Media and Information Literacy (MIL)

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Information Literacy in the Digital Era


Alice Y. L. Lee

Hong Kong Baptist University 2017


Marching into the Digital Age


Media and Information Literacy (MIL)

傳媒資訊素養 =

傳媒素養 +資訊素養 +資訊及傳播科技技能


Media Literacy + Information Literacy + ICT Skills



MIL is the ability to access, evaluate/

understand, and use/create media and

information in various forms in a critical and effective way (involves a set of


Not only deal with media messages, but all kinds of information


A media-and-information-literate person

should be able to handle messages coming from different sources

e.g. mass media, Internet, social media, Libraries, museums, archives, databases, video games …


Information Literacy for Hong Kong Students 2016

Advanced IL (高階資訊素養)

Similar to MIL


Peter Drucker

Information Technology (IT)

From the “T” of IT to the “I” of IT


Why Do We Need Advanced

Information Literacy?


Three Major World Trends

Communication revolutions

Transition to knowledge societies

New learning mode of the Net generation


Communication Revolutions


1. Communication Revolutions

Infomedia Revolution


Blurred the line between media technology

and information technology/computer technology


Mass Media


Photo reproduction Radio broadcasting Filming

Television Broadcasting VCR

Cable technology Satellite



Web 1.0


Online media (online newspapers) Video on demand

Digital broadcasting IPTV


Web 2.0

We Media:

Citizen journalism sites Blogs


Social networks (e.g.

Facebook, MySpace, Google+)

Media sharing sites (e.g. Podcasting, photo-sharing sites such as Flickr, video sharing services such as YouTube)

Social bookmarking sites (e.g.Delicious)

Microblogging services (e.g. Twitter, Weibo)


Web 3.0

1. Networking Computing 2. World Wide Database 3. The Intelligent Web

The computer can understand your request 4. Intelligent Applications

Through artificial intelligence, the computer can sort out useful suggestion/solution for you from the


5. Wireless Access

iPhone, iPad, tablet


Web 1.0: Read only Web Web 2.0: Read-write

Web 3.0: Read-write-execute Web


Web 1.0: information-centric (the Web) Web 2.0: people-centric (social Web)

Web 3.0: machine-centric (semantic Web) Web 4.0: agent-centric (ubiquitous)


Web 4.0

Web 4.0 will be as a read-write-

execution-concurrency web with

intelligent interactions (There is still no exact definition of it.)

Web 4.0 is also known as symbiotic web in which human mind and

machines can interact in symbiosis


The Movie World

the movie of “Her” (雲端情人)

voice secretary of the computer operation system

The Reality

Apple: Siri (personal voice assistant)

Micorsoft: Cortana

IBM: Watson


We are marching into a Brave New World!

Machine to machine communication

Human to AI machine communication


The Challenges of the New



1. How to Handle the Influences of the Digital Media

New media environment  new social culture

Second wave (industrial society): mass media  mass mind

Third wave (knowledge society): de-massification media  blip culture

(immediacy, easy access, personalization, connectivity, datafication, spreadibility, decentralisation, denationalisation,



Young people on Facebook

Get “Like” – Narcissistic?

Be eager to get recognition

Live for other people?


Present Shock: When Everything Happens Now

Rushkoff argues that we no longer have a sense of a future, of goals, of direction at all. We have a completely new relationship to time; we live in an always-on “now,” where the priorities of this

moment seem to be everything.



Google search too convenience  we are lazy to memorize things

Dependence on Google

Know a lot but not deep down

Google memorizes things for you

Google also memorizes things about you – even mistakes


The Naked Future: What Happens in a World that Anticipates Your Every


Big data – prediction models

Predict earthquakes, improve health, produce highly customized education, prevent crime …

Data will be the most precious resource in the coming years

Gain tremendous benefits? Are we losing our ability of not to do?


Unaccountable algorithm

How does Facebook deliver the messages on your timeline?


2. How to Deconstruct Huge Amount of Information from Different Channels

Information overload

Select, evaluate & synthesize information


Construct reality  manufacture reality


A student convinced her family and friends 

she was on a five‐week trip around South 

East Asia ‐ but, in reality, she had never 

left her bedroom. 


US Election and fake news

Content farms

Social media as major channels for spreading fake news


People need high level critical thinking skill to receive and deconstruct media messages and information from different sources

Information verification


3.How to Constructively Use Communication Power?

Prosumer (producer + consumer) Ethical participation

Rumor, cyber-bullying …

Using the new media for knowledge creation


The new industrial revolution

In the past: every aspiring entrepreneur needed the support of major manufacturer

Now: anybody with a smart idea and a little expertise can make their ideas a reality

Factory in the cloud – DIY factory

3D printing impacts manufacturing

3D printing and guns


4.How to Tackle Online Security Issue


Invasion of privacy Breach of copyright


5. How to Overcome Digital Divide or Digital Use Divide

Digital Divide

Low income family; minorities, people in developing countries

Digital Use Divide


From Industrial Society to

Knowledge Society


The Transition to Knowledge Society

Industrial society  knowledge society

Most of the population: knowledge workers

Information as means of production

2005 UNESCO: Towards Knowledge Societies

The important role of knowledge in building more capable communities


(1) Human Resources

The reception, production and

transmission of information/knowledge are essential in social, economic, political and cultural sectors

Cultivate a media-and-information-literate population becomes essential for the

development of a society

Knowledge economy: competent knowledge workers


(2) Desirable Knowledge Society

UNESCO’s Mandate on knowledge societies

Knowledge societies: Equitable, pluralistic, inclusive and participatory

Based on four major principles:

Equal access to quality education for all

Universal access to information

Cultural and linguistic diversity

Freedom of expression


It is expected that citizens in knowledge society can access, utilize, create , and share information and knowledge

Aim: to achieve their full potential in

promoting their sustainable development and improving their quality of life.


Media and information are vital for engaging people in the democratic process, building communities and strengthening civil society

MIL: A pre-requisite for individuals to exercise their freedom to access



Future knowledge workers should have the ability to not only acquire information, but also transform it into knowledge that empowers them to improve their

livelihoods and contribute to the social and economic development of their society


Changing Learning Mode


Who is Illiterate?

People have not learnt how to learn


Don’t know how to handle information and seek knowledge

Don’t have the skills of information search, classification and evaluation ……


Changing Learning Mode

Agricultural society

Learned from their parents and community members

Industrial society

Learned in schools


Knowledge society

not book learning

distant learning, schools with no physical buildings

learn through networked communication technologies (social media, databases, online archives…) in the mobile environment

life-long learning, adult and kids learn together, yesterday’s knowledge becomes irrelevant


Two knowledge systems:


Mass media and other information platforms


Ben Williamson – Future Curriculum

“a wikiworld of learning”

curriculum is not seen as “a core canon or central body of content”

but is seen as “hyperlinked with networked digital media, popular culture, and everyday interactions”

The future of schooling will be a network-based distributed system of learning

IL is essential for self learning and life-long learning



Three Components

Access/ Retrieval of Media and Information Evaluation/ Understanding of Media and Information

Use/Communication/Create Media and Information


Table 1: MIL Component One – Access of Media and Information


Table 2: MIL Component Two – Evaluation and Understanding of Media and Information


Table 3: MIL Component Three – Use and Create Media and Information


Hong Kong Experience


MILE Textbook (primary school edition) 2001



(The 21st Century Skills Learning: Creative Information Technology Education Project)


(Use information technology to teach ML) (常識科+電腦科)


建立教學網站 (design online curriculum & establish a Web platform)

跨學科合作 (常識科與電腦科)

(combining the media literacy section in General Studies and the ICT literacy section in Computer Studies)

採用新資訊科技教學 (電子書、手提電腦、iPad、互聯網







The Hong Kong Paediatric Society:

Health Literacy

Media and information literate children and Adolescents


Hong Kong Schools

IL Education:

Education for all

Information for all

Young people will use information and information technology ethically and effectively



Individual level: media and information literate (wise media and information user) Societal level: informed and responsible citizen

Academic aspect: active learning; lifelong learning; conducting research

Professional aspect: competent knowledge worker


Thank You!




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