灌水摻假之肉類品質檢測 許清其、陳明造

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灌水摻假之肉類品質檢測 許清其、陳明造

E-mail: 9607829@mail.dyu.edu.tw

摘 要

台灣許多肉商為了增加屠體和生鮮肉的重量以獲得不當利益,因此對屠體和生鮮肉作灌水的處理。本實驗主要探討對豬肉 經過灌水摻假後的物化特性,實驗中使用豬的背最長肌注射10%(A)、20%(B)、30%(C)肉重之去離子水和10%肉 重之10%(w/w)氯化鈉水溶液(D)和不做注射處理的對照組(E),於-20℃下冷凍48小時,再於4℃下解凍24小時,分 析色澤、電導度、粗蛋白含量、解凍流失率組織結構的變化。另外,快速檢測的方法為使用觸碰與濾紙貼壓法來檢測肉品 是否有摻雜水分。結果顯示在冷凍前和解凍後C組的L值均最高,粗蛋白含量為E>D>A>B>C,豬肉和豬肉滴液的電導 度大小為D>E>A>B>C,組織切片觀察方面,經過注射處理的纖維組織結構有明顯的多處斷裂,而對照組組織纖維較 完整;快速檢測法的結果發現用手指觸摸發現對照組(E)和注射氯化鈉溶液(D)的肉會有黏性,注射水之各組則沒有

,當以濾紙覆蓋肉之表面,再以1Kg重物壓在濾紙上三秒後發現,B及C組之濾紙有顯著增重(p<0.05),且除E及D組外 其他各組之濾紙都有明顯的渲染。

關鍵詞 : 生鮮肉、水分摻假

目錄

目錄 封面內頁 授權書... iii 中文摘要... iv 英文摘要... v 誌 謝... vi 目錄... vii 圖目錄... x 1.緒言... 1 2.文獻回顧... 2 2.1影響肉品品質的因素... 2 2.1.1屠前因素... 2 2.1.1.1緊迫因 素... 2 2.1.1.2遺傳因素... 2 2.1.1.3年齡因素... 3 2.1.1.4性別因

素... 3 2.1.2.屠後因素... 3 2.1.2.1屠後僵直... 3 2.1.2.2冷收縮和熱僵 直... 4 2.1.2.3僵直對肉品的影響... 5 2.1.2.4電刺激... 5 2.1.2.5僵直解除和熟

成... 5 2.2食肉的理化性質... 6 2.2.1 pH... 6 2.2.2保水力... 6 2.2.3色澤... 7 2.3 食肉的冷凍處理... 10 2.3.1冷凍的速率... 10 2.3.2冷凍引起 肉質改變的原因... 12 2.3.3冷凍對食肉的影響... 12 2.3.3.1保水力... 12 2.3.3.2色

澤... 13 2.3.3.3解凍流失率... 13 2.3.3.4肌肉組織... 13 2.4氯化鈉對生鮮肉的影 響... 15 2.4.1保水力... 15 2.4.2色澤... 15 2.4.3微生物... 15 3.

材料與方法... 17 3.1.材料... 17 3.2.材料處理... 17 3.3儀器設 備... 19 3.4藥品... 19 3.5水分含量測定... 20 3.6解凍流失 率... 21 3.7肉色測定... 21 3.8粗蛋白含量... 22 3.8.1粗蛋白計算公 式... 23 3.8.2 NaOH力價標定方法... 23 3.8.3混合指示劑... 24 3.9.電導度測 定... 24 3.10肌肉切片及蘇木紫和伊紅染色... 25 3.11快速檢測法... 26 3.11.1觸摸 法... 26 3.11.2濾紙貼壓法... 26 3.12統計分析與繪圖... 27 4.結果與討 論... 28 4.1解凍流失率之測定... 28 4.2.色澤... 30 4.3粗蛋白含 量... 34 4.4電導度測定... 36 4.5組織冷凍切片觀察... 39 4.6觸摸 法... 44 4.7濾紙貼壓法... 46 5.結論... 48 參考文 獻... 50 附錄... 54

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