建立河川污水排放計量模式作為許可及管理基準 Doan Quang Tri、陳宜清

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建立河川污水排放計量模式作為許可及管理基準 Doan Quang Tri、陳宜清

E-mail: 342056@mail.dyu.edu.tw

摘 要

在產業發展時期,越南政府把重點放在平衡社會經濟發展以保衛國家與政策,然而污染來自工業、農業、城市、家庭以及 工藝村的廢水已經嚴重讓水資源退化,尤其是在Day/Nhue 河流域,因此,本計畫的目的是在計算該河川被許可的污廢水 排放量和水質管理。 這項研究發現,越南已實施有利於環境影響評估(EIA)、環境標準、法規和經濟手段的議程,越南也 採用別的方法,包括:重整行政組織、增加管理廢水排放的預算、考慮人力資源的開發、處理廢水的方式。然而,在廢水 管理的權限上有數量的限制,如:實施不明確的指導方針、環境標準微弱的執行、很淺的處罰違法者、各機構之間管轄權 的重疊。此外,在大多數的組織中缺乏資金、設施及人力資源。 針對這條Day/Nhue河,本研究主要採用文獻及水質評價

,此外,選擇MIKE11水質模式來模擬計算沿著這條河污染的排放量,根據MIKE11計算的結果評估各河段污染的程度,

在現實條件下,當管理者或計劃者在該領域的專門知識不足下使用該模型,本論文提出用查詢表的模型計算,調查表中將 建置相關圖表來顯示排放流量的變化,以及上游水流量和污染物的濃度改變後的結果。這些應用將根據不同的計劃而被建 置,會帶給使用者方便,協助管理者可以檢討和考慮規劃、許可或規定流域的污廢水排放許可。

關鍵詞 : Day/Nhue流域、水質模式、MIKE 11、污廢水排放許可 目錄

ABSTRACT iv 中文摘要 vi ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS vii CONTENTS viii LIST OF FIGURES xi LIST OF TABLES xv LIST OF ABBREVIATION xviii Chapter 1. INTRODUCTION 1 1.1. Background and Justification 1 1.2. Objectives 3 1.3. Scope of Research 4 1.3.1 Study site 4 1.3.2 Research Content 8 1.3.3 Conditions of River Pollution and Monitoring 9 Chapter 2.

LITERATURE REVIEWS 10 2.1 Laws and Regulatories 10 2.1.1 Regulation of Point Sources and Non-Point Source 11 2.1.2 Water Quality Standard 20 2.2 Legal and Institutional Framework in Viet Nam 24 2.2.1 Water Resources Legislations and Agencies 24 2.2.2 Institutional Framework for Environmental Management 26 2.2.3 Institution Arrangement for Wastewater Management 28 2.2.4 Policy and Legislative Framework Context 32 2.3 The Granting of Wastewater Discharge Permits 37 2.4 Management Tools and Instruments 47 2.4.1 Regulations, management procedures and by-law 48 2.4.2 Water Quality Standards 49 2.4.3 Economic Instruments 50 2.4.4 Monitoring Systems 51 2.5 Previous Studies 52 2.5.1 Shanghai Huangpu River, China 52 2.5.2 Lover River, Taiwan 58 2.5.3 Upper Mississippi River Basin, USA 62 Chapter 3. STUDY METHODS 68 3.1 Overview of Water Quality Modeling 68 3.1.1 The Role of Water Quality Modeling in Water Management 69 3.1.2 Introduce Water Quality Modelings 70 3.2 Water Quality Assessment 75 3.2.1 BOD5 Concentration 75 3.2.2 NO3- Concentration 76 3.2.3 Metal Concentration 77 3.3 Pollution Load in the Day/Nhue River Sub-Basin 80 3.3.1 Domestic Pollution 81 3.3.2 Industry 85 3.3.3 Craft Villages 90 3.3.4 Agriculture 91 3.4 Research Methods 93 3.4.1 Study methods suggestion 93 3.4.2 Static equilibrium problem 94 3.4.3 Application of mathematical models 97 3.5 Data Collection 115 3.5.1 Static Equilibrium 115 3.5.2 Mathematical Model 116 Chapter 4.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 117 4.1 Expected Goals and Results 117 4.1.1. Static Equilibrium 117 4.1.2. Application of Mathematical Model 120 4.2 Proposed Research Procedures and Flow Charts 140 4.2.1 Requirement of the management and wastewater discharge permits 140 4.2.2 Scenario Calculations 145 Chapter 5. CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS 159 5. 1.

Conclusions 159 5. 2. Suggestions 160 REFERENCES 163 APPENDIX A: KEY LEGISLATIONS ON WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT 168 APPENDIX B: NUMBER OF NATIONAL STANDARDS FOR WATER POLLUTION CONTROL 172 APPENDIX C: FORMS OF WASTE DISCHARGE PERMIT 177 APPENDIX D 184

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