interactions between information, technology

and people. Member iSchools have broad

curricu旬, diverse academic programs and

interdisciplinary research enterprises. This

paper explores what they have in common by

answering three questions: (1) What are

Information Schools? (2) What is Information?

and (3) How do researchers in the information field study information? The iSchools also share a vision of the future for information education

and research. The processfollow剖 byiCaucus

members for articulating this vision is described.

【摘要】

近年來. iSchools 聯盟在北美地區快速成 長,已經引起世界各地的注意。資訊科學領域 的教育與研究相關學院多以能夠成為 iSchools 成員為目標。 iSchools 的定義是抽象或概括 的,根據其意向聲明的框架. iSchools 所關切 的是對資訊、科技與人之間的互動。 iSchools 的成員提供多元的課程、多樣化的學術研究計 畫,和跨學科整合的研究範疇。本文藉由三個 問題探討 iSchools 的相似之處: (1)什麼是 Information Schools? (2) 什麼是資訊?

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在資訊領域中研究者如何研究資訊?iSchools 對於未來的資訊教育與研究追求著共同的願 景,本文中也將呈現iCaucus 成員對於該願景 的闡述以及追求願景的歷程。

Introduction

In February 2011, The University of Washington

Information School will be hosting the 6'h annual

iConference. The first iConference was held in2005at

Pennsylvania State University. Subsequent

iConferences have been held at the University of

Michigan (2006); at the University of California, Los

Angeles (2008); at the University of North Carolina,

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Chapel Hill (2009); and at the University ofIllinois at Urbana-Champaign (2010). Past iConferences have

had approximately 300 faculty, students, and

information professionals in attendance and have been successful in building a sense of community around

the information field, bringing together people who

might not otherwise engage with one another and

helping people share and exchange their views

associated with interdisciplinary research. The

iConference in Seattle is likely to be the largest

gathering of iSchooJ researchers ever. It has been

designed to attract scholars,teachers and professionals

from around the world. As we finalize the program for

this conference, I am drawn to reflect on how far the

iSchool movement has progressed since the first iConference held at Pennsylvania State University (PSU) in 2005.

Early in 2006, I was asked by the editor of the

ASIS&T Bulletin to prepare a short article reporting on the iConference at PSU. My co-authors were Debra

Richardson, Dean of the iSchool (the School of

Information and Computer Sciences) at the University

of California Irvine; and Mike Eisenberg, Dean

Emeritus and Professor at the University of

Washington Information School. We described the

puφose of this first gathering of iSchool faculty and students as an open discourse whereby all participants might engage in identifying the baseline attributes and

qualities that define their affiliati凹 的“information

schools." The focus was to be on essentials - on trying

to articulate the essence of an

information school"

and the

information field."

This goal was ambitious. For more than forty years,

the information field has attempted to articulate clear

statements of identi旬, core values, and distinctive

qualities. We have learned that such a discourse risks

the exclusion of voices, the alienation of important

partners,and the creation of barriers that can threaten

future collaboration. If our formula for identi削ng

what is essential to being an information school is too

narrow,we risk drawing artificial boundaries that may

have long-lasting impact. Alternatively, too broad a

definition runs the risk of becoming too abstract and

mostly meaningless,thus trivializing the Information

School movement (or iSchool movement). It is

important to strike the right balance; to address the most serious and important questions.

Not surprisingly, this first collective engagement

with the question of iSchool identity did not succeed in

forging clear, agreed-upon, and enduring statements

describing the value and pu叩ose of Information

Schools. In the years since, the iSchool movement

(later known as the iSchool Project and then the

iSchool Caucus) has made several attempts at strategic communications and marketing. Much of this effort has been channeled through the iSchools.org website and through the annual iConference. The clarity of messaging an iSchool value proposition has also become a factor of the success of individual iSchools. The 28 iSchools that are currently members of the

iSchool movement are top-ranked schools

internationally. They collectively and individually set an aspirational standard against which other schools offering information education and research might measure their performance. The work of member iSchools therefore provides an ambitious goal for

schools that seek an affiliation with this movement.

The work of communication is therefore paramount The iSchool Caucus (or iCaucus) has employed a half-time communications coordinator to assist with thiseffo前.

It is true to say that the iSchool movement over recent years has continued to gain momentum and to

add new members. The movement is now global,

including schools from thirteen of the United States as

well as Canada, China, Denmark, Germany, Great

Britain, Ireland and Singapore. Schools across the

world that focus upon information education and research are now seeking an affiliation with the iSchool movement as a statement about their own

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identity and the quality and impact of their work. The Consortium of iSchools of the Asia Pacific (CiSAP) is an example. This effort to promote the establishment

of iSchools in the Asia-Paci日c Region and to foster

collaboration and exchange of new ideas is, in my

view, an indicator of the success of the iSchool

movement overall.

While the iSchool movement can certainly claim

success in terms of momentum, broader acceptance,

and deeper understanding among key constituencies

and stakeholders,a number of fundamental questions

remain. Perhaps the answers to these questions will

always be contested and controversial. Nonetheless,it

IS m my opInion Important to contmue our attempts to be clearer with our response to four questions that are

fundamental for Information Schools: (I) what are

Information Schools,(2) what is the information field,

(3) what is information,and (4) how does the field

study information? Let me begin with a brief

disclaimer. The answers presented briefly and

incompletely in this paper are my answers to these key

questions. They might be used to explain,somewhat,

my approach to building and leading the University of

Washington Information School. These views should

not be regarded as representative of the iCaucus; they

are presented here merely to provoke fu口her

discussion by symposium participants.

What are Information Schools?

Information Schools are intellectual communities made up of researchers and scholars from diverse

academic and practice-based contexts, who apply

different methods and theories to understand a wide

range of Information issues. iSchools are

interdisciplinary; including the fields of information

science,library science,computer science,engineering,

education,history,philosophy,sociology,management

and others. Broadly, iSchools focus on the

relationships among information, technology, and

people. They share an interest and commitment to

ensuring that people can find and effectively use the

information they need to complete tasks, make

decisions,and advance their personal and professional

goals. This is characterized by a commitment to learning and understanding the role that information plays in human activities. Information Schools believe that expertise in all forms of information is required for

advances in science,business,education,and culture.

This expertise must include understanding the uses and users of information as well as the various contexts in

which information is exchanged, including those

facilitated by technology. The iSchools do not regard themselves as the only home for this sort of research.

Rather,their aim is to create a welcoming venue for

embracing the opportunities and challenges of

interdisciplinary research in the information field

What is the Information Field?

The information field draws on an interdisciplinary

community of scholars, researcher宮, educators and

practitioners to study information, information

provision and information use. The goal of the field is to enhance the use of information by people in

individual,social and organizational contexts.

The primary object of study for the field is

information - but what is information? Attempts to answer this question have been debated so thoroughly in the literature that some critics have claimed that the field cannot define or even agree on a definition of its

primary concept. This is not the case. It is true that

there are a number of views on the definition of

information but this makes perfect sense. the concept

is complex; the more we pursue it through scholarship,

research and professional practice,the more thorough

and far-reaching our conceptual and operational

definitions are likely to become. The unraveling of the complexity ofthe concept through study by researchers in the information field does not mean that we cannot reach agreement on the way the term information is viewed by the field at any point in time or for a

particular context. The success of the Information

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theory,electronics, economics, classi 日 catIOn sCIence,

systems science, artificial intelligence (Saracevic,

1992),Cybernetics,general systems theory (Rayward,

1996), language, ethnography, semiotics, (Buckland,

1999),statisti瓜,communications,law and government

(Hawkins, 200 I). Those who have reported the

composite of disciplines that contribute to the

information field claim that the field is proud of its

interdisciplina 討ty(Beghtol,1995; Saracevic,1992) and

that this interdisciplinary evolution is ongoing

(Saracevic,1999)

References

Beghtol, C. (1995). Within, among, between: Three

faces of interdisciplinarity. Canadian Journal of

Information andLibrary Science,20(2),30-41.

Borko, H. (1968). Information science: What is it?

American Documentation,19(1),3-5.

Buckland, M. (1999). The landscape of information

science: The American Society for Information

Science at 62.Journal of the American Society for

informationScien白,50(11),970-974.

Buckland,M. (1991). Information as thing. Journalof

the American Society ofInformation Science,42(5),

351-360.

Hawkins, D. (2001). Information science abstracts:

Tracking the literature of information science.

Journal of the American Society for information

Science,52(1),44-53.

Herner,S. (1984). Brief History of information science.

Journal of the American Society for Information

Science,35(3),157-163.

Rayward,W. B. (1996). The History and historiography

of information science: Some reflections.Information

Processingand Management,32(1),3-17.

Saracevic, T. (1992). Information science: Origin,

evolution and relations. In P. Vakkari & C. Blaise

(ed.),Conceptions oflibrary and information science:

Historical, empirical, and theoretical perspectives.

Taylor Graham: London.

Saracevic,T. (1999). Information science. Journal of

the American Societyfor information Science,50(12),

1051-1063.

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