Life and Society Curriculum Guide (Secondary 1-3)

215  Download (0)

Full text

(1)

Personal, Social and Humanities Education Key Learning Area

Life and Society Curriculum Guide (Secondary 1-3)

Prepared by the Curriculum Development Council

Recommended for use in schools by the Education Bureau, HKSARG 2010

(2)

(Blank page)

(3)

Contents

Page

Preamble i

Chapter 1 Introduction 1

1.1 Background 1

1.2 Rationale and Direction for Development 2 1.2.1 Complementing the learning targets of the PSHE KLA 2 1.2.2 Providing a smooth interface with senior secondary and

senior primary curricula

4

1.2.3 Maintaining flexibility in curriculum organization, while strengthening curriculum decision guidance

6

1.2.4 Providing a prescriptive curriculum design with flexibility to cater for students’ diverse needs

7

1.2.5 Nurturing students’ social competence and enhancing their personal and civic values

8

1.2.6 Integrating knowledge acquisition with the

development of generic skills and values and attitudes

9

1.3 Curriculum Aims 10

1.4 Learning Objectives 10

Chapter 2 Curriculum Framework 13

2.1 Design Principles 13

2.1.1 Flexible structure assures the learning of essential knowledge and caters for the diverse learning needs of students

13

2.1.2 The curriculum embodies foundation knowledge of seven areas

14

2.2 Essential Learning Elements 14

2.2.1 Personal and Social Development 15

2.2.2 Resources and Economic Activities 16

2.2.3 Social Systems and Citizenship 16

2.3 Components of the Modules 17

2.4 Core Modules 21

2.4.1 Strand 1: Personal and Social Development 22 2.4.2 Strand 5: Resources and Economic Activities 31

(4)

Page 2.4.3 Strand 6: Social Systems and Citizenship 45

2.5 Enrichment Modules 56

2.5.1 Strand 1: Personal and Social Development 57 2.5.2 Strand 5: Resources and Economic Activities 59 2.5.3 Strand 6: Social Systems and Citizenship 61

2.5.4 Cross-strands 63

2.6 Allocation of Lesson Time 64

2.6.1 Life and Society (S1-3) as an integral independent subject

64

2.6.2 Adopting Life and Society (S1-3) modules in part or as a whole in the integrated and mixed curriculum

64

Chapter 3 Curriculum Planning 67

3.1 Guiding Principles 67

3.2 Curriculum Planning Strategies 68

3.2.1 Interface with General Studies at primary level as well as with senior secondary curricula

68

3.2.2 Collaborate with junior secondary PSHE subjects and other school curricula

73

3.2.3 Collaborate with curricula developed by organizations other than the Curriculum Development Institute

76

3.2.4 Linking with other learning experiences and life-wide learning opportunities

77

3.2.5 Catering for learner diversity 77

3.2.6 Encouraging self-directed learning 78 3.2.7 Integrating learning with assessment 78

3.3 Curriculum Organization Strategies 78

3.3.1 Junior secondary PSHE KLA curriculum with the implementation of Life and Society (S1-3)

79

3.3.2 Organization of modules under independent subject mode

82

3.3.3 Organizing modules by ‘All Dimensions Every Year’

under independent subject mode

83

3.3.4 Organizing modules by ‘From Proximity to Remoteness’ under independent subject mode

86

3.3.5 Including some modules of Life and Society (S1-3) in an existing school-based integrated curriculum

89

(5)

Page

3.4 Curriculum Management 96

3.4.1 Understanding the curriculum, student needs and the school context

96

3.4.2 Planning the curriculum 96

3.4.3 Building capacity 96

3.4.4 Developing learning and teaching resources 97

3.4.5 Managing change 97

Chapter 4 Learning and Teaching 99

4.1 Guiding Principles 99

4.2 Approaches 101

4.3 Strategies 104

4.3.1 Principles for choosing strategies 104 (a) In line with the characteristics of the curriculum 104 (b) Meeting the learning needs of students 107 (c) Catering for learner diversity 109

4.3.2 Adopt a variety of strategies 112

(a) Direct instruction 112

(b) Enquiry learning 115

(c) Values clarification 117

(d) Strategies for teaching controversial issues 121

(e) Participatory learning 123

(f) Reading to learn 128

(g) Learning outside the classroom 129 (h) Strategies that consolidate learning 134 (i) Exemplar: A blend of various learning and teaching

strategies in unit planning

141

4.4 Classroom Interactions that Enhances Learning Effectiveness 142 4.4.1 The roles of students and teachers - Who is the master

of the learning?

142

4.4.2 Activities that enhance classroom interactions 143 4.4.3 Questioning that promotes classroom interactions 144 (a) Different types of questions 144

(b) Questioning skills 144

4.4.4 Using resources effectively to enhance classroom interactions

146

4.4.5 Fostering positive learning atmosphere 147

(6)

Page

4.5 Learning Communities 147

4.5.1 Collaborative knowledge construction and self-directed learning

147

(a) Collaborative knowledge construction 147

(b) Self-directed learning 148

4.5.2 Developing individual expertise in the learning community

149

4.5.3 e-learning community 149

Chapter 5 Assessment 153

5.1 Guiding Principles 153

5.2 Assessment for Learning 154

5.3 Assessment as Learning 154

5.4 Assessment that Motivates Learning 155

5.5 Assessment that Scaffolds Learning 155

5.6 Using Diversified Assessment Methods 156

5.6.1 Self-assessment and peer assessment 157

5.6.2 Homework 158

5.6.3 Tests and examinations 160

5.7 Making Use of Rubrics 161

Chapter 6 Learning & Teaching Resources 165 6.1 Purpose and Function of Learning and Teaching Resources 165 6.2 Using Learning and Teaching Resources Flexibly 165 6.3 Commonly Used Learning and Teaching Resources 167

6.3.1 Textbooks 167

6.3.2 Materials from the Education Bureau 168 6.3.3 Materials from governmental organizations 169 6.3.4 Materials from non-governmental organizations and

independent persons

169

6.3.5 Materials from commercial and professional bodies 169

6.3.6 Materials from different media 169

6.3.7 Books 169

6.3.8 Materials from schools 170

6.3.9 Experiences and perception of concerned parties 170

6.3.10 Materials selected by students 171

6.4 Resource Management 171

(7)

Page 6.4.1 Sharing of learning and teaching resources 171 6.4.2 Management of learning and teaching resources 171

Appendices 1. Organization Chart for Modules of Strands 5 (Resources and

Economic Activities) and 6 (Social Systems and Citizenship)

173

2. Case: Let Students Win at the Starting Line 174 3. Case: Reading to Learn – “Tough Materials and Soft Landing” 176

4. An Example of Homework Design 178

References 181

Membership of the Ad Hoc Committee on Life and Society (Secondary 1-3)

205

(8)

(Blank page)

(9)

Preamble

The Life and Society Curriculum Guide (Secondary 1-3) is one of the series prepared by the Curriculum Development Council, Hong Kong for use in junior secondary schools.

The Curriculum Development Council is an advisory body giving recommendations to the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Government on all matters relating to curriculum development for the school system from kindergarten to sixth form. Its membership includes heads of schools, practising teachers, parents, employers, academics from tertiary institutions, professionals from related fields or related bodies, representatives from the Hong Kong Examinations and Assessment Authority and the Vocational Training Council, as well as officers from the Education Bureau.

This Curriculum Guide is recommended by the Education Bureau for use in junior secondary schools. The Curriculum Development Council will review the curriculum from time to time in the light of classroom experiences. All comments and suggestions on the Life and Society Curriculum Guide (Secondary 1-3) may be sent to:

Chief Curriculum Development Officer (Personal, Social and Humanities Education) Curriculum Development Institute

Education Bureau

Rm 1319, 13/F, Wu Chung House 213 Queen’s Road East, Wanchai Hong Kong

or email to:

ccdopshe@edb.gov.hk

i

(10)

(Blank page)

ii

(11)

Chapter 1 Introduction

This chapter provides background on Life and Society (Secondary 1-3) (hereafter

“S1-3”), its rationale, aims and learning objectives.

1.1 Background

The 21st century is a rapidly-developing era in which students face social, economic and political changes, which also bring diverse and complicated values. These have created opportunities and challenges on students’ personal development, learning and future careers. Schools have to provide an appropriate curriculum to cater for the needs of students on their personal growth and future development so Life and Society (S1-3) has been drawn up for this very purpose. It builds on students’ prior learning experience in General Studies at primary level, and is an integrated and updated version of Economic and Public Affairs (hereafter “EPA”) and Social Studies, which date back to the 1990s.

With the advent of the first decade of the Millennium, Hong Kong has been experiencing rapid changes on the economic, social and political fronts. Facts such as greater economic integration with the mainland (particularly with the Pan-Pearl River Delta Region), opportunities and challenges brought about by rapid economic growth on the mainland, increasing global economic interdependence, greater social diversity and Hong Kong’s move towards universal suffrage for the selection of the Chief Executive and the Legislative Council will bring the next generation face to face with new social, economic and political landscapes as well as new ideologies. In a curriculum document prepared by the Curriculum Development Council the following statements were written: “…contemporary society has undergone significant changes and rapid development…” and “students…need to have an in-depth understanding of themselves, the local community, the nation and the world if they are to become confident, informed and responsible persons.”1 With the second decade just around the corner, schools must ensure that students become knowledgeable with these trends so that they can participate fully in the development of the society in the future.

The introduction of Liberal Studies as a core subject in the senior secondary curriculum requires junior secondary students to acquire solid foundation knowledge

1 Curriculum Development Council. Personal, Social and Humanities Education Key Learning Area Curriculum Guide (Primary 1-Secondary 3). Hong Kong: Printing Department, 2002, pp.3-4.

1

(12)

on Personal Development and Interpersonal Relationships, Hong Kong Today, Modern China and Globalization, etc. The current S1-3 EPA and Social Studies were developed during the last century to meet educational needs at that time but they do not provide the essential learning experiences students need for tomorrow. Life and Society (S1-3) integrates and updates the curriculum for these two subjects and provides a broader perspective on life and society. It effectively supports progress in Liberal Studies and other PSHE subjects at senior secondary level. Current S1-3 EPA and Social Studies curricula will be gradually replaced.

The open and flexible curriculum framework of the Personal, Social and Humanities Education Key Learning Area (hereafter “PSHE KLA”) enables schools to adopt different modes of curriculum organization to achieve the learning targets stated in Personal, Social and Humanities Education Key Learning Area Curriculum Guide (hereafter “PSHE KLA Guide”) (pp. 23-24). This curriculum framework has been implemented in schools for almost decade. In order to facilitate further development of the PSHE curriculum framework, a set of essential learning elements has been developed in Life and Society (S1-3) to serve as a frame of reference, against which schools can analyse and assess their own school-based curricula. This set of essential learning elements is a guide of schools to plan and make decisions on their curricula.

1.2 Rationale and Direction for Development

The development of this curriculum is based on the following rationale and direction:

1.2.1 Complementing the learning targets of the PSHE KLA

The PSHE KLA is composed of the following six strands:

1. Personal and Social Development 2. Time, Continuity and Change 3. Culture and Heritage

4. Place and Environment

5. Resources and Economic Activities 6. Social Systems and Citizenship

These six strands also represent the different perspectives adopted for issue enquires in this KLA. They enable students, from personal and social perspectives, to understand humankind (strands 1 and 6), the relationship between man and time (strand 2), place and environment (strand 4) and the spiritual and material worlds (strands 3 and 5). These strands also provide a framework that helps schools organize

2

(13)

the curriculum content of this KLA so as to avoid duplication of learning content and to achieve coherence (see Figure 1.1).

Spiritual World

Individuals

Groups Place

Material world Time

Fig 1.1 Strands under PSHE KLA

Currently the learning objectives of strands 2, 3 and 4 of junior secondary PSHE KLA are primarily achieved through the learning and teaching of Chinese History, History and Geography. Life and Society (S1-3) is an integrated curriculum covering the learning elements of Personal and Social Development, Resources and Economic Activities, and Social Systems and Citizenship (see Figure 1.2). Hence, the learning objectives of strands 1, 5 and 6 are achieved through Life and Society (S1-3).

Strand 1

Personal &

Social Development

Strand 2

Time, Continuity &

Change

Strand 5

Resources &

Economic Activities

Strand 6

Social Systems &

Citizenship

Strand 3

Culture &

Heritage

Strand 4

z Life &

Society z Religious

Education

z Life &

Society

z Geography

z Life &

Society z Civic

Education z Chinese

History

z History

z Chinese

History z Geography

z History

Place &

Environment

Fig 1.2 Relationship between the curriculum and the six strands under PSHE KLA

3

(14)

1.2.2 Providing a smooth interface with senior secondary and senior primary curricula

Life and Society (S1-3) provides foundation knowledge, concepts and perspectives that aid students not only to achieve the learning targets specified in the PSHE KLA Guide, but also to learn senior secondary PSHE subjects and Liberal Studies. This curriculum develops students’ understanding of themselves as individuals and as social beings, and gives them an opportunity to understand local, national and global economic activities. It also encourages students to develop their consciousness and interest in local and national socio-political systems and helps students develop global perspectives through exploring global issues and world politics.

A smooth interface from primary to junior secondary is necessary to help students adapt to secondary education. As the learning targets of PSHE at primary level are to be achieved through General Studies, the design of Life and Society (S1-3) builds on the learning experiences students acquired through General Studies, avoiding overlap and bridging any existing gaps in the curriculum.

4

(15)

Primary Curriculum

(P1-6) Junior Secondary Curriculum

(S1-3) Senior Secondary Curriculum

(S4-6)

General Studies at Primary Level Senior Secondary

Liberal Studies &

PSHE Subjects

PSHE KLA Junior Secondary Curriculum

1. Personal and Social Development

2. Time , Continuity and Change

Life & Society

Life & Society Life & Society

3. Culture and Heritage

4. Place and Environment

5. Resources and Economic Activities

6. Social Systems and Citizenship

Fig 1.3 Life and Society (S1-3) provides a smooth interface with the senior secondary and primary curricula

5

(16)

1.2.3 Maintaining flexibility in curriculum organization, while strengthening curriculum decision guidance

The design of Life and Society (S1-3) allows flexibility for schools so that they can adopt it in part or as a whole and this is achieved by organizing the curriculum into modules. In view of the cognitive, psychological and physiological development of the students at S1-3, these modules are not free-standing. Though the modules follow a certain sequence, the curriculum may be studied, as stated, in part or as a whole. If adopted as a whole, it forms a coherent structure. If adopted in parts, it allows flexible and selective adoption. So Life and Society, together with Geography, Chinese History and History, form a well-balanced junior PSHE curriculum under the independent subject mode (see Figure 1.4). On the other hand, it also aids schools adopting integrated or mixed modes to enrich their curricula by adopting some modules of Life and Society (S1-3) in their school-based curricula (see Figure 1.5).

C

Fig 1.4 Curriculum organization with Life and Society (S1-3) under independent subject mode

hinese istory H

History Geography Life &

Society

PSHE KLA

6

(17)

Chinese History

Integrated Humanities

Life and + Society

PSHE KLA

Fig 1.5 Curriculum organization under mixed mode with Chinese History as an independent subject and the adoption of Life and Society (S1-3) modules in integrated curriculum

In order to facilitate the schools using integrated or mixed mode of curriculum organization to adopt the modules of Life and Society (S1-3) for improving their school-based curricula, Life and Society (S1-3) sets out a list of essential learning elements by making reference with the learning targets and focuses of Personal and Social Development, Resources and Economic Activities, and Social Systems and Citizenship specified in the PSHE KLA Guide, complementing with the rationale of this curriculum. These essential learning elements (see section 2.2 of chapter 2) constitute a frame of reference, against which schools can analyse and assess their own school-based curricula and be guided in curriculum planning and decisions.

1.2.4 Providing a prescriptive curriculum design with flexibility to cater for students’ diverse needs

The essential learning elements stipulated in this curriculum provide a framework for the common learning experience in strands 1, 5 and 6 under PSHE KLA for all students. Such a framework not only protects students’ rights of learning, it also serves as a basis for schools to be socially responsible. Apart from that, students’

needs and the school context are also taken into consideration so that schools can have flexibility in curriculum planning. Hence, the curriculum has a foundation part which takes up approximately 70% of curriculum time. This foundation part embodies the essential learning elements of the strands of Personal and Social Development, Resources and Economic Activities, and Social Systems and Citizenship and so it

7

(18)

serves as a frame of reference for schools to analyse and evaluate their school-based curricula. There are also extended parts and enrichment modules to cater for different learning interests and abilities. To better cater for the diverse learning needs of students, schools can also increase curriculum time for the foundation part of this curriculum, or fully utilise it.

Foundation part

Extended part/

Enrichment modules

70%

30%

Fig 1.6 Allocation of curriculum time of Life and Society (S1-3)

1.2.5 Nurturing students’ social competence and enhancing their personal and civic values

The development of the mainland has significant implications for Hong Kong, which is a special administrative region of China. It is a small but nevertheless very cosmopolitan city. For this reason the learning elements of Resources and Economic Activities, and Social Systems and Citizenship within Life and Society (S1-3) provide students a comprehensive picture of how political and economic activities and systems function and interact with one another in the local, national and global dimensions. To this end, the curriculum helps students acquire up-to-date foundation knowledge in the following areas so that they will become responsible and informed citizens through participating in social affairs in the local, national and global arenas in the future:

- Economy of Hong Kong

- Socio-political System of Hong Kong - Economy of Our Country

- Socio-political System of Our Country - Global Economy

- Global Socio-political System

Given the development trends in Hong Kong, the curriculum time allocated to each of the local, national and global dimensions is approximately equal.

8

(19)

This curriculum also addresses students’ personal growth needs and helps them recognise that different stakeholders have diverse views and values in the increasingly complex world. As students’ cognition, psychology and physiology develop rapidly at junior secondary level, modules on Personal and Social Development should be gradually introduced over the three years to match the development.

Socio- political System of Hong Kong Economy of Hong

Kong

Socio- political System of Our Country

Global Socio- political

System Economy

of Our Country

Personal & Social Development

Global Economy

Fig 1.7 Life and Society (S1-3) includes seven areas of foundation knowledge

1.2.6 Integrating knowledge acquisition with the development of generic skills and values and attitudes

The Life and Society (S1-3) allows junior secondary students to enquire and construct up-to-date foundation knowledge in preparation for further studies and their future career. Through the process of enquiry students also develop learning skills. Besides, the curriculum connects learning to students’ daily experiences, and encourages them to apply their knowledge and develops skills in the enquiry process so that sound, reasoned judgments and responsible, informed decisions would be made.

Values can be developed through learning key concepts such as “democracy” and “the rule of law”. This curriculum, however, provides opportunities for students to clarify, reflect on and nurture these positive values through active discussion of social issues and participatory learning. A list of core and sustaining values and attitudes in our society can be found in Appendix II-2 to Learning to Learn--The Way Forward in Curriculum Development (2001). Students, after completing the course, can also learn to clarify their values and make reasoned, responsible decisions with regard to

9

(20)

personal and social issues at the local, national and global dimensions.

Personal &

Social Development

Personal &

Social Development

Resources &

Economic Activities

Resources

&

Economic Activities

Knowledge

Social Systems

and Citizenship

Resources &

Economic Activities

Social Systems

Citizenship and K

K

Values and Attitudes Values and Attitudes

Generic Skills Generic

Skills nowledge

nowledge

Generic Skills

Fig 1.8 Integration of knowledge acquisition with development of generic skills, values and attitudes

1.3 Curriculum Aims

The aims of Life and Society (S1-3) are:

(a) to develop in students a positive self understanding, enhance competence to meet daily and future challenges, and pursue their goals and aspirations;

(b) to enable students to make decisions for the optimal use of personal and community resources;

(c) to develop students to become informed and responsible citizens to contribute to the development of a caring and just society; and

(d) to cultivate in students sensitivity, interests and concern for local, national and global issues.

1.4 Learning Objectives

(a) to understand and accept oneself and to live a healthy life;

(b) to develop effective communication skills with peers, family and others in society, and realise ways to build and maintain positive interpersonal

10

(21)

relationships;

(c) to develop an ability to make informed and responsible decisions regarding personal issues and practical short term and long term plans for the achievement of personal goals;

(d) to understand the roles of individuals, enterprises and the government in the economy and how they interplay to determine the distribution and uses of resources;

(e) to develop the skills to interpret and manage data, statistics and information relating to indicators and trends of general economic performances;

(f) to understand basic features of the political systems at local, national and global dimensions;

(g) to understand features of different social groups and how they interact with each other as well as the governments;

(h) to understand how different levels of communities are connected and interdependent with each other, and to develop the identification of local resident identity, national identity and identity as global citizens;

(i) to understand the perspectives, backgrounds and interests of different groups, and to develop an ability to make informed and reasoned judgments on social issues with due considerations to the different groups;

(j) to develop enthusiasm and readiness for responsible participation in public affairs;

(k) to be ready for self-management and independence, and willing to reflect on and clarify their own values and attitudes underlying the choices they make;

(l) to understand, appreciate, respect and reflect on the values and attitudes that underpin the local society, including rights and responsibilities, freedom, rule of law, social justice, democracy, equal opportunities, tolerance, plurality, clean, honesty and integrity, upright, compassion and mutuality; and

(m) to develop an attitude of open-mindedness and respect for all peoples, including their cultures, values and ways of life.

11

(22)

12

(Blank page)

(23)

Chapter 2 Curriculum Framework

This chapter sets out the design principles, curriculum framework and essential learning elements of Life and Society (S1-3), and details the modules based on these essential learning elements.

2.1 Design Principles

2.1.1 Flexible structure assures the learning of essential knowledge and caters for the diverse learning needs of students

Life and Society (S1-3) covers the learning elements of Personal and Social Development, Resources and Economic Activities and Social Systems and Citizenship, the curriculum is composed of core modules and enrichment modules. Each core module is divided into a foundation part and an extended part. The foundation part consists of essential learning elements that students are expected to master in the learning process, while the extended part provides them opportunities to explore topics related to the foundation part, so as to broaden or deepen their learning.

Enrichment modules, including modules covering the above three strands and a cross-strands module, are independent of the core modules and are introduced to offer a wider range of topics to cater for the diverse interests and needs of students.

Foundation Part Extended

part

Enrichment modules Core modules

Core modules:

Consist of the essential learning elements set in this curriculum and provide broader learning topics

Enrichment modules:

Independent of the core modules and offering a wide range of topics

Fig 2.1 Components of Life and Society (S1-3)

13

(24)

2.1.2 The curriculum embodies foundation knowledge of seven areas

According to the rationale of developing Life and Society (S1-3) stated above (see section 1.2 of chapter 1), the curriculum should give students opportunities to acquire foundation knowledge in seven areas, namely, personal and social development, economies and socio-political systems of Hong Kong, our country and the world.

The foundation knowledge in these seven areas is organized into modules for students’ learning. While the modules chosen to bring out the learning elements are by and large connected to students’ experiences and appeal to their interests, some may not be closely related to their daily experiences. These modules have been chosen because they are essential to prepare students for future learning and responsibilities.

Personal and Social Development

Global Socio- political Systems Socio-

political System of our Country Socio-

political System of HK Economy of

Hong Kong

Economy of our Country

Global Economy

Fig 2.2 The seven areas of foundation knowledge in Life and Society (S1-3)

2.2 Essential Learning Elements

The seven areas of foundation knowledge shown in Figure 2.2 define the learning elements of this curriculum. With respect to students’ personal development, the challenges they will face in the future and the need for preparation for the senior secondary curriculum, ten essential learning elements of Life and Society (S1-3) have been drawn up and are listed below. A curriculum designed according to the listed essential learning elements can achieve the curriculum aims and learning objectives set out in this curriculum. Accompanied by effective learning and teaching strategies,

14

(25)

a curriculum so designed enables students to acquire a broad knowledge base and to have an all-round development of generic skills and values and attitudes.

The essential learning elements listed below (section 2.2.1 to 2.2.3) are guidelines for analysis and assessment of the topics of school-based integrated curriculum, which are related to the strands of Personal and Social Development, Resources and Economic Activities and Social Systems and Citizenship. They ensure a broad and balanced junior curriculum which covers three strands to be implemented in schools.

The essential learning elements can be achieved through different topics. The examples given under the essential learning elements of each strand help schools understand the foundation parts of the core modules listed in section 2.4. The design of the foundation parts of the core modules is also based on these examples.

2.2.1 Personal and Social Development

(a) Factors affecting the personal growth of adolescents and ways for them to develop a healthy lifestyle and positive values;

(b) Strategies to establish harmonious interpersonal relationships with family members, friends and people of different backgrounds;

(c) Essence of love and its relationship with sex;

Examples of essential learning elements related to the strand of Personal and Social Development

Importance of self-esteem and self-confidence in personal development

Ways to cope with stresses and adversities

Value formation and application

Importance of family and friends to personal development

Social skills for developing and maintaining relationships with friends and family members

Challenges brought by different forms of friendship

Factors contributing to the well-being of adolescents engaging in dating

Meaning of romantic love and its relationship with sex

Reflection on one’s attitude towards sexuality

Strategies and attitudes of getting along with people of different backgrounds

15

(26)

2.2.2 Resources and Economic Activities

(a) Major factors affecting the use of personal resources;

(b) Economic performance of Hong Kong, employment situation of labours, and the role and policy of the HKSAR Government on the economic front;

(c) An overview of the economy of our country and factors facilitating its economic development;

(d) Development trend of worldwide economic activities and the work of some related organizations;

Examples of essential learning elements related to the strand of Resources and Economic Activities

Decision-making about the use of money

Principles of sensible consumption and rights and responsibilities of consumers

Economic situation of Hong Kong and its challenges as revealed from data

Economic and social consequences of public finance and government policy

Labour market of Hong Kong

Macro-economy of our country and its regional economic development

Role of Chinese Government in the economy

Importance of the status of international financial centre to Hong Kong

Consequences of free trade and economic globalization

International organizations, and their work, that promote economic globalization

2.2.3 Social Systems and Citizenship

(a) Importance of the Basic Law, the composition and operation of the HKSAR Government, the identity, rights and responsibilities of citizens and the development trend of society in the future;

(b) The political system and external relations of our country, the way of life of Chinese nationals, and the consciousness and quality of Chinese citizenship;

(c) Basic structure of international politics, phenomenon of globalization and the consciousness and quality of global citizenship.

16

(27)

17

Examples of essential learning elements related to the strand of Social Systems and Citizenship

Rights and responsibilities of Hong Kong residents

Protection of the rights of Hong Kong residents by major principles of the rule of law

Composition and operation of the HKSAR Government

Core values of Hong Kong society

Everyday life of Chinese nationals

Chinese political system

Participation of our country in international affairs

World order

Phenomenon of globalization

Consciousness of global citizenship and related contributions

2.3 Components of the Modules

An introduction is given to all the core and enrichment modules. This enables teachers and students to comprehend the learning objectives, the related modules and expected learning outcomes. The learning points describe the scope of each module and stipulate the major learning elements that students are expected to master. The extent and depth of enquiry depend on curriculum time and students’ interests and abilities.

Introductory questions are suggested for each module to stimulate their interests and serve as enquiry starters so are for teachers’ reference because they elicit the learning points and stimulate interest. They provide various starters and generate interesting ways to handle the modules by providing questions of students’ level. The extended part consists of one or more sub-topics to deepen or broaden learning of the foundation part of the core module.

Table 2.1 lists the core modules with reference to the seven areas of foundation knowledge. Please refer to pp. 22-55 for the topics, learning points and values and attitudes of the foundation part and extended part of the core modules.

(28)

Table 2.1 Core modules of the seven areas of foundation knowledge

Core modules

Foundation part Extended part

Strand

Seven areas of foundation knowledge

Module

No. Module

Ref. no. Topics Ref. no Topics

1 Personal Growth (I) PSD01 Self-understanding, Self-esteem and

Self-confidence PSD01-X Healthy Lifestyle and Self-management 2 Personal Growth (II) PSD02 Coping with Adversities PSD02-X Juvenile Delinquency

3 Human Relationship (I) PSD03 Building Friendships PSD03-X Developing Potentials and Self-identity 4 Human Relationship (II) PSD04 Managing Cyber-friendship PSD04-X Competition among Peers

5 Family Life PSD05 Enhancing Family Life PSD05-X Building Harmonious Family Relationship 6 Sex and Sexuality (I) PSD06 Learning to Love PSD06-X Handling Issues of Sexual Abuse

7 Sex and Sexuality (II) PSD07 Attitudes towards Sex and Sexuality PSD07-X Teenage Pregnancy 8 Formation and Application of

Values PSD08 Developing Values PSD08-X Making Responsible Decisions

1

Personal &

Social Development

9 One World One Family PSD09 Appreciating Diversity of Values PSD09-X Maintaining Peaceful Relationship with Others

REA01-X1 (1)Banking Services 10 The Use of Resources REA01 Managing Finance and Being Your Own Master

with Money REA01-X2 (2)Gambling

11 Sensible Consumption REA02 Rights and Responsibilities of Sensible

Consumer REA02-X Respecting Intellectual Property Rights

12 Public Finance of Hong Kong REA03 Economic and Social Consequences of Public

Finance of Hong Kong REA03-X Public Finance in Hong Kong facing an Aging Population

13 Economic Performance of Hong

Kong REA04 Ups and Downs of the Hong Kong Economy REA04-X Hong Kong’s Competitiveness and Sustainable Economic Development 5 Economy of

Hong Kong

14 Labour Market of Hong Kong REA05 Employment and Income of Labour in Hong

Kong REA05-X Protection for Labour in Hong Kong

18

(29)

19

Table 2.1 Core modules of the seven areas of foundation knowledge (Cont’d)

Core modules

Foundation part Extended part

Strand

Seven areas of foundation knowledge

Module

No. Module

Ref. no. Topics Ref. no Topics

15 An Overview of the Chinese

Economy REA06 Macro-economy of the Mainland REA06-X Industrial Sector of the Mainland 16 Role of Chinese Government in

the Economy REA07 Economic Planning and Regulation of the

Chinese Government REA07-X State-owned Enterprises and Private Enterprises on the Mainland Economy of our

Country

17 Regional Economic

Development of the Mainland REA08 Economic Development of Regions: Yangtze

River Delta Region / Changjiang Delta Region REA08-X “Industrial shift” of Guangdong 18 International Financial Centre REA09 Hong Kong as an International Financial Centre REA09-X Capital Market

REA10-X1 (1)External Trade of China 19 World Trade REA10 Trade: Conditions, Gains and Disputes

REA10-X2 (2)Fair Trade 5

Global Economy

20 International Interdependence REA11 Consequences of Economic Globalization REA11-X Global Economic Problems 21 Rights and Responsibilities of

Citizens SSC01 Rights, Responsibilities and the Rule of Law SSC01-X Rights of the Child 22 Hong Kong Government and I SSC02 Decision-making Process and Development of

Electoral System SSC02-X Youngsters’ Propensity to Vote Socio-political

System of Hong Kong

23 Upholding the Core Values of

Our Society SSC03 “Right to Freedom of Opinion & Expression” and

“Narrowing the Gap between the Rich & the Poor” SSC03-X “Diversity & Inclusiveness” and “Clean, Honesty & Integrity”

24 Life of Chinese Nationals SSC04 Everyday Life in Rural and Urban Areas SSC04-X Life of Minority Nationalities 25 Chinese Political System SSC05 An Overview of the Political System SSC05-X Local Organs of State Power and their

Executive Bodies Socio-political

System of

our Country 26 China’s Step Forward to the

World SSC06 Participation in International Affairs SSC06-X Foreign Policies 27 “Global City” SSC07 Social Characteristics of “Global City” as

Demonstrated by Hong Kong SSC07-X Social Characteristics of “Global City” as Demonstrated by other “Global Cities”

28 International Politics SSC08 An Overview of World Order SSC08-X Maintenance of World Peace 6

Global Socio-political

System 29 Global Citizenship and

Humanitarian Work SSC09 Consciousness of Global Citizenship and its

Contribution to Humanitarian Work SSC09-X International Humanitarian Relief Organizations and Global Citizenship

(30)

Table 2.2 lists out the enrichment modules. Please refer to pp. 57-63 for the topics, learning points and values and attitudes of the enrichment modules.

Table 2.2 Topics of the enrichment modules

Strands Enrichment

modules Ref. no. Topics

I PSD-E01 Life Planning

Personal &

Social

Development II PSD-E02 Enhancing Humanistic Qualities

III REA-E01 Sustainable Development of the Chinese Economy Resources &

Economic

Activities IV REA-E02 The Agricultural and Rural Development of China V SSC-E01 Global Issue: Well-being of the Child

Social Systems

& Citizenship VI SSC-E02 Global Issue: Gender Equality Cross-strands VII CSM-E01 Media and Our Life

20

(31)

2.4 Core Modules

21

(32)

2.4.1 Strand 1: Personal and Social Development Core module (1): Personal Growth (I)

An adolescent is concerned about self-image, exploring one’s interests, assessing one’s abilities and setting goals. Developmental Psychology provides us with insights that they need to respond to the question “Who am I?” Understanding oneself from different perspectives enables students to build their identity and develop a positive self-image. In addition, students may be anxious about the new environment at secondary school. Learning how to manage emotions will enhances their self-esteem and self-confidence, enables them to accept and appreciate themselves, and to be ready for possible challenges in life. In the extended part, students will further understand how to equip themselves physically and psychologically for an optimistic, active and healthy life.

After completing this module, students should understand the importance of self-esteem and self-confidence with regard to personal development, and be able to understand themselves from different perspectives, develop their self-identity, build self-confidence, understand their own strengths and weaknesses and manage their emotions and resources.

Topics Learning points Suggested Introductory questions Values and Attitudes

Foundation Part

(FP) PSD01

Self-understanding, Self-esteem and Self- confidence

(6 lessons)

- The many faces of “Self”: perceived self, real self, ideal self

- The importance of self-esteem and self-respect with regard to personal development

- Emotion management and ways to cope with negative emotions

- Establish self-confidence to face difficulties and failure

- What criteria do I use when judging myself - appearance, academic performance or family background?

- If I could live my life all over again, would I choose to be myself or someone else?

Extended Part

(EP) PSD 01-X

Healthy Lifestyle and Self-management

- Time management

- Choose proper forms of entertainment - Healthy lifestyle including eating well

and eating right, striking a balance between work and rest, maintaining physical fitness, which brings life-long benefits

- Ways to develop positive attitudes towards life including accepting oneself , taking up challenges , thinking positively

- How can we distinguish proper entertainment from the improper?

- If I am content with a confused but happy life, why should I bother so much?

individuality, self-esteem, self-discipline, self-reflection, self-determination.

independence, enterprise, simplicity, perseverance

22

(33)

Core module (2): Personal Growth (II)

Personal growth and experience, comparison among peers, expectation of family members and teachers are all possible sources of pressure and anxiety on adolescents. Teachers should help students understand the proper attitudes and effective strategies for coping with anxiety and pressure, which enables them to deliver oneself from adversities, establish values and strengthen their self confidence. In the extended part, students will further study, through the exploration of drug addiction in Hong Kong, the consequences of handling pressure with negative behaviour. In addition, students should also have a basic understanding of juvenile delinquency and the principles of punishment.

After completing this module, students should understand the importance of having a holistic perspective and positive thinking when facing adversities.

Students will be able to grasp strategies for dealing with pressure and anxiety, making them confident in the face of difficulties and willing to ask for help as necessary.

Topics Learning Points Suggested Introductory Questions Values and Attitudes

FP PSD02

Coping with Adversities (4 lessons)

- Impact of pressure and anxieties on adolescents

- Ways to deal with pressure and anxieties - Ways to strengthen resilience

- Is withdrawal the best way to handle adversities?

- If I lose my temper easily, is it a sign of hidden problems?

- How do people react to adversities? How can I face adversities in life?

EP PSD 02-X

Juvenile Delinquency

- The harmful effects of drug abuse and drug addiction

- Criminal offences and punishment in local context

- Taking drugs but not trafficking causes no harm to others, so why should it be banned?

- Why should drug abuse be prohibited, when it is only a private choice?

- Why is legal punishment on adolescents usually light in degree while there is such concern about juvenile delinquency?

courage, enterprise, perseverance, self-determination, active and optimistic, sanctity of life, rationality, self-reflection, self-discipline, principled morality, searching for support

23

(34)

24

Core module (3): Human Relationship (I)

Friendship is a pillar of life, so interpersonal relationship exerts a significant influence on adolescent development. Friends offer understanding and emotional support, enhance learning and enrich one’s life, and they are partners to explore the world with. Form 1 students just promoted to a new secondary school have to meet new friends. At the beginning of the term, making friends is important for the social and personal development in the days to come. The ability to develop healthy friendships with the same and the opposite sex indicates sound social relationships. At the same time, the emphasis on friendship creates peer pressure for them to follow crowd. Bullying of various degrees may well happen. The purposes of this module are to help students choose friends, face peer pressure, protect themselves, and resist bullying, allowing them to sail through adolescence happily. The extended part deals with sex role and sex stereotyping.

After completing this module, students will have learned how to choose friends, establish friendship and cope with peer pressure, understanding the reasons for bullying and ways of handling it, thus enabling them to protect themselves and respect others.

Topics Learning Points Suggested Introductory Questions Values and

Attitudes FP

PSD03

Building Friendships (5 lessons)

- The importance of friendship to personal development

- Establish and nurture friendship with members of the same sex and the opposite sex

- Coping with peer pressure

- The definition of and reasons for bullying - Behavioural signs of bullies and their victims - Strategies to tackle bullying

- Why is it so difficult for me to make friends?

- People around me always tease me, what should I do?

- Is there any difference in making friends with the same sex and the other sex?

- Do I care for my friends? Should I always act in conjunction with my friends?

- Is bullying others a good way to avoid being bullied?

EP PSD 03-X

Developing Potentials and Self-identity

- Ways to enhance potentials

- Gender roles and stereotypes on personal development

- Ways to present personal charm

- How can I utilize my potentials and live a fruitful life?

- How do sexual differences affect personality, academic achievement and social development?

openness, with a respect for others, sensitivity,

affectivity, courage, self-reflection, trust, empathy, honesty, adaptable to changes

(35)

Core module (4): Human Relationship (II)

As students approach maturity and expand their social network, they face great changes in their social life and the internet is a part of their life, with a result that cyber-friends play an important role in their social network. Students should understand the positive value of cyber-friendship, but at the same time realise its potential dangers. Understanding the impact of different forms of friendship on personal development and interpersonal relationship enables them to tackle the challenges of cyber-friendship and make rational judgements and choices. In the extended part, students will be provided with opportunities to recognise the concern and appropriate attitude to be held in competition with peers, which equip them to face the challenges of competition on friendship. Self-efficacy can also be enhanced through mutual support in competition with peers.

After completing this module, students would appreciate the opportunities and challenges involved in various forms of friendship, and are able to develop friendship in a sensible and healthy way. They would also understand the merits and limitations of these forms of friendship, and develop positive attitudes towards friendship.

Topics Learning Points Suggested Introductory Questions Values and

Attitudes FP

PSD04

Managing Cyber-friendship (4 lessons)

- Cyber-friendship: characteristics, values and possible risks

- Ways to deal with and develop cyber-friendship

- Can true friendship be developed over the internet?

- How about having cyber-friends only and no other friends?

EP PSD 04-X

Competition

among Peers - Competition among peers: to be fair and sensible, and be encouraging of each other

- How should we treat a friend who is also a competitor?

How should I behave towards my friend in competition?

Will it bring challenge to the friendship?

openness, sensitivity, integrity, courage, self-reflection, trust, honesty, adaptable to changes

25

(36)

Core module (5): Family Life

Family is key to personal growth and contributes to society as a whole. Although increasing emphasis tends to be laid on individualism, family bonding is still highly valued. As family is a major support system in life, students have to learn the different roles played by family members so as to understand the meaning of family as well as the responsibilities involved. Effective communication helps strengthen family ties, which is a vital underpinning for adolescent development. In the extended part, discussion on skills to handle family conflicts will help students maintain harmonious relationships with family members.

After completing this module, students will be able to understand the importance of family for personal growth, the roles and responsibilities of different family members and skills for communicating with them. This will strengthen their sense of responsibilities towards the family and contribute to the formation of a harmonious family.

Topics Learning Points Suggested Introductory Questions Values and

Attitudes FP

PSD05

Enhancing Family Life (3 lessons)

- The importance of family in life - The role(s) of family members

- The responsibilities of an individual towards family

- Importance of communication among family members

- Is family still important to us in this era of individualism?

- What can I expect of my family? And what can I do for them?

- Is a quiet family better than a clamorous one?

EP PSD 05-X

Building Harmonious Family Relationship

- Causes of family conflicts - Skills to resolve family conflicts - To develop a harmonious family

- There are sometimes quarrels in my family, but that don’t damage our relationships. Why do disputes occur in families?

- Is it true that every one treasures a harmonious family even though family disputes are common?

- How can a supportive and harmonious family be created?

with a respect for others, affectivity, self-reflection, trust, honesty,, appreciative, tolerance, responsible

26

(37)

Core module (6): Sex and Sexuality (I)

As an adolescent approaches maturity, love assumes an important role in adolescent growth. Students should receive detailed information on handling of love encounters. They should understand the differences between friendship with members of the opposite sex and a relationship with lovers. They should understand the true meaning of love and the proper attitudes and principles for involvement. Love is an important form of interpersonal relationship. Students need to learn how a love relationship develops and how to end it, if necessary. These processes make them mature and impart a deeper understanding of themselves and others. Nowadays, media pornography is so overwhelming, it has badly influenced adolescent development. In the extended part, student awareness of sexual traps and ways of self-protection will be discussed.

After completing this module, students will understand the elements of a love relationship, and the aim, attitude and principles of falling in love. In addition, students will master the ways of initiating, maintaining, enhancing and ending a relationship, so as to become more confident and reasoned in handling the relationship with lovers.

Topics Learning Points Suggested Introductory Questions Values and

Attitudes FP

PSD06

Learning to Love (3 lessons)

- Similarities and differences between love and friendship

- Elements, goals, principles and proper attitudes towards love

- Ways to nurture and maintain a relationship - Reasons, managing ways and appropriate

attitude for ending a relationship

- What are the differences between a friend of the opposite sex and a lover?

- Why am I eager to fall in love? How long should a love relationship last?

- Why does he dump me? Am I not worthy of his love? How can he be so cruel?

EP PSD 06-X

Handling Issues of Sexual Abuse

- Media pornography and its impact on adolescents

- Ways to deal with pornographic information - Sexual harassment in daily life

- Ways to prevent and handle sexual harassment - Ways to prevent and handle sexual abuse - Protect oneself from the traps of

cyber-pornography

- Why are adult magazines wrapped and given printed warnings at newsstands? Why are young people forbidden to buy these magazines?

- Do I have the right to stop someone from saying cheap and indecent thing?

- She dresses in such a sexy way to seduce me, how can I stop her?

- Should I agree to meet my cyber-friend when he/she invite me?

rationality, self-cultivation, self-reflection, affectivity, responsible, with a respect for self, human dignity, care and concerned, critical

27

Figure

Updating...

References

Related subjects :