Enhancing Students’ Reading Performance

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Enhancing Students’ Reading Performance

through the Use of Effective Teaching Strategies

English Language Education Section

Curriculum Development Institute

Education Bureau

January 2015

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Objectives

• To review the five teaching strategies for reading

• To promote reading across the curriculum in the Reading Workshops for KS2 students

• To share and discuss stimulating resources and

effective learning activities to develop KS2 students’

reading skills

• To provide hands-on activities for the participants to design and plan appropriate reading activities

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Workshop Overview

Part 1

• Understanding students’ literacy skills development

• Planning a school-based reading programme

• Making use of the five teaching strategies for reading

Break

Part 2

• Selecting stimulating reading resources and designing appropriate reading activities

• Hands-on practice

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Let’s mingle with one another …

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What do you think about teaching

reading at the primary level?

How do you usually teach

reading?

What kind of resources do you

use for teaching

reading?

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Understanding

Students’ Literacy Skills

Development

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Literacy and Schooling

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… literacy is dependent upon schooling. Indeed, in many societies schooling and literacy have been almost

synonymous… (David Olson, 2013)

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Some beliefs about reading

• Reading is NOT a passive language skill.

• Reading is an interactive process in which the reader constructs meaning from texts.

• Background knowledge and prior experience is critical to the reading process.

• Students acquire effective reading skills in the context of real reading.

• Students need support, encouragement and praise during the reading process.

• Reading provides a source of satisfaction and pleasure.

• Reading is a means to seek information, develop and apply knowledge.

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Learning to Read

Reading to Learn

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Reading Strategies

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English Language Curriculum Guide (P1-6) (CDC, 2004), p.A28

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The Reading Process

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L.I.F.T Literacy Instruction For Teachers (English Language Education Section, CDI , EDB 2007), p.8

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Construct meaning from texts Locate

information

and ideas Understand the basic conventions

of written English

English Language Curriculum Guide (P1-6) (CDC, 2004), pp.55-57

Key Reading Skills

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Planning a School-based

Reading Programme

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Components of a School-based English Language Curriculum

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English Language Curriculum Guide (Primary 1 – 6) (CDC, 2004)

40%

60%

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Laying a good foundation for lifelong learning

• Developing in students positive attitudes towards learning English

• Providing opportunities for students to take an active role in learning

• Helping students develop and practise reading skills through reading ‘real books’

• Using real books of a variety of text types

• Taking up about 40% of the English lesson time

• Closely linked to the learning and teaching that takes place in the General English Programme

• Adopting effective teaching strategies

• Reading as a springboard for the development of higher order thinking skills, creativity and other language skills

• Providing coherent and connected learning experiences for the students

Reading Workshops

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Our observation and concerns

 Primary students’ interest in reading increased

 Successful implementation of KS1 reading programmes

 Development of basic reading skills at KS1

 Adopting KS1 reading programmes with little thoughts to students’ reading skills development

 Reading skills development in KS1 not well sustained in KS2

 Uncertainty about how to maximise existing reading resources

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Students’

Reading Skills

Development

Considerations in Planning

School-based Reading Workshops (1)

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KS1 KS2

Understand the basic conventions of written English

 sight read common, phonically irregular words, e.g.

are, a, you

 recognise beginning and end of sentences

 use phonological strategies to decode words, e.g.

identifying the onsets and rimes

 …

 sight read a wide range of common, phonically irregular words, e.g. have, said, was

 use knowledge of basic letter-sound relationship to read aloud a variety of simple texts

Construct meaning from texts

 guess the meaning of unfamiliar words by using contextual or pictorial clues

 understand the information provided on the book cover

 recognise the format & language features of common text types, e.g. signs, stories

 make predictions about stories, characters, topics of interest

 …

 use known parts of words or word association to work out the meaning of unknown parts, e.g.

happy/unhappy

 recognise recurrent patterns in language structure, e.g. word order

 recognise the format & language features of a variety of text types, e.g. journals, letters, menus, reports

 …

Locate information and ideas

 scan a text to locate specific information by using strategies, e.g. looking at repeated words, italics

 …

 identify details that support the gist or main ideas

 …

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Depth of Processing

Range and application of reading strategies

Understanding

- Locating information

- Working out meaning of words

and phrases

- Connecting ideas

- Identifying main ideas and

supporting details

- Distinguishing facts from opinions - Organising information and ideas

Inferring

- Inferring feelings - Deducing information

and ideas

- Comparing information

and ideas

- Working out main ideas

and themes

Interpreting

- Analysing information and

ideas

- Synthesising - Evaluating - Justifying

Cognitive processes involved in reading

Underlying principles

Activating prior knowledge and experiences in processing a wide range of texts for different reading purposes

Progressive Development of Reading Skills

Text complexity

Abstractness

Organisation Density of information

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Students’

Reading Skills

Development

Considerations in Planning

School-based Reading Workshops (2)

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Making Use of the

Five Teaching Strategies

for Reading

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Five Teaching Strategies for Reading (1)

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English Language Curriculum Guide (P1-6) (CDC, 2004), p.A29

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Activity 1 – How much do you know about the five teaching strategies for reading?

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• Work in groups of 5-6.

• Read the information about the teaching strategy.

• Discuss if the texts are appropriate for the use of the teaching strategy.

• Share with others.

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Five Teaching Strategies for Reading (2)

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These strategies need not be developed one at a time or in a strict sequence at different stages of learning. With each teaching strategies, students should be involved in reading different text types for a variety of purposes.

Teacher should plan for:

 reading to their pupils (Reading Aloud and Storytelling)

 reading with their pupils (Shared Reading and Supported Reading)

 reading by their pupils (Independent Reading)

Literacy Instruction for Teachers (LIFT)

http://www.edb.gov.hk/en/curriculum-development/kla/eng-edu/references-resources.html

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Deciding on the Teaching Strategies for Reading

Supports? Challenges?

If there are many challenges and few supports, the text is probably best for storytelling or reading aloud.

If there are more challenges than supports, the text is probably more suitable for use as a shared reading text.

If there is a good balance of supports and challenges, the text is probably a good choice for a supported reading text.

If there are many supports and a few challenges, the text is

probably suitable as a text for independent reading.

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Students’

Reading Skills Development

Considerations in Planning

School-based Reading Workshops (3)

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Selecting stimulating

reading resources

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General Principles in Selecting Reading Materials

Varying text complexity, from simple to complex

Content relevant to students’

needs and interests Appealing layouts and

illustrations

Linkage between texts

Variety of text types

Nurturing positive values and attitudes (life-long learning and whole-person

development)

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Categories of Text Types

Examples of Text Types for Key Stage 1

Additional Examples of Text Types for Key Stage 2

Narrative Texts • Cartoons and comics

• Diaries

• Fables and fairy tales

• Poems

• Stories

• Autobiographies

• Biographies

• Myths

• Plays

• Tongue twisters Information

Texts

• Labels

• Menus

• Notices

• Picture dictionaries

• Rules

• Signs

• Time-tables

• Announcements

• Children’s encyclopedias

• Dictionaries

• Directories

• Maps and legends

• News reports

• Pamphlets Exchanges • Cards

• Conversations

• Personal letters

• Emails

• Formal letters

• Telephone conversations Procedural

Texts

• Directions

• Instructions

• Procedures

• Recipes Explanatory

Texts

• Captions

• Illustrations

• Explanations of how and why

Persuasive Texts

• Advertisements

• Posters

• Brochures

• Discussions

• Expositions

English Language Curriculum Guide (Primary 1-6) (CDC, 2004), p.17

Selecting Reading Materials -

A variety of text types

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Students’ personal experiences

Selecting Reading Materials -

Contents relevant to students’ needs and interests

Reading texts

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 Tying in with movies with the same titles or characters

 Using fairy tales with a twist

 Using books with linked themes

Connecting reading texts with students’

personal experiences

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School-based Major Concerns:

 Creating a caring school campus

 Nurturing responsible, considerate and polite students, family members and citizens

Curriculum planning in different KLAs/subjects

English Language

 Nurturing positive values and

attitudes through reading and

identifying values, attitudes and beliefs expressed in the text

Selecting Reading Materials -

Nurturing positive values and attitudes

Life-long Learning and Whole-person Development

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Major Concern of the School

 Creating a caring school campus

 Nurturing responsible, considerate and polite students, family members and citizens

Nurturing positive values and attitudes through reading and identifying values and attitudes expressed in the text

Modules:

KS1 Me and my friends KS2 Relationships

English Language

Reading Workshops

KS1 Storytelling

KS2 Supported

Reading

General English

Units:

KS1 Me and my friend KS2 Successful people

Example::

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Interactive Books

 Narrations, pictures and/or animations provided

 Basic interactions which allow students to touch screen and have more control in the reading process

 Examples:

 PEER

http://peer.edb.hkedcity.net/

 Free apps for tablets

 Non-print paired books of related themes

Choice of Reading Materials – Non-print

Audio Books

 Reading text/script provided

 Audio file with narrations and simple sound effects

 Examples:

 Naxo Spoken Word Library

http://www.hkpl.gov.hk/en/e-resources/e-books/disclaimer/7578/naxos-spoken-word-

library

 Free audio books online

http://lightupyourbrain.com/stories/

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Hands-on Practice

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Work in pairs.

Select 1-2 reading text(s) that you find suitable for your KS2 students.

Consider which of the five teaching strategies for

reading can be used in your KS2 Reading Workshops.

Design a brief lesson plan to try out at least one of the teaching strategies for reading.

Share with others.

Activity 2 – Planning reading lessons

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THANK YOU

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References

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