Principles of Financial Computing
Prof. YuhDauh Lyuu
Dept. Computer Science & Information Engineering and
Department of Finance National Taiwan University
Introduction
You must go into ﬁnance, Amory.
— F. Scott Fitzgerald (1896–1940), This Side of Paradise (1920) The two most dangerous words in Wall Street vocabulary are “ﬁnancial engineering.”
— Wilbur Ross (2007)
Class Information
• YuhDauh Lyuu. Financial Engineering & Computation:
Principles, Mathematics, Algorithms. Cambridge University Press, 2002.
• Oﬃcial Web page is
www.csie.ntu.edu.tw/~lyuu/finance1.html – Lecture notes will be uploaded before class.
– Homeworks and teaching assistants will also be announced there.
– Do not mistake last year’s homeworks for this year’s!
Class Information (continued)
• Check
www.csie.ntu.edu.tw/~lyuu/capitals.html for some of the software.
• Check the CBIS (Convertible Bond Information System) at
http://www.cb.idv.tw/cb/
for a convertiblebond software system.^{a}
aThanks to Prof. GowHsing King and his strong team.
Class Information (concluded)
• Please ask many questions in class.
– This is the best way for me to remember you in a large class.^{a}
• No roll calls.
a“[A] science concentrator [...] said that in his eighth semester of [Harvard] college, there was not a single science professor who could identify him by name.” (New York Times, September 3, 2003.)
Grading
• Programming assignments.
• Treat each homework as an examination.
• You are expected to write your own codes and turn in your source code.
• Do not copy or collaborate with fellow students.
• Never ask your friends to write programs for you.
• Never give your code to other students or publish your code.
What This Course Is About
• Financial theories in pricing.
• Mathematical backgrounds.
• Derivative securities.
• Pricing models.
• Eﬃcient algorithms in pricing ﬁnancial instruments.
• Research problems.
• Help in ﬁnding your thesis directions.
What This Course Is Not About
• How to program.^{a}
– A software bug cost Knight Capital Group, Inc.
US$457.6 million on August 1, 2012.^{b}
• Basic calculus, probability, combinatorics, and algebra.
• Details of the ﬁnancial markets.
• How to be rich.
• How the markets will perform tomorrow.
• Professional behavior.
ahttp://www.csie.ntu.edu.tw/train/
bKirilenko and Lo (2013).
Useful Journals
• Applied Mathematical Finance.
• Communications on Pure and Applied Methematics.
• European Journal of Finance.
• European Journal of Operational Research.
• Finance and Stochastics.
• Financial Analysts Journal.
• International Journal of Finance & Economics.
• International Journal of Theoretical and Applied Finance.
Useful Journals (continued)
• Journal of Computational Finance.
• Journal of Derivatives.
• Journal of Economic Dynamics & Control.
• Journal of Finance.
• Journal of Financial Economics.
• Journal of Fixed Income.
• Journal of Futures Markets.
• Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis.
• Journal of Portfolio Management.
• Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics.
Useful Journals (concluded)
• Journal of Risk and Uncertainty.
• Management Science.
• Mathematical Finance.
• Quantitative Finance.
• Review of Financial Studies.
• Review of Derivatives Research.
• Risk Magazine.
• SIAM Journal on Financial Mathematics.
• Stochastics and Stochastics Reports.
The Modelers’ Hippocratic Oath
^{a}• I will remember that I didn’t make the world, and it doesn’t satisfy my equations.
• Though I will use models boldly to estimate value, I will not be overly impressed by mathematics.
• I will never sacriﬁce reality for elegance without explaining why I have done so.
• Nor will I give the people who use my model false comfort about its accuracy. Instead, I will make explicit its
assumptions and oversights.
• I understand that my work may have enormous eﬀects on society and the economy, many of them beyond my
comprehension.
aEmanuel Derman and Paul Wilmott, January 7, 2009.
Global OTC Derivatives Market
Analysis of Algorithms
I can calculate the motions of the heavenly bodies, but not the madness of people.
— Isaac Newton (1642–1727) It is unworthy of excellent men to lose hours like slaves in the labor of computation.
— Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646–1716)
Computability and Algorithms
• Algorithms are precise procedures that can be turned into computer programs.
• Uncomputable problems.
– Does this program have inﬁnite loops?
– Is this program bug free?
• Computable problems.
– Intractable problems.
– Tractable problems.
Complexity
• A set of basic operations are assumed to take one unit of time (+,−, ×, /, log, x^{y}, e^{x}, . . . ).
• The total number of these operations is the total work done by an algorithm (its computational complexity).
• The space complexity is the amount of memory space used by an algorithm.
• Concentrate on the abstract complexity of an algorithm instead of its detailed implementation.
• Complexity is a good guide to an algorithm’s actual running time.
Common (Asymptotic) Complexities
• Let n stand for the “size” of the problem.
– Number of elements, number of cash ﬂows, number of time periods, etc.
• Linear time if the complexity is O(n).
• Quadratic time if the complexity is O(n^{2}).
• Cubic time if the complexity is O(n^{3}).
• Superpolynomial if the complexity is higher than polynomials, say 2^{O(}^{√}^{n )}.^{a}
• Exponential time if the complexity is 2^{O(n)}.
aE.g., Dai (B82506025, R86526008, D8852600) and Lyuu (2007), Lyuu and Wang (F95922018) (2011), and Chiu (R98723059) (2012).
Basic Financial Mathematics
In the ﬁfteenth century mathematics was mainly concerned with questions of commercial arithmetic and the problems of the architect.
— Joseph Alois Schumpeter (1883–1950) I’m more concerned about the return of my money than the return on my money.
— Will Rogers (1879–1935)
The Time Line

Time 0 Time 1 Time 2 Time 3 Time 4 Period 1 Period 2 Period 3 Period 4
Time Value of Money
^{a}FV = PV(1 + r)^{n}, (1)
PV = FV × (1 + r)^{−n}.
• FV (future value).
• PV (present value).
• r: interest rate.
aFibonacci (1170–1240) and Irving Fisher (1867–1947).
Periodic Compounding
• Suppose the annual interest rate r is compounded m times per annum.
• Then
1 →
1 + r m
→
1 + r m
_{2}
→
1 + r m
_{3}
→ · · ·
• Hence, after n years,
FV = PV
1 + r m
_{nm}
. (2)
Common Compounding Methods
• Annual compounding: m = 1.
• Semiannual compounding: m = 2.
• Quarterly compounding: m = 4.
• Monthly compounding: m = 12.
• Weekly compounding: m = 52.
• Daily compounding: m = 365.
Easy Translations
• An annual interest rate of r compounded m times a year is “equivalent to” an interest rate of r/m per 1/m year.
• If a loan asks for a return of 1% per month, the annual interest rate will be 12% with monthly compounding.
Example
• Annual interest rate is 10% compounded twice per annum.
• Each dollar will grow to be
[ 1 + (0.1/2) ]^{2} = 1.1025 one year from now.
• The rate is “equivalent to” an interest rate of 10.25%
compounded once per annum,
1 + 0.1025 = 1.1025
Rule of 72
• Let the annual interest rate be r.
• How many years T will it take for your money to double?
• The identity to solve is
(1 + r)^{T} = 2.
• So
T = ln 2 ln(1 + r).
• Is there an easier way?
Rule of 72 (concluded)
• The rule of 72 is a heuristic to estimate T .
• It says
T ≈ 72 r (%).
• So it takes about 72/12 years to double the GDP if the annual growth rate is 12%.
• Reason:
ln 2
ln(1 + r) ≈ 0.693
r + 0.3466.
How Good Is the Rule of 72?
Continuous Compounding
^{a}• Let m → ∞ so that
1 + r m
_{m}
→ e^{r} in Eq. (2) on p. 24.
• Then
FV = PV × e^{rn}, where e = 2.71828 . . . .
aJacob Bernoulli (1654–1705) in 1685.
Continuous Compounding (concluded)
• Continuous compounding is easier to work with.
• Suppose the annual interest rate is r1 for n_{1} years and r_{2} for the following n_{2} years.
• Then the FV of one dollar will be e^{r}^{1}^{n}^{1}^{+r}^{2}^{n}^{2} after n_{1} + n_{2} years.
Conversion between Compounding Methods
• Suppose r1 is the annual rate with continuous compounding.
• Suppose r_{2} is the equivalent rate compounded m times per annum.
• How are they related?
Conversion between Compounding Methods (concluded)
• Principle: Both interest rates must produce the same amount of money after one year.
• That is,
1 + r_{2} m
_{m}
= e^{r}^{1}.
• Therefore,^{a}
r_{1} = m ln
1 + r_{2} m
, r_{2} = m
e^{r}^{1}^{/m} − 1 .
a
The PV Formula
• The PV of the cash ﬂow C1, C_{2}, . . . , C_{n} at times 1, 2, . . . , n is
PV = C_{1}
1 + y + C_{2}
(1 + y)^{2} + · · · + C_{n}
(1 + y)^{n} . (3)
• This formula and its variations are the engine behind most of ﬁnancial calculations.^{a}
– What is y?
– What are C_{i}? – What is n?
• It will be justiﬁed on p. 204.
aCochrane (2005), “Asset pricing theory all stems from one simple concept [...]: price equals expected discounted payoﬀ.”
An Algorithm for Evaluating PV in Eq. (3)
1: x := 0;
2: for i = 1, 2, . . . , n do
3: x := x + C_{i}/(1 + y)^{i};
4: end for
5: return x;
• The algorithm takes time proportional to
_{n}
i=1 i = O(n^{2}).^{a}
• Can improve it to O(n) if you apply a^{b} = e^{b ln a} in step 3.^{b}
aIf only +,−, ×, and / are allowed.
bRecall that we count x^{y} as taking one unit of time.
Another Algorithm for Evaluating PV
1: x := 0;
2: d := 1 + y;
3: for i = n, n − 1, . . . , 1 do
4: x := (x + C_{i})/d;
5: end for
6: return x;
Horner’s Rule: The Idea Behind p. 37
• This idea is
· · ·
Cn
1 + y + C_{n−1}
1
1 + y + C_{n−2}
1
1 + y + · · ·
1
1 + y.
– Due to Horner (1786–1837) in 1819.
• The algorithm takes O(n) time.
• It is the most eﬃcient possible in terms of the absolute number of arithmetic operations.^{a}
aBorodin and Munro (1975).
Annuities
^{a}(Certain)
• An annuity pays out the same C dollars at the end of each year for n years.
• With a rate of r, the FV at the end of the nth year is
n−1
i=0
C(1 + r)^{i} = C (1 + r)^{n} − 1
r . (4)
aJan de Witt (1625–1672) in 1671 and Nicholas Bernoulli (1687–1759) in 1709.
General Annuities
• If m payments of C dollars each are received per year (the general annuity), then Eq. (4) becomes
C
1 + _{m}^{r} _{nm}
− 1
mr
.
• The PV of a general annuity is PV =
nm i=1
C
1 + r m
_{−i}
= C 1 −
1 + _{m}^{r} _{−nm}
mr
.
(5)
Amortization
• It is a method of repaying a loan through regular payments of interest and principal.
• The size of the loan (the original balance) is reduced by the principal part of each payment.
• The interest part of each payment pays the interest incurred on the remaining principal balance.
• As the principal gets paid down over the term of the loan, the interest part of the payment diminishes.
• From Eq. (5) on p. 40, the monthly payment equals C = loan amount × ^{m}^{r}
1 −
1 + _{m}^{r} _{−nm}. (6)
Example: Home Mortgage
• By paying down the principal consistently, the risk to the lender is lowered.
• When the borrower sells the house, only the remaining principal is due the lender.
• Consider the equalpayment case, i.e., ﬁxedrate, levelpayment, fully amortized mortgages.
– They are called traditional mortgages in the U.S.^{a}
aThe Economist (2016), “In most countries banks minimise their risk by oﬀering shortterm or ﬂoatingrate mortgages. American borrowers get a better deal: cheap 30year ﬁxedrate mortgages that can be repaid early free.”
A Numerical Example
• Consider a 15year, $250,000 loan at 8.0% interest rate.
• Solve Eq. (5) on p. 40 with PV = 250000, n = 15, m = 12, and r = 0.08.
• That is,
250000 = C 1 −
1 + ^{0.08}_{12} _{−15×12}
0.0812
.
• This gives a monthly payment of C = 2389.13.
The Amortization Schedule
Month Payment Interest Principal Remaining principal 250,000.000 1 2,389.13 1,666.667 722.464 249,277.536 2 2,389.13 1,661.850 727.280 248,550.256 3 2,389.13 1,657.002 732.129 247,818.128
· · ·
178 2,389.13 47.153 2,341.980 4,730.899 179 2,389.13 31.539 2,357.591 2,373.308
180 2,389.13 15.822 2,373.308 0.000
Total 430,043.438 180,043.438 250,000.000
A Numerical Example (continued)
In every month:
• The principal and interest parts add up to $2,389.13.
• The remaining principal is reduced by the amount indicated under the Principal heading.^{a}
– The Principal column forms a geometric sequence.^{b}
• The interest is computed by multiplying the remaining balance of the previous month by 0.08/12.
aThis column varies with r. Thanks to a lively class discussion on Feb 24, 2010. In fact, every column varies with r. Contributed by Ms.
Wu, Japie (R01921056) on February 20, 2013.
bSee p. 1202. Contributed by Mr. Sun, Ao (R05922147) on February 22, 2017.
A Numerical Example (concluded)
Note that:
• The Principal column adds up to $250,000.
• The Payment column adds up to $430,043.438!
• If the borrower plans to pay oﬀ the mortgage right after the 178th month’s monthly payment, he needs to pay another $4,730.899.^{a}
aContributed by Ms. Wu, Japie (R01921056) on February 20, 2013.
Method 1 of Calculating the Remaining Principal
• A month’s principal payment = monthly payment − (previous month’s remaining principal) × (monthly interest rate).
• A month’s remaining principal = previous month’s remaining principal − principal payment calculated above.
• Generate the amortization schedule until you reach the particular month you are interested in.
Method 1 of Calculating the Remaining Principal (concluded)
• This method is relatively slow but is universal in its applicability.
• It can, for example, accommodate prepayments and variable interest rates.
Method 2 of Calculating the Remaining Principal
• Right after the kth payment, the remaining principal is the PV of the future nm − k cash ﬂows,
nm−k
i=1
C
1 + r m
_{−i}
= C 1 −
1 + _{m}^{r} _{−nm+k}
mr
. (7)
• This method is much faster.
• But it is more limited in applications because it makes more assumptions.
Yields
• The term yield denotes the return of investment.
• Two widely used yields are the bond equivalent yield (BEY) and the mortgage equivalent yield (MEY).
• Recall Eq. (2) on p. 24: FV = PV
1 + _{m}^{r} _{nm} .
• BEY corresponds to the r above that equates PV with FV when m = 2.
• MEY corresponds to the r above that equates PV with FV when m = 12.
• Again, although BEY and MEY might be diﬀerent, they nevertheless mean the same yield.
Internal Rate of Return (IRR)
• It is the yield y which equates an investment’s PV with its price P ,
P = C_{1}
(1 + y) + C_{2}
(1 + y)^{2} + C_{3}
(1 + y)^{3} + · · · + C_{n} (1 + y)^{n} .
• IRR assumes all cash ﬂows are reinvested at the same rate as the internal rate of return because:
FV = C_{1}(1 + y)^{n−1}+C_{2}(1 + y)^{n−2}+C_{3}(1 + y)^{n−3}+· · ·+Cn.
• So it must be used with extreme caution.
Numerical Methods for IRRs
• Deﬁne
f (y) ≡
n t=1
C_{t}
(1 + y)^{t} − P.
– P is the market price.
• Solve f(y) = 0 for a real y ≥ −1.^{a}
• f(y) is monotonically decreasing in y if C_{t} > 0 for all t.
• So a unique realnumber solution exists for this f(y).
aNegative interest rates became a reality for German and Swiss bonds in 2015. In 2016, Sweden, Denmark, and Japan imposed negative interest rates on excess reserves. As many as 355 corporate bonds were issued with negative yields as of June of 2016. Even so, −100% should be a natural lower bound because why would anyone or ﬁnancial institution
The Bisection Method
• Start with a and b where a < b and f(a) f(b) < 0.
• Then f(ξ) must be zero for some ξ ∈ [ a, b ].
• If we evaluate f at the midpoint c ≡ (a + b)/2, either (1) f (c) = 0, (2) f (a) f (c) < 0, or (3) f (c) f (b) < 0.
• In the ﬁrst case we are done, in the second case we
continue the process with the new bracket [ a, c ], and in the third case we continue with [ c, b ].
• The bracket is halved in the latter two cases.
• After n steps, we will have conﬁned ξ within a bracket of length (b − a)/2^{n}.
, . 
The NewtonRaphson Method
• It converges faster than the bisection method.
• Start with a ﬁrst approximation x0 to a root of f (x) = 0.
• Then
x_{k+1} ≡ xk − f (x_{k}) f^{}(x_{k}).
• When computing yields, f^{}(x) = −
n t=1
tC_{t}
(1 + x)^{t+1}. (8)
x_{k} x_{k }
x y
f x
The Secant Method
• A variant of the NewtonRaphson method.
• Replace diﬀerentiation with diﬀerence.
• Start with two approximations x0 and x_{1}.
• Then compute the (k + 1)st approximation with x_{k+1} = x_{k} − f (x_{k})(x_{k} − x_{k−1})
f (x_{k}) − f(xk−1) .
• Note that it is easier to calculate
[ f (x_{k}) − f(xk−1) ]/(x_{k} − xk−1) than the f^{}(x_{k}) on p. 55.
The Secant Method (concluded)
• Its convergence rate is 1.618.
• This is slightly worse than the NewtonRaphson method’s 2.
• But the secant method does not need to evaluate f^{}(x_{k}) needed by the NewtonRaphson method.
• This saves about 50% in computation eﬀorts per iteration.
• The convergence rate of the bisection method is 1.
Solving Systems of Nonlinear Equations
• It is not easy to extend the bisection method to higher dimensions.
• But the NewtonRaphson method can be extended to higher dimensions.
• Let (xk, y_{k}) be the kth approximation to the solution of the two simultaneous equations,
f (x, y) = 0, g(x, y) = 0.
Solving Systems of Nonlinear Equations (concluded)
• The (k + 1)st approximation (x_{k+1}, y_{k+1}) satisﬁes the following linear equations,
⎡
⎣ ^{∂f (x}^{∂x}^{k}^{,y}^{k}^{)} ^{∂f (x}^{∂y}^{k}^{,y}^{k}^{)}
∂g(x_{k},y_{k})
∂x ∂g(x_{k},y_{k})
∂y
⎤
⎦
⎡
⎣ Δx_{k+1} Δy_{k+1}
⎤
⎦ = −
⎡
⎣ f(x_{k}, y_{k}) g(x_{k}, y_{k})
⎤
⎦ ,
where unknowns Δx_{k+1} ≡ x_{k+1} − x_{k} and Δy_{k+1} ≡ yk+1 − yk.
• The above has a unique solution for (Δxk+1, Δy_{k+1}) when the 2 × 2 matrix is invertible.
• Finally, set
x_{k+1} = x_{k} + Δx_{k+1},
y = y + Δy .
ZeroCoupon Bonds (Pure Discount Bonds)
• By Eq. (1) on p. 23, the price of a zerocoupon bond that pays F dollars in n periods is
F/(1 + r)^{n}, (9)
where r is the interest rate per period.
• Can be used to meet future obligations as there is no reinvestment risk.
Example
• The interest rate is 8% compounded semiannually.
• A zerocoupon bond that pays the par value 20 years from now will be priced at 1/(1.04)^{40}, or 20.83%, of its par value.
• It will be quoted as 20.83.^{a}
• If the bond matures in 10 years instead of 20, its price would be 45.64.
aOnly one ﬁfth of the par value!
LevelCoupon Bonds
• Coupon rate.
• Par value, paid at maturity.
• F denotes the par value, and C denotes the coupon.
• Cash ﬂow:
6 6 6 6 
1 2 3 n
C C C
· · ·
C + F
• Coupon bonds can be thought of as a matching package of zerocoupon bonds, at least theoretically.^{a}
a“You see, Daddy didn’t bake the cake, and Daddy isn’t the one who gets to eat it. But he gets to slice the cake and hand it out. And when he does, little golden crumbs fall oﬀ the cake. And Daddy gets to eat those,” wrote Tom Wolfe (1931–) in Bonfire of the Vanities (1987).
Pricing Formula
P =
n i=1
C
1 + _{m}^{r} i + F
1 + _{m}^{r} n
= C 1 −
1 + _{m}^{r} _{−n}
r m
+ F
1 + _{m}^{r} n . (10)
• n: number of cash ﬂows.
• m: number of payments per year.
• r: annual rate compounded m times per annum.
• Note C = F c/m when c is the annual coupon rate.
• Price P can be computed in O(1) time.
Yields to Maturity
• It is the r that satisﬁes Eq. (10) on p. 64 with P being the bond price.
• For a 15% BEY, a 10year bond with a coupon rate of 10% paid semiannually sells for
5 × 1 − [ 1 + (0.15/2) ]^{−2×10}
0.15/2 + 100
[ 1 + (0.15/2) ]^{2×10}
= 74.5138 percent of par.
• So 15% is the yield to maturity if the bond sells for 74.5138.^{a}
aNote that the coupon rate 10% is less than the yield 15%.
Price Behavior (1)
• Bond prices fall when interest rates rise, and vice versa.
• “Only 24 percent answered the question correctly.”^{a}
aCNN, December 21, 2001.
Price Behavior (2)
^{a}• A levelcoupon bond sells
– at a premium (above its par value) when its coupon rate c is above the market interest rate r;
– at par (at its par value) when its coupon rate is equal to the market interest rate;
– at a discount (below its par value) when its coupon rate is below the market interest rate.
aConsult the text for proofs.
9% Coupon Bond
Yield (%) Price (% of par)
7.5 113.37
8.0 108.65
8.5 104.19
9.0 100.00
9.5 96.04
10.0 92.31
10.5 88.79
Terminology
• Bonds selling at par are called par bonds.
• Bonds selling at a premium are called premium bonds.
• Bonds selling at a discount are called discount bonds.
Price Behavior (3): Convexity
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2
Yield 0
250 500 750 1000 1250 1500 1750
Price