行為導向藝術治療法對國小多重障礙兒童行為問題及圖畫概念之輔導效果研究

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三、名詞釋義

(一)行為導向藝術治療

行為導向藝術治療(behavior approach to art therapy),乃是結合行為改變技術的 原則和藝術治療,所進行的輔導治療方式(Roth, 1987),本研究所指的行為導向藝 術治療,採用現實塑造(reality shaping)的方法,結合藝術治療技術與行為改變原理, 在治療過程中使用教導的方式,由辨識兒童尚難傳達的模糊概念為治療活動的開端, 並採結構化、漸近及漸趨複雜化的模式,運用示範、模仿、提示、連續增強、消退、 間歇增強、類化等技術,引導受輔導的特殊兒童有系統的專注於藝術活動,改變不當 行為,並在活動中逐漸把模糊不清、不當或病態概念,以具體圖像呈現出來理解與探 討,藉此提昇圖畫及認知概念,協助其對行為的了解與改變。

(二)多重障礙兒童

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傑(Piaget)提出兒童認知發展階段理論,羅文費(Lownfeld)等人,採皮亞傑的發 展觀點,提出繪畫表現發展階段的觀點,經研究幼兒及兒童繪畫表現,隨生理與心智 的成長而依下列階段遞變:Ⅰ.塗鴉期:2 至 4 歲。Ⅱ.前圖式期:4 至 7 歲。Ⅲ.圖式 期:7 至 9 歲。Ⅳ.黨群期:9 至 12 歲。Ⅴ.擬寫實期:11 至 13 歲(陸雅青,民 82; Lowenfeld & Brittain, 1987)。本研究的圖畫概念係指兒童在中華畫人測驗的評量表 現及活動過程中的圖畫人像和形、色、線等內容表現而言,這些表現常反映兒童的生 理、心理和認知狀態。

貳、文獻探討

一、藝術治療的意義

藝術治療乃結合藝術和輔導、諮商與治療的一種心理治療或輔導方法。依英國藝 術治療家協會(British Association of Art Therapists)的界定:「藝術治療是一種治療 的方法,在藝術治療者的協助下,透過繪畫、塑造等藝術媒材,從事視覺心象(visual images)表達,藉此心象表達把存於內心而未表達出來的思想與情感,向外呈現出來。 此一表達和呈現出來的心象產品,具有治療和診斷功能,提供治療者和當事人治療期 間的處理指標。治療期間,當事人的情感常常包含在藝術作品裡,並在治療關係中加 以處理與解決。」(Waller & Gilroy, 1994, p.5)。

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二、行為導向藝術治療

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Roth 從輔導情緒困擾的發展遲緩兒童之工作經驗中,發展出「現實塑造」(reality shaping)的行為取向藝術治療(陸雅青,民 86)。此技術結合藝術治療和行為改變 的原理,在治療過程中採用教導的方式(Roth,1987)。實施時,首先辨識兒童想傳 達的困惑概念,這個概念對兒童而言是尚未完全明確,但具有重要意義。一旦這個概 念被識別出來,治療的目標就在於幫助兒童將模糊的概念具體化(陸雅青,民 86; Roth, 1987)。具體化的方式乃在透過結構化的塑造方式,先由治療者逐步的示範、提示, 再由兒童跟著模仿和自主的呈現。此一目標和實施過程,能逐步改變兒童行為,協助 兒童將困擾的糊模概念,逐步的具體呈現出來理解,而終能使兒童的困擾情緒與行為 問題得致改善。本技術除應用於情緒困擾的智能障礙兒童,處理其行為與情緒問題 外,也能處理具有嚴重焦慮兒童和具有攻擊性的成人,亦可應用於語言表達不善和認 知有困難的兒童(Roth, 1987)。

四、藝術治療的應用及實證研究

當今藝術治療之應用日益擴展,最常用於身心障礙者之諮商治療或教育輔導。使 用藝術治療的工作者,包括有治療師、諮商員、社工人員、教師和輔導員、訓練師、 督導員等(Rayne, 1993)。運用藝術治療的場所有特殊學校、普通學校、大學諮商中 心、社區服務中心、精神病院、療養院、老人安養機構、殘障復健中心、教養院、感 化機構、監獄等(賴念華,民 83; Dalley, 1984; Dokter, 1995; Landgarten & Lubbers,1991; Liebmann, 1994;Linesch, 1988; Robbins, 1994; Waller, 1991)。

藝術治療進入教育系統裡,最早開始應用於有障礙的兒童,如情緒與行為困擾, 學習障礙,肢體殘障或其他特殊學生,使得藝術治療在特殊教育領域大有進展(侯禎 塘,民 76;賴念華,民 83; McNiff, 1986; Wadeson,1980)。目前特殊教育在融合的趨 勢下,多數特殊兒童就讀於普通學校,而藝術治療在學校的應用,將有助於增進普通 兒童和特殊兒童的互動,輔導特殊兒童在認知、生理、行為或情緒等方面所遭受到的 困難(Waller & Gilroy, 1994)。

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A Study on the Effects of Behavior Approach

to Art Therapy on Problematic Behaviors and

Pictorial Concept for the Multiple Handicaps

in the Elementary School

Chen-Tang Hou*

Abstract

The study aimed to examine the effectiveness of the behavior approach to art therapy for the multiple handicaps with problematic behaviors. The subjects selected from the special education classes were four mental retardations with other different and significant handicaps. They were treated with the reality shaping of behavior art therapy.

A-B-A-B design was conducted to analyze the effects of the treatment on the problematic behaviors. The pictures created from the study tasks were analyzed during the successive sessions. Three instruments, the Adaptive Behavior Scale-Revision, the Concise Adaptive Behavior Scale, and the Chinese Human Figure Drawing, were used to measure and to compare the effects of the pre and post experimental treatment. In addition, a feedback questionnaire of art therapy was used to assess the general effects in the daily life.

The obtained results of this present study indicated that:

1.The reality shaping of behavior approach to art therapy had been proved to be a good strategy in decreasing the problematic behaviors of the four multiple handicaps. Furthermore, the longer the time of the treatments, the better the effects of their treatments. The follow-up period also showed good effects on the improvements of the problematic behaviors.

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2.The ability of the pictorial concept assessed by Chinese Human Figure Drawing was increased after the experimental treatment. The expression of the figure-drawings, the colors of the painting and the quality of the line drawings were gradually elaborated during the successive sessions of art therapy.

3.The feedback from the parents' and teachers' opinions indicates that the experimental treatment could facilitate the learning ability, personal interactions, self expressive ability and cognitive ability as well as artwork ability in the daily life. They all confirmed the value of the art therapy to their children or their students.

Further discussion was made on the basis of these results in which some suggestions on teaching and guidance as well as future researches were offered.

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