Section 3: About Assessment Section 2: About Teaching Reading Section 1: About the Programme Contents

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Section 1: About the Programme

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Rationale 1

1.3 Aims 1

1.4 Objectives 1

1.5 Links to EMB Curriculum Documents 2

1.6 Overview 2

1.6.1 Stages 3

1.6.2 Components and Component Objectives 4

1.6.3 Materials 5

1.6.4 Units of Work 6

1.6.5 Reading Skills Framework 6

1.6.6 Teaching Team 6

1.6.7 Fortnightly Cycle 7

1.6.8 Literary Session Organisation 8

1.7 Roles and Responsibilities of Stakeholders 10

Section 2: About Teaching Reading

2.1 Introduction 13

2.2 The Process of Reading 14

2.3 Teaching the Process of Reading 17

2.4 Roles of the Teaching Team 23

Section 3: About Assessment

3.1 Introduction 29

3.2 The Reading Skills Framework 29

3.3 Formative Assessment in the Hong Kong Curriculum 29

3.4 Assessment in the Units of Work 32

3.5 Collecting Information – Using Assessment Techniques 32

3.6 Matching Students to Book Levels 33

3.7 Recording Assessment Information – Class Unit Checklist 34 3.8 Recording Assessment Information – Reading Skills Profile 34

3.9 Analysing Assessment Information 35

3.10 Using Student Portfolios 36

3.11 Assessment for Guided Reading 37

3.12 Reporting 37

3.13 Conclusion 38

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47

4.2 Routines 47

4.3 Getting to Know Each Other 48

4.4 A Positive and Supportive Climate 48

4.5 Management Systems 48

4.6 Collaborative Teaching 50

Section 5: About the Whole School and the Classroom Environment

5.1 Introduction 51

5.2 The Reading Room 51

5.3 The Whole School 52

Section 6: About the Units of Work

6.1 Introduction 55

6.2 Component Objectives 55

6.3 Learning and Teaching Scope and Sequence 55

6.4 Hear We Go – A Phonological Awareness Unit 56

6.4.1 Overview of the Hear We Go Unit 56

6.4.2 Brief Description of the Activities in the Unit 56

6.4.3 About the Unit of Work 57

6.4.4 Movement 58

6.5 Setting Up and Implementation Units of Work Overview 58

6.6 Stage Exit Descriptors 60

Section 7: About Selecting Books

7.1 Introduction 79

7.2 Selecting Books 79

7.3 Matching Students to Book Levels 80

Section 8: About the Home Reading Programme

8.1 Introduction 85

8.2 Objectives 85

8.3 Materials 85

8.4 Roles and Responsibilities 87

8.4.1 Teachers 87

8.4.2 Classroom Assistant (CA) 88

8.4.3 Students 88

8.4.4 Parents/Guardians 88

8.4.5 Home Reading Conferencing 89

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9.1 Introduction 91

9.2 At Home 91

9.3 At School 93

Section 10: About an Integrated English Language Programme (Integration Stage)

10.1 Introduction 95

10.2 Guidelines for the Third PLP-R Lesson 95

10.3 Integrating the PLP-R (KS1) 97

10.4 Integrating the Teaching of Literacy/Language Skills 100

10.5 Creating Curriculum Space 100

Section 11: About Achieving Independence Stage

11.1 Introduction 103

11.2 Steps to Achieving Independence 104

11.3 Creating a School-based Unit of Work 105

11.4 Curriculum Overviews 106

Section 12: About the Professional Development

12.1 Introduction 115

12.2 Aims 115

12.3 Professional Development Programme and Resources 116

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Section 4: About Classroom Management

4.1 Meeting Roles

4.2 Elements of Meeting Effectiveness 4.3 Recipe for Success

4.4 Effective Co-teaching Strategies 4.5 Co-teaching Approaches

117 118 119 121 122

Section 5: About the Whole School and the Classroom Environment

5.1 Ideas for Setting Up a Reading Room 123

Section 8: About the Home Reading Programme

8.1 Home Reading Record Sheet 8.2 Parent Guidelines

8.3 Parent Questionnaire

125 127 131

Section 11: About School-based Curriculum Development

11.1 English Language Curriculum Components 11.2 Steps to Develop School-based Curriculum 11.3 School Considerations

133 134 135

References

137

Glossary

139

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1.1 Introduction

The Primary Literacy Programme – Reading (KS1) [PLP-R (KS1)] was produced by the Advisory Teaching Team (ATT), Native-speaking English Section (NET), Education and Manpower Bureau (EMB). It provides direction and guidance for the teaching of literacy with a focus on reading as well as the tools necessary for the assessment of student needs and the knowledge of how they read. It supports setting up supportive language-rich whole school and classroom environments and establishing classroom and resource management systems. It promotes the use, by teachers, of Storytelling, Reading Aloud, Shared Reading, Guided Reading and Independent Reading teaching strategies.

An evaluation of the Programme occurred during the first two years. After two years a major review occurred, which has resulted in the production of revised teaching, learning and professional development materials.

This Teacher Manual explains how the Programme should be implemented. The Units of Work, including the phonological awareness unit (Hear We Go), Home Reading Booklet, Matching Students to Book Levels Kit and Resource Packages support this implementation. These Programme materials are introduced to teachers through a series of professional development workshops.

1.2 Rationale

Children in their early years of school are developing literacy in their first language.

They need explicit and systematic teaching to ensure that this development occurs.

This also applies to children learning literacy in their second language. Learning to read only happens once. Therefore, children’s understanding of concepts of print, which they have developed in their first language, should contribute to their reading development in their second language. They do however still need to adapt to a new set of sound/symbol correspondences, and for Hong Kong children, a new script, punctuation and directionality when they read in English. Therefore, English as a second language literacy programme, is essential to ensure that Hong Kong children do learn these new skills and strategies.

Reading is fundamental to learning a language. Children’s language acquisition will be enhanced when they are immersed in a literacy programme with a focus on reading.

1.3 Aims

To provide professional development for key stakeholders and to foster the English language proficiency of students through a sustainable literacy programme with a focus on reading.

1.4 Objectives

• Promote the use of innovative and appropriate learning and teaching practices and methods to support the learning of reading in English

• Foster students’ independence and motivation in learning to read and reading to learn

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reading in English

• Promote and support the creation and management of an environment that will encourage students to learn to read in English

• Support the development of school-based English literacy programmes

• Promote the involvement of parents in achieving the objectives of the PLP-R (KS1)

• Involve all relevant stakeholders, including Principals, Primary School master/Mistress Curriculum Development (PSMCD), sponsoring bodies and EMB Personnel, in the achievement of the objectives of the PLP-R (KS1)

1.5 Links to EMB Curriculum Documents

The Programme incorporates key elements of the EMB’s curriculum document, English Language Curriculum Guide (Primary 1-6) [ELCG] 2004.

The ELCG recommends programming a Reading Workshop component for 40% of the School-based English Language Programme. The PLP-R (KS1) supports the development and implementation of a school’s Reading Workshop component as part of the school’s English Language Programme.

Components of a School-based English Language Curriculum

1.6 Overview

The diagram below provides a synopsis of how all the elements of the Programme fit together. At the heart of the Programme is the child’s Reading and English Language development. The Programme consists of four Components, which are: Teaching Reading, Assessment, Classroom Management and Whole School and Classroom Environment. The implementation of the Programme must be supported by

English Language KLA Curriculum Guide Draft Nov 2003, CDI, p.90

General English

Programme

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school-home connection. The Progamme incorporates recommendations provided by the ELCG. Its implementation is supported by professional development sessions for stakeholders and the provision of the PLP-R resources for schools.

Programme Overview

1.6.1 Stages

Setting Up Stage

This Stage supports the setting up of whole school and classroom environments, classroom management routines and systems, assessment routines and the use of teaching strategies, especially Storytelling, Reading Aloud and Shared Reading. The Home Reading Programme is also introduced. Teachers may decide to adapt different aspects of the Programme to cater for student and school needs.

Independence Stage Integration Stage

Implementation Stage Setting Up Stage

Reading Assessment

Reading Programme

Classroom Management

Whole School and Classroom Environment

Reading and Language

Skills Development

Commitment of Stakeholders Collaboration between Stakeholders

Professional

Development EMB Curriculum

Documents

Parent Support Resources

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The Implementation Stage provides guidance for the establishment of the teaching strategies including the introduction of Guided Reading and Independent Reading.

During this Stage formative and summative assessment strategies are established as integral part of the teaching and learning process. In particular they help with the formation of ability groups for Guided Reading.

Integration Stage

Integration Stage is the phase in which PLP-R (KS1) learning and teaching content and strategies are applied in other GE lessons. This may occur quite early on in the Setting Up Stage and may involve something as simple as applying the ‘zero noise signal’ in the other lessons.

Independence Stage

Independence Stage is the phase in which teachers plan their own units of work. It is recommended that schools complete the Setting Up Stage and at least one Implementation Stage Unit of Work before considering beginning their own unit of work development. The PLP-R (KS1) recommends that teachers begin by choosing an appropriate Shared Reading text and using a Unit of Work framework to develop their own unit of work. Then teachers can consider including more GE and language skills content. Eventually teachers should be able to produce and implement their own language/literacy programmes.

Progression through the Stages will vary according to the school, teacher and/or student readiness.

1.6.2 Components and Component Objectives

The four Components are:

• Teaching Reading

• Assessment

• Classroom Management

• Whole School and Classroom Environment.

Reading Programme

Reading Assessment

Classroom Management

Whole School and Classroom Environment

Primary Literacy Programme

Programme Components

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Teacher

Manual Units of Work

Resource Package

Matching Students to Book Levels Kit

Home Reading Booklet

Programme Materials

Objectives have been developed for each of the Components. They provide descriptions of the learning and teaching and organisational content of the PLP-R (KS1) (see Section 6).

The Programme provides directions and support for setting up and establishing the Components and developing and maintaining them.

1.6.3 Materials

The Programme provides the teacher with a selection of materials, which will further develop the learning and teaching in the classroom. The materials include:

• A Teacher Manual – providing pertinent information for the teacher to implement the Programme in the school

• Unit of Work, Hear We Go, for use before the Setting Up Units to help develop phonological awareness

• Units of Work for the Setting Up Stage – providing direction and guidance for setting up the classroom environment, establishing classroom management and routines, beginning assessment and integration and implementing the teaching of reading

• Units of Work for the Implementation Stage – providing direction and guidance for establishing Guided Reading and Independent Reading

• A Matching Students to Book Levels Kit – providing benchmark books, questions and recording sheets that can be used to match students to book levels

• Resource Packages – providing video clips, posters, worksheets, photos, information, exemplars

• Home Reading Booklet – used by the students and parents for recording books read and for making comments and responses to books.

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Units of Work have been developed to provide direction and support for teachers as they work their way through the Setting Up and Implementation Stages. Each Unit of Work is based around a book and consists of six or eight Literacy Sessions. The teaching and organisation have been informed by the Component Objectives. Each Unit of Work provides opportunities for students to develop reading skills and strategies. There is a learning and teaching developmental sequence to the Units of Work. Advice is given in Section 6 about this sequence.

The Reading Skills Framework (see below) underpins the planning of the learning, teaching and assessment of reading.

The Hear We Go Unit of Work is for P1 students, in the beginning the year, to help them develop the students’ phonological awareness and the classroom routines they will follow the subsequent Units. The subsequent Setting Up Units of Work use Shared Reading, while the Implementation Units use Guided Reading as the main teaching strategies for reading. Storytelling and Reading Aloud are also applied.

Teachers can adapt a Unit of Work depending on student and school needs but there are criteria that need to be considered (see Section 6) before decisions are made.

Integration is encouraged but this will need to be collaboratively planned with all teachers involved in the PLP-R (KS1).

The Unit of Work framework is to be used when teachers are ready for developing school-based units of work as part of the Independence Stage.

1.6.5 Reading Skills Framework

The Reading Skills Framework provides descriptions of Reading Skills that are based on the Reading Skills from the ELCG. There are three levels: I, II, III. The learning and teaching in the Units of Work provides opportunities for students to work towards the development of the Level I, II and III Reading Skills. The Units of Work also provide opportunities for teachers to assess the students’ progress towards the development of these Reading Skills.

1.6.6 Teaching Team

The teaching team consists of the local English teacher (LET), the native English- speaking teacher (NET) and the classroom assistant (CA).

The roles of the team will vary depending on the teaching of reading strategy, the groupings of the students, the Literacy Session section (see 1.6.8) and the needs of the students. They will all be involved in making sure the Component Objectives are being met. A more detailed description of these roles is included in Section 2: About Teaching Reading. All members of the teaching team need to teach and plan collaboratively.

The team will need the support of other stakeholders, which includes the Principal, PSMCD, English Panel Chair (EPC), parents and other teachers.

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1.6.7 Fortnightly Cycle

The organisation of the Programme is dependent on how many staff members are in the classroom, including if the NET is full time in one school or alternating between two schools. Thus, a fortnightly cycle has been developed to cater for this, as different staff members will have different roles to play.

During the Setting Up Stage, the teaching team members involved in Weeks 1 and 3 are the local English teacher [LET], native English-speaking teacher [NET] and classroom assistant [CA]. In Weeks 2 and 4, they are the LET and CA, if the NET is in his/her other school. If the NET is in the school every week, the teachers will need to make adaptations to the roles to include the NET.

During the Implementation Stage, it is the reverse if there is a part time NET.

Prompt, Question

Scaffold, Assess

Monitor Group 1

Group 2 Group

4 Group

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Support

CA

Read, Guide Read, Guide Scaffold, Assess

Prompt, Question

LET NET

Observe

Week 1 and 3

NET LET CA

Week 2 and 4

LET CA

Possible Roles within the Teaching Team

The Fortnightly Cycle for the Setting Up Stage

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Whole Class Group Work

The Literacy Sessions in the Units of Work have been designed to be approximately 70 minutes (equal to two 35 minute lessons). Schools may need to make adjustments if the timetabled Literacy Session is less than 70 minutes. During the Literacy Sessions, the students will participate in whole class, large group, small group and individual activities. Schools joining the PLP-R after the initial two years will plan for 70 minutes plus a third lesson.

The Literacy Session Sections – Shared Reading

The Setting Up Stage sections are:

• Warm up: Whole class – approximately 5 minutes – introducing the lesson objectives, revisiting previous learning

• Whole Class: approximately 30 minutes – Before Reading/Before the Storytelling, Reading the Text/Telling the Story and After the Reading/After the Story activities

• Group Work: approximately 30 minutes – After the Reading/After the Storytelling activities and Independent Reading

• Concluding the Session: Whole class – approximately 5 minutes – revisiting previous learning, sharing student work and Reading Aloud.

It is important that these sections occur in the sequence listed above. However, the duration of each section will depend on the needs of the students and may vary from week to week and over time.

Literacy Session Sections:

Setting Up Stage – every week

Implementation Stage – Weeks 1 and 3

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Implementation Stage – Weeks 2 and 4 Work include all the sections.

The Literacy Sessions in the Implementation Stage Units of Work, in Weeks 1 and 3, have the Warm Up and Before the Guided Reading sections as whole class activities.

For the next section of the Literacy Session, the students are engaged in group work.

Then in Concluding the Session, the students come back together as a whole class.

The Literacy Session Sections – Guided Reading

A typical Setting Up Stage Unit of Work Literary Session when the NET is in the school could consist of:

• Warm up: The NET or LET starts the Session with a song or rhyme with the students grouped as a whole class at the front of the classroom. The NET and LET co-teach this section and the CA helps to monitor and support the students.

• Whole Class: The NET and LET co-teach the Before Reading, Reading the Text and After Reading activities and the CA helps to monitor and support the students.

• Reading Activities and Independent Reading: With the students seated in three/four groups, the teaching team alternates between them, supporting, guiding, assessing and providing feedback (see diagram in 1.6.6). The activities the students engage in, and for how long, will depend on the number, size and composition of these groups and the number of staff members in the classroom. The CA monitors and supports the other groups that are not with a teacher. The students complete reading activities and Independent Reading.

The CA organises the borrowing of books for the students to take home.

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usually with Reading Aloud, sharing of work or singing a song or rhyme. The CA helps to monitor and support the students.

1.7 Roles and Responsibilities of Stakeholders

The PLP-R (KS1) requires a collaborative team approach. Team members each have specific roles and responsibilities. To facilitate the effective implementation of the Programme, it is recommended that:

• Principal

− Supports and promotes the Programme in the school

− Adopts a positive attitude towards change and innovative practice in English language learning and teaching and assessment in the school

− Balances teachers’ workload to facilitate effective planning, teaching and professional development

− Provides weekly planning time

− Appoints a senior teacher as co-coordinator of the Programme

− Selects local teachers who are enthusiastic and prepared to carry the Programme for more than one year

− Provides a classroom assistant, e.g. ELTA, Teaching Assistant, Librarian or other English Teacher

− Assigns the duties of the PNET Scheme SET

− Ensures that parents are informed about the Programme

• English Panel Chair

− Supports and promotes the Programme in the school

− Liaises with other teachers

− Is involved in the planning of the Programme

− Supports innovative practice and change

− Is involved in teaching in the Programme where practical

• PSMCD

− Is familiar with content and progress of the Programme

− Makes cross-curricular links and supports collaboration between all teachers

− Supports and promotes skills and strategies from the Programme in other curriculum areas

• Advisory Teacher

− Works collaboratively with members of the ATT and English teachers to facilitate the Programme in schools

− Supports the use and development of effective resources

− Provides curriculum support to staff involved

− Supports staff development programmes

• Local English Teacher

− Works collaboratively with members of the ATT and English teachers to facilitate the Programme in schools

− Promotes and supports the Programme and the development of reading in the school

− Engages and participates in co-planning and co-teaching

− Works with the NET to disseminate innovative/effective teaching methods and curriculum resources among the teachers

− Supports the development of curriculum materials

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− Works collaboratively on school-based curriculum development

− Attends professional development sessions

− Explains the Programme to parents in informal settings

• NET

− Promotes and supports the Programme and the development of reading in the school

− Engages and participates in co-planning and co-teaching

− Disseminates innovative/effective teaching methods and curriculum resources among the teachers

− Undertakes the development and implementation of good teaching strategies/activities and curriculum materials

− Works collaboratively on school-based curriculum development

− Attends professional development sessions

− Provides support for the English Panel through school-based professional development sessions

− Develops an effective bank of resources which includes lesson plans and teaching materials

• Co-ordinator

− Promotes and supports the Programme and the development of reading the school

− Informs the Principal of progress

− Links with the ATT

− Facilitates effective implementation of the Programme

− Co-ordinates management of resources

− Also carries out the PNET Scheme SET duties

− Engages and participates in co-planning and co-teaching

• Librarian

− Promotes and supports the Programme and the development of reading in the school

− Suggests and promotes quality English reading resources throughout the school

• Classroom Assistant (CA)

− Assists in establishing the Reading Classroom

− Supports teachers in the classroom, e.g. works with small groups

− Maintains resources

− Is involved in briefing as necessary

− Attends professional development sessions

− Assists in the setting up and the maintaining of the Home Reading Programme

• Parents/Guardians

− Support the Reading Programme

− Provide classroom support where possible and appropriate

− Encourage and support a reading culture for children in the home

− Attend school-based information sessions related to the Programme

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Section 2: About Teaching Reading

2.1 Introduction

Reading helps to develop thinking skills, enriches knowledge, enhances language proficiency and broadens life experience. Emphasis has to be placed on motivating learners and providing them with proper guidance and opportunity to enhance their learning capacity through reading.

Language teachers can help promote reading through encouraging students to read a wide range of materials with different subject content and text types. Teachers should select or develop appropriate tasks or activities based on the reading, in which learners find meaning and pleasure, so that they will learn to appreciate the value of reading and become motivated to make reading a lifelong habit.

Reading should be promoted in schools and integrated into regular English Language lessons with the other skills of listening, speaking and writing. It should also be promoted across all KLAs and in the whole-school curriculum. Further, school should help learners develop the habit of reading by encouraging them to read outside class time, such as during morning assembly, recess and after school.

English Language Education Key Learning Area English Language Curriculum Guide (P.1-S3). 2002

Learning to read in a first language ... is critical to success in learning to read in a second language.

Braunger, J & Lewis, J. (1998). Building a Knowledge Base in Reading. 2nd ed. Portland, Oregon: Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory’s Curriculum and Instruction Services. p. 23

Research findings include the following:

• Many oral language experiences in both languages are critical – these include conversations and reading aloud (i.e. reading to)

• Print-rich environment is important to success in learning both languages

• Authentic opportunities to read and write in both languages should be available in the classroom

• Mastery of English vocabulary is a key determinant of reading comprehension when English is the second language

• When learners are allowed to transfer their reading skills from their first language to the second language, their confidence is supported.

L.I.F.T. Literacy Instruction for Teachers. Learning Media New Zealand. 2003

A widely held belief, supported by many researchers, is that reading activity leads to many other cumulative advantages. Good readers have many more opportunities to accumulate extensive vocabularies, which in turn, assist them to read more, learn more word meanings, and thereby read even better. Poorer readers, on the other hand, who may read slowly and without enjoyment, read less, resulting in slower vocabulary development, which may discourage further reading growth.

Ng. Seok M, 2000. Parents and Children: Reading and Learning Together. Hong Kong CECES

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2.2 The Process of Reading

The PLP-R (KS1) provides the framework and support for the teaching of the process of reading. Reading involves the development of reading skills and attitudes to help the students ‘read with understanding’ English Language Education KLA Curriculum Guide (P1-S3).

2002. p 93

In order to develop these skills and attitudes, young readers need to be taught to use reading strategies, draw on their developing literacy practices and learn to take on various roles, or ways of interacting with a text.

Reading Skills

The PLP-R (KS1) provides opportunities for students to develop literacy skills with a focus on reading skills.

The reading skills, which come from the ELCG are:

• Understanding the basic conventions of written English

• Constructing meaning from texts

• Locating information and ideas.

In the process of developing reading skills, learners from an early stage acquire, develop and apply:

• knowledge of the use of written symbols

• knowledge of letter-sound relationships

• skills of word recognition

• grammar knowledge

• skills in contextual understanding.

Successful integration of reading skills into the English Language curriculum will help young learners develop a positive attitude towards learning to read and reading to learn.

English Language Curriculum Guide (P1-P6). 2004. A2.

Reading Strategies

The PLP-R (KS1) provides opportunities for students to learn and practise reading strategies that will help them to ‘scan texts, sound out letters, analyse structures and interpret the sentences into meaningful messages’ English Language Curriculum Guide (P1-P6).

2004. A28.

These are:

• Semantic strategies – finding out about meanings, e.g. word meanings, common expressions, picture cues

• Grammatical or syntactical strategies – finding out about language structures, e.g. sentence structure, word order, text organisation

• Graphophonic strategies – finding out about the relationships between sounds and letters and about combining sounds (blending), e.g. differences between letter sounds and letter names, alphabetic principle, analogy and letter clusters.

Graphophonic strategies also include:

• Phonological strategies – finding out about the sounds of language, e.g. rhyme, alliteration, onset and rime, individual sounds

• Graphological strategies – finding about language in print, e.g. letter and word shapes, letter clusters, sight words, punctuation, layout

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The ELCG describes Semantic, Syntactic and Graphophonic strategies. The PLP-R (KS1) is also providing opportunities for students to learn and practise Phonological and Graphological strategies.

The Hear We Go Unit of Work provides specific opportunities for P1 students to develop phonological awareness.

The diagram below shows the strategies readers use to help them make ‘meaningful messages’ from what they are reading. The questions are the sorts of questions readers ask themselves when they use these strategies.

Literacy Practices

People develop their own literacy practices in order to communicate through listening, speaking, reading and writing. They draw upon these literacy practices in their first language to help them learn literacy in their second language. These practices are influenced by experiences:

• prior to school

• at school

• at home

• within their community.

Does this sentence make sense?

What is the first sound in this word?

Do the sounds I want to say match the letters on the page?

Would we say it like this?

Semantic

Meaning

Graphological

Syntactic

Phonological Graphophonic

Does this word look right? Does it sound right?

Reading Strategies

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They are also influenced by the:

• cultural background

• second language opportunities outside the classroom

• attitude to literacy, especially reading.

The PLP-R (KS1) acknowledges and values each student’s first language literacy practices and influences and builds on these through the suggested learning and teaching in the Component Objectives as well as through the Units of Work.

Teachers when planning curricula need to consider the influence of the literacy practices their students use in their first language, e.g. directionality, reading environment at home.

Roles of the Reader

Readers take on different roles when they are reading. These roles enable them to go beyond decoding print to understanding how texts can be read and used for different purposes. Students need to be taught how and why to take on these roles.

The PLP-R (KS1) through the Units of Work provide opportunities for students to develop and practise these roles. Readers take them on in different ways depending on their ability and development level. For example, asking a student to indicate their favourite page in a picture book they have read is asking the student to take on aspects of the Text Analyser role.

The diagram below provides examples of the types of question readers ask when they take on different roles.

What do I

do with this text here and now?

What is this text all about?

How do I make sense of this text?

What is this text trying to make me feel or convince

Semantic

Graphological

Meaning

Graphophonic

Syntactic

Phonological Roles of the Reader

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Vocabulary

Vocabulary development refers to the development of knowledge of stored information about the meanings and pronunciations of words necessary for communication. It is important for beginning reading because when a student comes to a word and sounds it out, he/she is also determining if the word makes sense based on his/her understanding of the word. If a student does not know the meaning of the word, there is no way to check if the word fits, or to make meaning from the sentence.

When formal reading instruction begins, a limited vocabulary may impede the student’s ability to read fluently with meaning. Language learning experiences, which are purposeful, meaningful, challenging, contextually rich and age appropriate should be developed to build the English vocabularies of students.

The PLP-R (KS1) includes opportunities for the explicit learning and teaching of vocabulary.

2.3 Teaching the Process of Reading

Teachers can use different teaching strategies to help students develop and practise their reading skills and attitudes through the use of reading strategies and by taking on different reading roles.

The PLP-R (KS1) through the Units of Work incorporates the use of the teaching strategies listed below. Their use provides for the diverse needs of all students and even though there is a focus on reading, they also allow for the learning and teaching of the other literacy skills – listening, speaking and writing.

Teaching Strategies

• Reading Aloud

• Storytelling

• Shared Reading

• Guided Reading

• Independent Reading

• Home Reading

A bridge to independence … Guided Reading

Independent Reading Shared Reading

Reading Aloud Storytelling

To By With

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• Reading Aloud involves the teacher reading aloud a text and demonstrating a positive attitude to reading, reading behaviour and book orientation. Students are provided with opportunities to enjoy a variety of texts and to engage with the text afterwards through activities, such as discussion and mime.

• Storytelling involves the teacher telling a story with the use of pictures or real objects, e.g. puppets or storyboards, to support the students’ understanding of the content. Students are provided with opportunities to participate in the story and develop some listening and basic reading skills. After Storytelling activities can include retelling the story or role-play.

• Shared Reading involves teachers modelling, instructing and explaining reading skills and strategies through sharing the reading process with students. They read and reread the text, e.g. a big book or picture book, involving the students more and more with the reading. Students are provided with opportunities to learn and develop the skills, strategies and confidence needed to participate in Guided and Independent Reading as well as the Home Reading Programme. They complete After Reading activities either as a whole class, in groups or individually.

• Guided Reading involves teachers working with individual students or small groups of students with similar learning needs. Teachers provide opportunities for students to practise effective strategies they have been taught in Shared Reading sessions. Students read books at their Instructional Reading Level (see Section 7).

• Independent Reading involves teachers providing uninterrupted time for students to practise and integrate skills and strategies they have learned in Shared and Guided Reading sessions as well as enjoy the reading experience. The students read books at their Independent Reading Level (Section 7).

• Home Reading involves teachers helping students to select books at their Independent Reading level to be read at home with the guidance and encouragement of parents or guardians. The students will practise the strategies and skills they have learned during Shared and Guided Reading.

When teachers are planning their own school-based Units of Work, they will make decisions about the teaching strategies they will use. When making their decisions, they will need to consider:

• the teaching resources available or needed, including the shared book (see Section 7: About Selecting Books)

• assessment information, which provides information about student needs

• links between the PLP-R (KS1) and the rest of the English Language Programme.

Shared Reading

More detail about the use of Shared Reading is included here because it is this teaching strategy that provides a structure for most of the learning and teaching in the PLP-R (KS1) and an organisation for the use of the other teaching strategies. It is important that the teacher reads the text more than once, using the subsequent readings to reinforce specific teaching points.

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The Shared Reading approach supports English language learners by:

• Modelling the conventions of spoken English within an authentic context

• Enabling them to construct their own meaning from the illustrations and shared reading of the text

• Increasing their exposure to a wide variety of different text types and vocabulary

• Developing their awareness of visual and phonological information in English

• Providing a secure learning environment for them to join in and share a reading experience

• Developing positive attitudes towards learning to read in English.

L.I.F.T. Literacy Instruction for Teachers. 2003. Learning Media New Zealand. p.69

The PLP-R (KS1) provides a learning and teaching sequence for the Shared Reading teaching strategy for reading and the activities to be included. This sequence is:

• Before the Reading

• Reading the Text

• After the Reading

• Reading Activities.

After the Reading activities in the Units of Work are completed as a whole class.

Reading Activities and Independent Reading activities are completed in groups or as individuals.

Before the Reading

During this part, teachers will familiarise the students with the cover of the book, find out about the students’ prior knowledge and experiences that relate to the book’s content and pre-teach relevant vocabulary that will help the students to understand the contents and read some of the text.

The following are some suggestions for the different focuses that teachers can take Before the Reading and the sorts of ‘teacher talk’ they can use. The purpose of the

‘teacher talk’ is to engage the students with the new text and to model the ‘self-talk’

that proficient readers use.

1. Identifying the purpose of the book (the text type)

• Is this a story or an information book?

• Are these pictures or photographs?

• Who/what is on the cover?

• What can you see?

• What could the book be about?

• Is he/she happy/sad/angry? Why could this be?

2. Relating previous knowledge and experiences to the topic

• What/who is that?

• Where is that?

• When could this be happening?

• What is he/she doing?

• Where is he/she going?

• What noise does it make?

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3. Establishing prior knowledge of vocabulary

• What is that?

• This is a _____?

4. Pointing out the title, author, illustrator, photographer

• I’m going to point to the title. Let’s read it together.

• Who is the author? Let’s read it together.

• Who is the illustrator? Let’s read it together.

5. Making predictions

• What could happen?

• What do you think this story is about?

6. Pre-teaching unknown vocabulary (that has picture cues for on the cover)

• This word is ____________.

• Read it with me.

• Let’s sound it out.

7. Skimming the text

• Let’s quickly go through the book.

• What can you see in this picture?

• We know this word. What does it say?

• What do you think will happen next?

• We’ve seen this before, what was it?

Reading the Text

During this part the teacher can use the following activities to:

• focus students on specific teaching points

• make sure students are engaged with the book

• model how experienced readers read

• model how readers use different reading strategies.

1. Leading the reading (using pointer) – modelling the fluency and expression

• I’ll read the text aloud. You read along with me silently.

2. Encouraging students to join in

• Let’s read this together.

• This time we’ll read it together.

3. Modelling reading strategies

• What is this word?

• Let’s work it out.

• Did that make sense?

• Does it fit with the meaning/words that have gone before?

• Does this sound right?

• Would we say it like that?

• Does this look right?

• Do the sounds match the letters?

• What clues do the pictures give?

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4. Interpreting responses

• Did you enjoy the story? Do you understand?

• Teachers need to observe and listen to student responses to identify any fluency and phrasing needs, their understanding and their motivation.

5. Emphasising teaching points that will help students develop reading skills. The following categories can be used to plan for this:

a) Layout

• What is this? How do we use it? What is its purpose? These are labels.

Labels are the names of parts of a picture.

b) Content

• What do we know/did we find out about _______? What was the story about? What will happen next?

c) Structure or organisation

• Who are the main characters? Where is the setting? When does the story happen? How do we ____? What does the picture show?

d) Vocabulary

• What is this word? Can you find it again on this page?

e) Grammatical features

• What is the tense? What is this thinking verb? Can you find the adjective that describes the _____?

f) Letter and sounds

• What is that letter/sound?

g) Conventions of print

• What is this mark? What is it used for? How does it make us say this sentence? Where do we start to read?

After the Reading and Reading Activities

After the Reading activities are whole class.

Reading Activities are

• in groups

• for individual students.

After the Reading activities can be:

• rereading the text while, e.g. asking questions, asking students to point out focus language and structures and matching word cards to text in the book.

Reading Activities can be:

• completing activities, e.g. games, work sheets, writing activities, drawing pictures, completing cross-curricular activities (collage, learning a song, creating a drama performance) and role play.

After the Reading activities and Reading Activties give students opportunities to develop their understandings about:

• the purpose of a text (the text type)

• how it has been written (structural and language features) – code breaker role

• what it means – text participant role

• how they could use it – text user role

• what the author meant by writing it – text analyser role.

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These activities develop further the reading skills that were focused on during the reading of the text, e.g. layout, content, text type structure, vocabulary, grammar, letters and sounds, conventions of print.

Questioning

One of the most important techniques used to teach literacy is questioning. Students need to spend most of their time engaging with texts and an efficient way to do this is through questioning. Most of this will be done by teachers, but students will also ask questions of their teachers, of each other and of themselves. Questioning occurs during the use of every teaching strategy.

Questioning can be used:

• to engage students

• for evaluation of books shared, work completed, by teachers and students

• to check understanding

• focus students on teaching points

• to relate content to students’ experiences and prior knowledge

• to analyse content

• for use of reading strategies (see below).

The PLP-R (KS1) recommends the use of three types of questioning:

1. Literal – reading on the line

These ask readers to find the answers in the text, e.g. Who is this? What did he do? How many are there?

2. Interpretative – reading between the lines

These ask readers to provide answers that need to be thought about or an opinion given, e.g. Why is that happening? How will she get down? What will he do next? Why would he do that?

3. Inferential – reading beyond the lines

These ask readers to provide answers that involve a critical or creative response or link meaning to personal experiences and then evaluate or make a judgement about the text, e.g. What did you learn from this story? What would be another ending that would be good for the giant?

Using the Reading Strategies

The following are some examples of the types of questions and ‘self-talk’ that teachers can model, showing how students can help themselves construct meaning from a text. These metacognitive strategies will lead the students to becoming critical readers:

1. Cross-check

• Is this the right word?

• Should I check to see if it’s the right word?

• I’ll read that again and see if it makes sense?

• I’ll try another word it might make more sense.

2. Confirm

• Yes that sounds right.

• Yes that looks right.

• Yes that makes sense.

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3. Predict

• What could the word be? Will I try sounding it out? It looks like a word I know. This story is about dogs so this word probably has something to do with dogs too.

• What will happen to the (character)?

4. Self-correct

• No, that’s not right. I’ll have another try.

• I’ll try sounding it out.

5. Attend and Search

• I think I know how to say that word; we read it aloud last week.

• I think I know what the word means; I read it before in this book.

• The picture will give me a clue.

• I’ll use my dictionary.

• I’ll ask the teacher.

2.4 Roles of the Teaching Team

The teaching team consists of the local English teacher (LET), the native English- speaking teacher (NET) and the classroom assistant (CA). Their roles will vary depending on the teaching strategy, the groupings of the students, the teaching section and the needs of the students. They will all be involved in making sure the Component Objectives are being achieved and that students have opportunities for developing reading skills described in the Reading Skills Framework. If the CA is a registered English teacher, then he/she would be able to share some of the teacher roles.

The teaching sections, the groupings of students, the purposes of each section and the roles of the teachers and the CAs are included in the table on the following pages.

The table will be useful when teachers have reached the Independence Stage and are planning their own Units of Work. The table provides more information about what the teachers and the CA can do.

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Roles of the Teaching Team

Literacy Session Section Groups

Purposes of Section

Roles of

Teachers (NET, LET)

Role of

Classroom Assistant (CA)

Warm up Whole class

- Bring the class together to establish routines - Introduce the Session’s

activities

- Review and build on established routines - Review previous skills

and knowledge - Practise learned

language

- Demonstrate or show routines

- Remind students of previous activities that link to the Session

- Read known texts, wall charts, students’ work - Build up knowledge of the

topic

- Sing and say familiar songs and jingles

- Read aloud or storytell a familiar short text

- Guide students to appropriate teaching area

- Help with entry into room - Monitor and encourage

students’ interaction - Observe students for

assessment

Before the Reading Whole class

- Introduce the text, its purpose, its content, key words and sounds - Show aspects of book

orientation

- Talk about the cover - Find out about and build on

prior knowledge - Teach some vocabulary - Make predictions - Skim the text, pointing out

words and pictures - Monitor and encourage on-

task behaviour

- Observe and record reading behaviour

- Observe students for assessment

- Prepare for students borrowing books for home reading routine - Prepare for reading

activities

- Monitor and encourage on-task behaviour and participation

Reading the Text Whole class

- Involve students in structured demonstration of what effective readers do

- Invite participation in reading

- Build knowledge about texts and print

- Provide models for use of skills and strategies

- Read

- Demonstrate teaching points - Show how experienced

readers read - Explain - Instruct

- Interpret response

- Observe and record student performance

- Observe students for assessment

- Prepare for students borrowing books for home reading routine - Prepare for reading

activities

- Monitor and encourage on-task behaviour and participation

After the Reading Whole class

- Provide more

opportunities for focusing on teaching points - Build knowledge about

texts

- Reread

- Revisit teaching points - Explain

- Instruct

- Interpret responses - Observe and record student

performance

- Observe students for assessment

- Help students to borrow books for home reading - Prepare for reading

activities

- Monitor and encourage on-task behaviour and participation

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Literacy Session Section Groups

Purposes of Section

Roles of

Teachers (NET, LET)

Role of

Classroom Assistant (CA)

Supported Reading Whole class or small groups

- Provide more

opportunities for focusing on teaching points - Build knowledge about

texts and print

- Model use of strategies and skills

- provide directed feedback to individual students

- Provide opportunities for student discussion, retelling and questioning

- Encourage peer support - Re-visit teaching points - Explain

- Instruct

- Interpret response - Observe and record

students’ performance

- Observe students for assessment

- Get ready the home reading routine for students

- Prepare for reading activities

- Monitor and encourage on-task behaviour and participation in the session

Reading Activities Groups

- Opportunities for students to work more closely with written texts at their Instructional level - Opportunities for learning

about how texts are structured

- Opportunities for learning how to access and interpret ideas and information in texts

- Observe and record student performance

- Assist students having difficulties

- Ensure all students are purposefully involved - Coordinate with the other

teacher and the CA to decide how best to help students complete their tasks successfully - Make planning and

programming decisions based on observations, work samples and task

participation

- Ensure the rest of the class is involved in purposeful activities

- Keep detailed records of students’ achievements and needs

- Observe students for assessment

- Help students with home reading routine

- Help with reading activities

- Assist students having difficulties

- Monitor and encourage on-task behaviour and participation in the session

- Encourage independent and cooperative work habits

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Literacy Session Section Groups

Purposes of Section

Roles of

Teachers (NET, LET)

Role of

Classroom Assistant (CA)

Independent Reading Individuals or small groups

- Encourage students to read texts independently - Enable students to

practise the reading strategies that formed the focus for the Shared and Guided Reading sections

- Ensure students are reading at the appropriate level - Observe students’ reading

habits and preferences - Encourage students to

engage with texts independently

- Provide a wide range of texts from which students choose - Show enthusiasm about this

reading time

- Provide ways for students to share their responses to the texts they have read - Provide ways for students to

keep a record of what they have read

- Teach students how to select suitable books for their ability and interests

- Observe students for assessment

- Help students with home reading routine

- Help students to choose books and to record what they have read

- Monitor and encourage on-task behaviour and participation in the session

- Encourage independent and cooperative work habits

Guided Reading Small groups

- Provide specific reading instruction for students at their Instructional level - Observe and record

students’ use of various reading strategies - Allow students to practise

skills demonstrated in Shared and Supported Reading sections

- Group students based on their reading abilities - Match students to texts at

their Instructional level - Make sure that the Guided

Reading timetable ensures that all students are included at least once in the

fortnightly cycle

- Provide instruction at the students’ stage of development

- Ensure students with reading difficulties receive focused instruction

- Make planning and programming decisions based on observations of students’ reading

- Ensure the rest of the class is involved in purposeful activities

- Keep detailed records of students’ reading achievements and needs - Withdraw students or set up

groups for activities

- Observe students in the other groups for assessment - Help students in the

other groups with home reading routine

- Monitor and encourage on-task behaviour and participation in the other groups

- Encourage independent and cooperative work habits in the other groups

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Literacy Session Section Groups

Purposes of Section

Roles of

Teachers (NET, LET)

Role of

Classroom Assistant (CA)

Concluding the Section Whole class

- Bring the class together to revisit established routines

- Establish end of Session routines

- Consolidate the Session’s experiences - Enable students to share

some successful experiences

- Review previous skills and knowledge - Practise learned

language

- Introduce the next topic - Provide an opportunity

for Reading Aloud

- Demonstrate or show routines

- Remind students of activities and routines they have learned today

- Encourage students to share successful experiences and for others to provide positive feedback

- Read aloud a text for enjoyment

- Guide students to correct teaching area

- Monitor and encourage students’ interaction - Help with exit from room

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Figure

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References

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