Table of Contents
Terms of Reference 8
Executive Summary 9
1 Introduction 16
2 Overview of Vocational Education in Hong Kong 18
Qualifications Framework 19
Vocational Education in Secondary Education 21 Vocational Education at Post-secondary Level 22
Other Vocational Education Programmes 23
Statutory Bodies 24
Professional Bodies 27
Labour Unions 28
Overall Picture of VET under QF 28
Population Policy and Manpower Projection 30 Policy Initiatives Related to Vocational Education 31
3 Existing Promotion Strategies on Vocational Education 38
Vocational Training Council 38
Employees Retraining Board 41
Construction Industry Council 42
Electrical and Mechanical Services Department 43
Education Bureau 44
Qualifications Framework 47
Other Promotion Strategies 48
4 Experience in Vocational Education Outside Hong Kong 50
United Kingdom 56
Learning Points from Experience Outside Hong Kong 65
5 Awareness and Perception towards Vocational Education 67
Focus Group Interviews 67
Roundtable Discussion 67
Written Submissions 68
Discussion Sessions with Secondary School Principals 68 Findings from Public Engagement Activities 68
6 Recommendations 83
Issues/Problems Identified 83
Strategy 1: Rebranding VET
Definition of VET 86
Strategy 2: Strengthening Promotion
Promotion of Professional Image of VPET 87 Provision of More Information about VPET
and Related Career 92
Promotion of VPET through Career and Life
Planning Education 93
More Contribution from Industries 96
Promotion of Applied Learning 97
Provision of Financial Support by the
Strategy 3: Sustaining Efforts
Influence by the Government 102
Promotion of Qualifications Framework 102 Tracking Surveys on Attitude Change 103
A – Summary of Findings from Focus Group Interviews 106 B – Questionnaires for Survey with Stakeholders 109
List of Charts 134
List of Tables 135
List of Abbreviations 136
Vocational education is the education which prepares people for specific professions, trades and industries. It equips people with the expertise, skills and technical know- how. Vocational education also plays an indispensable role in nurturing the necessary manpower to support the economic growth of a society.
During the 1960s and 1970s, vocational education was a common choice among youngsters in Hong Kong. Things changed over time with the many developments in the education arena during the past three to four decades, such as the promulgation of universal basic education since 1978, the rapid expansion of post-secondary education opportunities since 2000, and the introduction of the new academic structure in 2009 which provides free education to all up to Secondary 6. Coupled with the traditional Chinese thinking that “intellectuals hold the highest regards”, the mentality of valuing traditional academic pursuit over vocational education prevails in Hong Kong, even though some do realise the merits of vocational education and the fact that traditional academic pursuit does not necessarily offer a youngster a reputable and successful career pathway in future. Besides, there is a common misperception that vocational education is confined to education of the lower levels. It is timely and necessary to step up efforts in raising public awareness of the benefits of vocational education and engineering a paradigm shift in the society through repositioning, rebranding, image building and promotion.
Against the above, the government set up the Task Force on Promotion of Vocational Education in June 2014 with a view to mapping out a strategy and concrete proposals to raise public awareness of vocational education and recognition of its value.
Members of the Task Force are drawn from relevant backgrounds, including those from the vocational education and training sector, various business and industries, as well as those possessing good knowledge of education, parent education, youth and public relations. I would like to express my heartfelt appreciation to all Members for their constructive advice in the past year in order for us to come up with this Report.
Their diverse background and expertise have contributed to a balanced consideration of the recommendations now submitted.
I look forward to a changing social paradigm which would lead Hong Kong to an even brighter future.
Dr Roy CHUNG, BBS, JP Chairman
Task Force on Promotion of Vocational Education
Dr Roy CHUNG Chi-ping, BBS, JP
Deputy Chairman, Vocational Training Council
Members(in alphabetical order of surname)
Dr Michael CHAN Yue-kwong
Chairman, Café de Coral Group
Ir Francis CHENG Cho-ying
Director and General Manager (Generation), Hong Kong Electric Company Limited
Dr Edmond CHENG Kam-wah
Managing Director, Urban Group
Mr Kenneth FOK Kai-kong
Vice-President, Fok Ying Tung Group
Dr Esther HO Yuk-fan
Hong Kong Association of Careers Masters and Guidance Masters
Mrs Miranda LEUNG CHAN Che-ming
Ex-General Manager – Corporate Relations, MTR Corporation
Mr William LEUNG Wing-cheung, BBS, JP
Chairman, Employees Retraining Board
Mr Matthias LI Sing-chung
Deputy Chief Executive and Chief Financial Officer, Ocean Park Corporation
Ms Shirley Marie Therese LOO, MH, JP
Development Director, Family Heartware Limited
Mr LUNG Tak-yee
Principal, Po Leung Kuk CW Chu College
Mr Perry MAK Ping-leung
Publisher, Hong Kong Economics Times
Dr MAK Yiu-kwong
Principal, CMA Secondary School
Mr TAI Keen-man, JP
Deputy Director, Broadcasting (Programmes), Radio Television Hong Kong
Dr Carrie WILLIS, SBS, MBE, JP
Ex-Executive Director, Vocational Training Council
Ir Billy WONG Wing-hoo, JP
General Manager, Construction Department of Henderson Land Development Company Limited
Dr Carrie YAU TSANG Ka-lai, GBS, JP
Executive Director, Vocational Training Council
Ms Pecvin YONG
Principal Assistant Secretary (Further Education), Education Bureau representing Secretary for Education
Ms Tammy WONG
Principal Information Officer (Community Relations), Education Bureau representing Secretary for Education
Ms Lydia LAM
Principal Assistant Secretary (Manpower), Labour and Welfare Bureau representing Secretary for Labour and Welfare
Vocational education plays a pivotal role in integrating education and employment in support of Hong Kong’s development, as well as providing flexible multiple pathways for young people. Noting the need to step up efforts in promoting vocational education to students, parents, teachers, schools and the general public, the Government has decided to set up a Task Force on Promotion of Vocational Education.
The Task Force will advise the Secretary for Education on a strategy and concrete proposals to raise the awareness and recognition of vocational education in the community, taking into account good local and international practices.
In discharging its functions, the Task Force may gauge the views of key stakeholders, set up sub-committees, co-opt members, conduct studies and engage professional services as and when necessary.
The Task Force is expected to submit a report to Secretary for Education within a year.
Terms of Reference
Vocational Education and Training
Vocational education and training (“VET”) has been playing a pivotal role in broadening the learning opportunities for school leavers and in-service personnel as well as nurturing the requisite human capital in support of Hong Kong’s development. However, there is an entrenched bias among some in the community in favour of traditional academic pursuits. More can be done to promote VET as an attractive pathway and help tackle the entrenched perception of VET being a second choice.
Task Force on Promotion of Vocational Education
2. The Task Force on Promotion of Vocational Education (“Task Force”) conducted a series of public engagement activities during the past year to measure the stakeholders’ perception towards VET and gauge their views on how to better promote VET in Hong Kong. The activities included the conduct of a survey through questionnaires, focus group interviews, discussion sessions with secondary school principals, roundtable discussion with different stakeholders, as well as invitation of views and suggestions from major VET providers. The Task Force has also made reference to practices in implementing and promoting VET outside Hong Kong.
3. With the findings, the Task Force recommends a three-pronged strategy to promote VET covering the following –
Strategy 1: Rebranding VET;
Strategy 2: Strengthening promotion; and
Strategy 3: Sustaining efforts.
4. The Task Force recommends –
Strategy 1: Rebranding VET
(1) the government to rebrand VET in Hong Kong as “vocational and professional education and training (“VPET”)” covering programmes up to degree level with a high percentage of curriculum consisting of specialised contents in vocational skills or professional knowledge;
Strategy 2: Strengthening Promotion
(a) Promotion of Professional Image of VPET (i) Publicity Campaign
(2) the government to produce Announcement in Public Interest (“API”) on TV/radio by involving industry role models where appropriate. The API may also be broadcast on Facebook, YouTube, dedicated portal for VPET and other online media;
(3) the government to produce TV drama series (including related publicity and production of DVDs), presenting real success stories of persons graduated from VPET programmes and make them continuously accessible to the public through the VPET Portal which facilitates guidance to students;
(4) the government to continue to support major VPET provider(s) to organise large-scale skills competitions to showcase VPET students’
achievement and provide interactive activities for secondary school students’ experience, or even consider bidding for the hosting of such competitions in Hong Kong in due course with a view to raising public awareness of the professionalism of VPET and related industries as well as enhancing the skill level of local talent;
(ii) Campus Facilities of VPET Providers
(5) the government to facilitate the provision of state-of-the-art facilities to VPET providers in order to provide conducive learning environment to VPET students and enhance the professional image of VPET riding on the existing support schemes or otherwise;
(iii) Quality of Programmes Offered by VPET Providers and Research Capability
(6) VPET providers to enhance quality of their VPET programmes, and strengthen the support services to students where possible;
(7) VPET providers to consider whether it is appropriate for them to engage in (more) research activities (which could be action research, applied research, technology-oriented research other than academic research) to inform teaching and learning, etc.;
(b) Provision of More Information about VPET and Related Career (i) VPET Portal
(8) the government to develop and maintain a VPET portal which gathers comprehensive and impartial information on VPET programmes and related industries in Hong Kong, as well as links up other relevant portals;
(ii) VPET Forum
(9) the government, VPET providers and industry sectors to attend international VPET forums from time to time to keep abreast of the latest development of VPET worldwide;
(10) the government or VPET providers to organise local VPET forums from time to time with the participation of the industry sectors, in order to provide up-to-date industry and career information to secondary school students, parents and teachers;
(c) Promotion of VPET through Career and Life Planning Education
(11) the Education Bureau (“EDB”) to encourage secondary schools to adopt a whole school approach in career and life planning education and enhance individual guidance and support to students to facilitate self-understanding and exploration of multiple pathways including VPET;
(12) VPET providers and major chambers of commerce to arrange (more) training workshops cum visits for principals, teachers and career masters in secondary schools, with the facilitation of EDB through the Business-School Partnership Programme (“BSPP”) so as to provide them with the latest developments of VPET in Hong Kong and the related careers. Such training workshops cum visits should also be extended to prospective secondary school teachers pursuing teaching programmes in tertiary institutions as well as non-governmental organisations which play a role in offering articulation and career advice to students;
(13) VPET providers and major chambers of commerce to arrange (more) taster programmes for secondary school students with the facilitation of EDB through BSPP;
(14) VPET providers and major chambers of commerce to organise seminars and visits for parents of secondary school students for their better understanding of VPET and the related careers as well as the progression pathways, with the facilitation of EDB;
(d) More Contribution from Industries
(i) Closer Collaboration with VPET Providers
(15) the major chambers of commerce and VPET providers to have closer collaboration on the design and development of VPET programmes (including the curriculum, industrial attachment, etc.) such that the learning outcome could fulfill employers’ needs and expectation;
(16) the Vocational Training Council to regularly review the list of Training Boards to cover emerging industries so that manpower surveys would be conducted to better inform VPET training providers and prospective students of the areas with growing manpower demand;
(ii) Remuneration, Working Conditions and Progression Pathways (17) the major chambers of commerce to encourage their members to devise
comprehensive human resource strategy to attract and retain staff, covering the remuneration package, working conditions and progression pathways, etc.;
(e) Promotion of Applied Learning
(18) EDB to encourage course providers to arrange accreditation of more Applied Learning (“ApL”) courses under the Qualifications Framework (“QF”) where appropriate so that apart from the Hong Kong Diploma of Secondary Education (“HKDSE”), students completing ApL courses may obtain a separate QF-recognised qualification for further studies in the relevant fields or entry into the industries concerned;
(19) post-secondary education institutions in Hong Kong to give due consideration of the results of ApL courses attained by students in the HKDSE Examination in student admission as an incentive for students to take ApL and benefit from the experiences and also an incentive for their parents to support them to do so;
(20) the government to consider providing 100% grant subsidies to schools for the ApL course fees and encourage more schools to offer ApL courses based on their student profiles;
(f) Provision of Financial Support by the Government
(i) Pilot Training and Support Scheme (“Pilot Scheme”)
(21) the government to consider extending the Pilot Scheme to benefit more students pending a review;
(ii) Industrial Attachment (“IA”)
(22) the government to extend the IA initiative to benefit students pursuing full-time locally-accredited self-financing sub-degree and undergraduate programmes where applicable;
(iii) Study Subsidy Scheme for Designated Professions / Sectors (“SSSDP”)
(23) the government to consider extending the SSSDP if it is proven effective;
Strategy 3: Sustaining Efforts
(a) Influence by the Government
(24) the government to encourage the senior government officials to seize every opportunity to promote and support VPET on different occasions so as to demonstrate the government’s support and recognition of VPET as an integral part of the community;
(b) Promotion of Qualifications Framework
(25) EDB to enhance the publicity efforts on QF targeting at employers and the general public. Articulation pathways for lifelong learning and progression pathways for different industries under QF should also be further promoted;
(26) the major chambers of commerce to encourage their members to make reference to QF in recruitment and promotion, so as to increase the relevance of QF to learners and practitioners which would in turn help promote VPET; and
(c) Tracking Surveys on Attitude Change
(27) the government to conduct tracking surveys by involving relevant stakeholders to keep track of any changes in their attitude towards VPET.
1.1 The provision, positioning and perception of vocational education and training (“VET”) have undergone tremendous changes over time, particularly with the introduction of new academic structure, the expansion of post-secondary education opportunities, the development of knowledge-based economy and the emergence of new generations of youngsters and practitioners with different value systems and mindsets. While VET can lead to promising career prospect and produce “masters of each trade”, there is an entrenched view among some in the community in favour of traditional academic pursuits and VET is commonly perceived as a second choice by different stakeholders.
1.2 In fact, VET plays a pivotal role in the education system, integrating education and employment as well as providing flexible and multiple pathways for school leavers and in-service personnel with diverse aspirations and abilities. On the other hand, it has been nurturing the requisite human capital in support of Hong Kong’s economic development. Despite the endeavors of the government and other parties in promoting the merits of VET, the existing efforts are considered insufficient to change the public perception against VET and more should be done to enhance the promotion effectiveness.
1.3 In the 2014 Policy Address, the Chief Executive (“CE”) highlighted that
“mainstream education is not a straightjacket that fits all young people as everyone has his or her own interests and abilities. The government should re-establish the positioning of vocational education in our education system and guide the younger generation in choosing their career”. To this end, a series of measures was announced to support the development of vocational education, including the setting up of the Task Force on Promotion of Vocational Education (“Task Force”).
1.4 In the 2015 Policy Address, the CE articulated his vision that “Adequate and quality manpower resources are the key to our sustainable socio-economic development”. With nurturing local manpower as part of the strategy to address the new challenges brought by demographic changes, the CE highlighted that “We need to create diversified job opportunities with promising prospects for the younger generation on the one hand, and provide them with varied learning, training and development opportunities on the other hand.” No doubt, vocational education plays a key role in nurturing the local manpower.
1.5 The Task Force was set up in June 2014 with a view to mapping out a strategy to promote vocational education and raise public awareness of vocational education and recognition of its value. The Task Force Members are drawn from a mix of expertise and backgrounds, including those from the VET sector, various businesses and industries, education, youth and public relations and relevant government officials.
1.6 The Task Force has met four times since its establishment in June 2014.
With the support of the Education Bureau (“EDB”), the Task Force conducted a series of public engagement activities to measure the stakeholders’ perception towards VET and gauge their views on how to better promote VET in Hong Kong. The stakeholders included secondary school students, their parents, teachers including career masters/mistresses, principals, VET students/graduates, VET providers including labour unions, employers of VET graduates, major chambers of commerce and industrial associations, youth associations, school sponsoring bodies, etc. The Task Force has also made reference to practices in implementing and promoting VET outside Hong Kong.
1.7 The detailed views and recommendations of the Task Force are set out in the ensuing Chapters and submitted to the Administration in July 2015 for consideration.
2.1 The Task Force notes that the government is committed to providing quality, flexible and diversified study pathways with multiple entry and exit points for secondary school leavers. Such flexible study pathways encourage youngsters to achieve their career progression in accordance with their individual ability, interest and desired learning mode. With varied study options available, pursuing higher qualifications after some years of employment is prevalent among practitioners in Hong Kong. This Chapter will present an overview of the provision of vocational education in Hong Kong at different levels, the relevant statutory and professional bodies, labour unions, as well as the policy initiatives related to vocational education.
2.2 To begin with, a diagram illustrating the articulation pathways under the education system in Hong Kong is shown below.
Chart 2.1 Overview of education system in Hong Kong
2. Overview of Vocational Education in Hong Kong
Note: The arrows in this chart denote possible articulation pathways only. Additional qualifications / requirements may be needed for some articulations.
* Under the new academic structure in Hong Kong, most bachelor’s degree programmes consist of four years of study. Upon completion of AD or HD programmes, students are eligible to be admitted to senior year places of the bachelor’s degree programmes or top-up degree programmes.
# Successful completion of Yi Jin Diploma and Foundation Diploma is comparable to the attainment of Level 2 in five subjects, including Chinese Language and English Language in the HKDSE Examination.
2.3 In May 2008, the government launched the Qualifications Framework (“QF”) with the objective of promoting lifelong learning and enhancing the competitiveness of the local workforce. It is worthy to note that QF has been underpinning the development of vocational education in Hong Kong, alongside academic and continuing education. QF is a seven-level hierarchy that orders and supports different qualifications, thereby facilitating articulation among academic, vocational and continuing education by providing a comprehensive network of learning pathways.
Chart 2.2 Seven-level hierarchy under the Hong Kong QF
2.4 Under QF, Specification of Competency Standards (“SCSs”) are drawn up by different Industry Training Advisory Committees (“ITACs”)1, which set out the skills, knowledge and outcome standards required of employees in different functional areas of the respective sectors, and provide a basis for course providers to design training courses including in-house training to meet the needs of the sectors. The use
1 As at 1 January 2015, 19 ITACs have been established for 20 industries so far, covering 52% of the workforce in Hong Kong. The industries/sector covered are Printing & Publishing, Watch & Clock, Catering, Beauty & Hairdressing, Property Management, Electrical & Mechanical Services, Jewellery, Information & Communications Technology, Automotive, Logistics, Banking, Import & Export, Testing, Inspection & Certification, Retail, Insurance, Manufacturing Technology (Tooling, Metals and Plastics), Elderly Care Service, Security Services and Human Resource Management.
of QF credits and the policy and principles for credit accumulation and transfer introduced under QF have further enhanced articulation among qualifications from different sectors.
Vocational Education in Secondary Education
2.5 At the junior secondary level, students are progressively provided with career related experiences and relevant exposure through life-wide learning activities.
Through participating in talks, workshops, camps and workplace visits organised by various organisations and commercial firms, junior secondary students could acquire an early sense of the world of work and explore different possibilities of their career pathways. At the senior secondary level, career-related and vocational education in secondary school is facilitated through a variety of learning opportunities: Applied Learning (“ApL”) courses and the career-related experiences embedded in the Other Learning Experiences activities. These programmes and activities complement the core and elective subjects of the senior secondary curriculum for holistic learning.
ApL courses, which are subjects with stronger elements of practical learning linked to broad professional and vocational fields, have attracted a considerable number of students. They have been introduced as elective subjects for the Hong Kong Diploma of Secondary Education (“HKDSE”) Examination. In the 2014/15 academic year, around 320 secondary schools offered 36 ApL courses in six different areas2 for about 10 000 Secondary 5 and 6 students. Different courses3 are offered under each area of studies in ApL to better suit the learning interests and needs of students. Students may choose one or two ApL course(s) to understand fundamental theories and concepts, develop generic skills and career-related competencies necessary to prepare themselves for further studies and employment in the future. In the 2014 HKDSE Examination, there were over 4 330 candidates registered in ApL subjects. Attainment in ApL subjects is recognised for admission to post-secondary programmes either as elective subjects or considered for award of extra bonus or as additional information, depending on institutions, faculties and programmes.
2 The six areas are Creative Studies; Media and Communication; Business, Management and Law; Services;
Applied Science; and Engineering and Production.
3 Recently added and revised courses include Interior Design, Computer Game and Animation Design, Introduction to Cantonese Opera, Financial Markets and Operations, Law Enforcement in Hong Kong, Food and Beverage Operations, Sports and Fitness Coaching and Building Technology.
2.6 In the 2015-17 cohort, 12 out of 40 ApL courses have been quality assured for recognition under QF (QF Level 3) under a pilot exercise. EDB will continue the pilot exercise to further explore linking some more ApL courses to QF in due course so that apart from the HKDSE certificate, students successfully completing these ApL courses may obtain a separate QF-recognised qualification to facilitate further studies in the relevant fields or entry into the industries concerned.
Vocational Education at Post-secondary Level
2.7 At the sub-degree level (QF Level 4), 258 (63%) of the approximately 400 full-time sub-degree programmes offered in the 2014/15 academic year are Higher Diploma (“HD”) programmes4, accounting for 60% of the total sub-degree student enrolment. At least 60% of HD programme curriculum is devoted to specialised content in specific disciplines, professions or vocational skills. HD programmes seek to enable students to acquire the appropriate attitude, knowledge and skills to support their employment at the para-professional level. Examples include HD in Airfreight Management and Global Logistics and HD in International Hospitality and Tourism Management offered by the Vocational Training Council (“VTC”), HD in Pharmaceutical Dispensing offered by the Caritas Bianchi College of Careers, HD in Tourism Management (Airline & Cruise Services) offered by the Hong Kong College of Technology, etc. Apart from local post-secondary institutions, some other programme providers such as hospitals are also offering vocational sub-degree programmes, e.g. HD in General Nursing.
4 According to the Common Descriptors for HD under the New Academic Structure promulgated for compliance by all post-secondary institutions, at least 60% of HD’s curriculum must consist of specialised contents (e.g. learning related to concentrations, disciplines and professions and vocational skills, etc). At the end of the HD programme, the student should demonstrate, among other things, an acquisition of the attitude, theoretical knowledge and practical skills at the para-professional level of a certain discipline, and integration of theory with practice, so as to apply these principles more widely especially in an employment context.
2.8 At the undergraduate level (QF Level 5), some higher education institutions are also offering degree programmes with strong professional element.
Examples include Bachelor of Architecture, Bachelor of Engineering, Bachelor of Science in Testing and Certification, Bachelor of Health Science (Nursing Major), Bachelor of Science in Occupational Therapy, etc. Besides, articulation opportunities to senior year places of University Grants Committee-funded undergraduate programmes and top-up degree programmes in the self-financing sector are provided to sub-degree graduates. Separately, the Technological and Higher Education Institute of Hong Kong (“THEi”) under VTC has started offering undergraduate programmes with strong professional elements starting from the 2012/13 academic year, with disciplines such as design, engineering, hotel operations management and health care.
Other Vocational Education Programmes
2.9 Apart from the above, there is a wide array of full-time and part-time certificates and diploma programmes primarily targeting young people having completed Secondary 3 to 6 and in-service practitioners who wish to acquire training or formal qualifications using alternative pathways. Notable examples include VTC’s Diploma in Vocational Education programmes, apprenticeship schemes, Yi Jin Diploma (“YJD”)5 programmes as well as Foundation Diploma (“FD”) programmes.
Other training providers are also operating varied programmes under QF to cater for the diversified aspirations and needs of secondary school leavers or in-service practitioners. Examples include –
Professional Diploma in Property Management (QF Level 4) offered by the Caritas Bianchi College of Careers;
Diploma in Hospitality Studies (Hotel and Catering) (QF Level 3) offered by the YMCA College of Careers;
Professional Certificate in Property and Facilities Management (Maintenance Management) (Level 4) (QF Level 4) offered by the Hong Kong College of Technology;
5 Launched in the 2012/13 academic year, the YJD programme provides an alternative articulation pathway for Secondary 6 school leavers as well as learners aged 21 or above to obtain formal qualifications for the purposes of employment and further studies. The YJD programme is offered by some member institutions of the Federation of Self-financing Tertiary Education.
Certificate in Cookery and Culinary Skills (Level 3) (QF Level 3) offered by FTU Employment Development Service Limited;
Certificate in Health Worker Training (QF Level 3) offered by the Federation of Hong Kong & Kowloon Labour Unions; and
Certificate in Teaching and Training Skills for Beauty Industry (QF Level 3) offered by the Hong Kong Confederation of Trade Unions Training Centre, etc.
These are practically-oriented programmes with strong vocational content in specific disciplines.
2.10 In Hong Kong, some statutory bodies are involved in providing services related to VET. The most notable one is VTC. Others include the Employees Retraining Board (“ERB”), the Construction Industry Council (“CIC”) and the Clothing Industry Training Authority (“CITA”).
Vocational Training Council
2.11 VTC is a statutory subvented organisation and the major VET provider in Hong Kong. It offers a wide range of full-time and part-time VET programmes which lead to formal qualifications from post-Secondary 3 up to degree levels (i.e. QF Levels 2 to 5) with multiple entry and exit points and clear articulation pathways within the entire VTC system. Every year, VTC provides about 250 000 training places for people of different education levels with pre-employment and in-service programmes, including full-time degree, HD, diploma and certificate courses, in-service training programmes, training programmes for non-engaged youths and apprentice training.
Different progression pathways for career advancement and lifelong learning are provided to students and industry personnel through 13 member institutions6 of VTC.
The articulation pathways provided under VTC is shown on the next page.
6 They are THEi, Institute of Professional Education And Knowledge, School for Higher and Professional Education, Hong Kong Institute of Vocational Education, Hong Kong Design Institute, International Culinary Institute, Hospitality Industry Training and Development Centre, Chinese Cuisine Training Institute (“CCTI”) (CCTI is to be renamed as Chinese Culinary Institute with effect from September 2015), Maritime Services Training Institute, Youth College, Pro-Act by VTC, Integrated Vocational Development Centre and Shine Skills Centre.
Chart 2.3 Articulation pathways under VTC7
Employees Retraining Board
2.12 ERB is a statutory body that co-ordinates, funds and monitors training and retraining courses and services. Its service targets are people aged 15 or above with an education attainment at sub-degree level or below. It provides a diverse range of courses under the Manpower Development Scheme, including full-time placement-tied courses for the unemployed, part-time non-placement-tied generic skills training courses and “Skills Upgrading Scheme Plus” courses with skills enhancement training for the unemployed and in-service workers as well as courses for special target groups.
In the 2014-15 financial year, ERB provides 130 000 training places through over 400 training centres located across different areas in Hong Kong.
7 Source: VTC
Construction Industry Council
2.13 CIC is a statutory body comprising stakeholders of the construction industry. It provides advice and reflects needs to the government on behalf of the industry. It also deploys the collected levies to implement various measures to support the development of the industry, including nurturing manpower and enhancing the skill levels of construction personnel. Full-time courses are offered to train up craftsmen, supervisors and technicians in the construction field, while part-time courses are offered to in-service construction personnel for their continuing education.
In 2015, CIC plans to provide around 8 700 full-time and 75 600 part-time training places to construction personnel.
Clothing Industry Training Authority
2.14 CITA is a statutory body that provides training courses for the clothing industry. Operating two training centres, it delivers both full-time and part-time courses at technician and craftsman levels or above ranging from certificate to bachelor’s degree. In addition, it offers tailor-made integrated coaching for individual garment companies, catering for their particular needs. CITA also runs retraining programmes related to the clothing industry for ERB. In the 2014/15 academic year, CITA is offering about 1 100 training places.
2.15 In different industries, professional bodies are set up to facilitate knowledge and idea exchange with a view to raising the standing of professionals in Hong Kong. They provide a broad range of services to their members including continuing professional development for their career progression. Some of them may also regulate the discipline of a specific profession and are responsible for matters including practitioner registration and programme accreditation. As some of these professional bodies have affiliations with international organisations, they play a major role in enhancing the professional recognition of local industry personnel with their qualifications recognised both locally and overseas.
2.16 Labour unions are established to protect the interests of industry personnel and develop dedicated welfare service to those. Devoted to strengthening the support to in-service practitioners, the unions contribute by reflecting the workers’ needs to the government and relevant parties. Some of the unions also offer training courses to their members in order to promote their competitiveness through continuing education.
Examples of such training courses are included in paragraph 2.9 above. Some unions also cooperate with other VET providers and professional bodies in operating training courses as well as participate in ITACs to help promote QF in the relevant industries.
Overall Picture of VET under QF
2.17 With the above, for better illustration, notable examples of VET offered at various QF levels are set out in the following table.
Table 2.1 Overview of VET in Hong Kong by QF level Equivalent
QF Level Examples of
Award Titles Examples of Vocational/ Professional Education & Training
Postgraduate Diploma / Certificate
Professional Diploma / Certificate
Some higher education institutions and training providers are offering postgraduate programmes with strong vocational/professional content.
Professional Diploma / Certificate
Some higher education institutions including VTC’s THEi are offering bachelor’s degree programmes with strong vocational/professional content (e.g.
engineering, design, landscape architecture and nursing).
Some training providers are also offering other programmes, e.g. professional diploma/certificate, at this level.
QF Level Examples of
Award Titles Examples of Vocational/ Professional Education & Training
Professional Diploma / Certificate
Advanced Diploma / Certificate
258 (63%) of the approximately 400 full-time sub- degree programmes offered in the 2014/15 academic year are higher diploma programmes, accounting for 60% of the total sub-degree student enrolment.
Some training providers are also offering a variety of other programmes, e.g. professional
diploma/certificate and advanced
diploma/certificate at this level.
Certificate Within the secondary school system:
– ApL subjects in HKDSE
Outside the secondary school system:
– Yi Jin Diploma
– Foundation Diploma of VTC
– Diploma in Vocational Education of VTC – Some training providers are also offering a
variety of other diploma/certificate programmes at this level.
2 & 1
Many training providers are offering a variety of certificate/ foundation certificate programmes at these levels, including some courses offered by ERB.
2.18 The following table also summarises some key figures related to the provision of VET but they are by no means exhaustive. Many programmes at degree and other levels are also vocationally/professionally oriented but not covered below.
Table 2.2 A snapshot of the provision of VET in Hong Kong
Population Policy and Manpower Projection
2.19 The Steering Committee on Population Policy (“SCPP”), chaired by the Chief Secretary for Administration, conducted a public consultation from October 2013 to February 2014 to gauge public views on strategies and measures to address demographic changes and challenges faced by Hong Kong. According to the analysis report on the views received, many comments were made about the need to improve the provision of vocational education and to ensure that post-secondary education matches the labour market and social needs. It is also necessary to give additional support to the development of continuing education, QF and sub-degree courses.
Number of Training Places/Students Student enrolment for the 2014/15 academic year
Secondary 5 and 6 students studying ApL courses
Students of HD
programmes (excluding those offered by VTC which are covered below)
Training places provided by VET-related statutory bodies
VTC 245 000 [2014/15 academic year]
ERB 130 000 [2014-15 financial year]
CIC 8 700 full-time & 75 600 part-time 
CITA 1 100 [2014/15 academic year]
Total 485 400
Besides, there were comments that particular industries were facing manpower shortage. Separately, according to the key findings of the Report on Manpower Projection to 2022 (“MP 2022”) released in May 20148, ageing population will continue to be a trend while most economic sectors are anticipated to have an increase in manpower requirement from 2012 to 2022. SCPP noted the key findings of MP 2022 and considered it necessary to promote vocational education as a viable alternative pathway to academic routes, among other things, so as to minimise the skills mismatch and enhance the quality of manpower. The report issued by SCPP in January 2015 pursuant to the public consultation can be accessed at http://www.hkpopulation.gov.hk/public_engagement/pdf/PPbooklet2015_ENG .pdf. With the above, it is evidenced that a healthy development of VET is crucial to both population policy and quality manpower supply in Hong Kong.
Policy Initiatives Related to Vocational Education
2.20 As mentioned above, the CE highlighted in the 2014 Policy Address that
“mainstream education is not a straightjacket that fits all young people as everyone has his or her own interests and abilities. The government should re-establish the positioning of vocational education in our education system and guide the younger generation in choosing their career.”, and announced a series of measures to strengthen vocational education and support its development alongside academic education. Apart from the initiative of setting up the Task Force, the other measures are elaborated below.
Pilot Training and Support Scheme (“Pilot Scheme”)
2.21 With the approval of the Legislative Council Finance Committee in July 2014 for a commitment of $144 million, VTC has implemented the Pilot Scheme starting from the 2014/15 academic year to attract and retain talent for specific industries with a keen demand for labour, by integrating structured apprenticeship training programmes and clear career progression pathways. The Pilot Scheme targets Secondary 3 to Secondary 6 school leavers and eligible adult learners. Under the Pilot Scheme, apprenticeship training for industries which fulfill the criteria as mentioned in
8 The government conducts manpower projection from time to time to assess the broad trends of the manpower supply and requirements at the macro level in the medium term, as well as the potential manpower imbalances at different education levels. The key findings of the MP 2022 can be accessed at http://www.legco.gov.hk/yr13-14/english/panels/mp/papers/mp0520cb2-1524-5-e.pdf.
paragraph 2.25 below will be provided to students alongside a guaranteed level of salary and incentive allowance. The training will normally last for four years. The students will study full-time foundation programmes9 at VTC during the initial phase (normally one year full-time study period); after that, they will attend part-time study whilst working on-the-job (study-cum-work period).
2.22 To enhance the attractiveness of the Pilot Scheme amongst young people, participating students will be provided the following salary and incentive allowances as an illustrative example –
(a) During the training period –
(i) employers will commit to pay a minimum monthly salary of $8,000 to the students during the study-cum-work period from the second to fourth years;
(ii) the industries/employers will offer an incentive allowance of $30,800 in total to each student (on top of their monthly salary) over the entire four-year training period; and
(iii) the government will offer each student an average monthly incentive allowance of $2,000 during the study-cum-work period from the second to fourth years; and
(b) Upon graduation, employers will commit to pay a minimum monthly salary of $10,500 to the students.
2.23 Depending on the nature and circumstances of each industry, the level and duration of studies as well as the timing and amount of incentive allowances to be given to students may vary from industry to industry. An illustrative example showing the mode of training and income to be received by a student under the Pilot Scheme is as follows.
9 Under the Government’s 12-year free education policy, Secondary 3 school leavers joining the Pilot Scheme are not required to pay tuition fees. Students would have to pay for their own tuition fees if the 12- year free education has been exhausted.
Table 2.3 Illustration of the Pilot Scheme
* The total allowance offered by the industry will be $30,800 ($2,800 x 11 months).
2.24 Students will normally attain a Diploma in Vocational Education (QF Level 3) on completion of the apprenticeship training under the Pilot Scheme.
Thereafter, VTC will provide a seamless academic progression pathway for those interested in pursuing further studies to obtain higher level qualifications on a part- time basis, including HD (QF Level 4) and bachelor’s degree (QF Level 5).
2.25 The Pilot Scheme aims to cover industries meeting the following criteria –
(a) the industry is facing labour shortage and/or ageing problems, and it has difficulties in hiring and retaining young people;
(b) the relevant trades covered under the industry are very specialised and with a high level of technology contents; and
(c) the industry is committed to providing allowance or subsidy to trainees and to offering a certain salary level to trainees who have completed the apprenticeship training and are willing to join relevant industries.
Year Mode of Study Minimum Monthly
Incentive Allowance Total Monthly Income Monthly Subsidy ($)
1st Full-time -- 2,800
(for 11 months) * Industry 2,800
2nd Part-time study alongside on-the-job
8,000 1,500 Government 9,500
3rd 8,000 2,000 Government 10,000
4th 8,000 2,500 Government 10,500
Completion 10,500 -- -- 10,500
2.26 As at February 2015, the electrical and mechanical (“E&M”) services trades of the construction industry, printing industry, clock and watch industry and automobile industry have joined the Pilot Scheme, with over 370 enrolled trainees. It is estimated that the Pilot Scheme will benefit 2 000 students in total for two cohorts of intakes admitted to VTC’s apprenticeship training programmes for specific industries in the 2013/14 and 2014/15 academic years (they will start receiving the government’s incentive allowance starting from the second year of training). The Pilot Scheme may be extended in case there are unexpended funds after implementing the Pilot Scheme for these two cohorts.
Earn & Learn Pilot Scheme for the Retail Industry (“Retail Earn & Learn Pilot Scheme”)
2.27 To alleviate the manpower tightening problems of the retail industry, the Financial Secretary announced in the 2014-15 Budget Speech that the government had accepted the recommendations of the Task Force on Manpower Development of the Retail Industry and earmarked $130 million to implement measures including $70 million for a pilot training and support scheme under VTC for the retail industry.
Similar to the Pilot Scheme, the Retail Earn & Learn Pilot Scheme provides vocational training of the retail industry alongside a guaranteed level of salary and incentive allowance. Secondary 6 school leavers are targeted and student-workers will be awarded a FD (QF Level 3) or HD (QF Level 4) upon successful completion of the 18- month/30-month programme. The Retail Earn & Learn Pilot Scheme was rolled out in the 2014/15 academic year for the FD programme. As at mid-April 2015, there were 196 student-workers under the Retail Earn & Learn Pilot Scheme. The first cohort of HD programme would commence in September 2015.
2.28 Under the Retail Earn & Learn Pilot Scheme, the government will offer each student-worker an average monthly incentive allowance of $2,000. For the 2015/16 cohort, employers will commit to pay an average monthly salary of
$4,900/$5,500 and offer a monthly tuition fee subsidy of $1,100/$2,500 to student- workers over the 18-month (for FD programme)/30-month (for HD programme) study- cum-work period respectively. Upon completion of the programme, a FD graduate may earn not less than $11,000 a month and a HD graduate may earn up to $13,000 if they stay on with the employers and become full-time employees.
2.29 The Pilot Scheme and the Retail Earn & Learn Pilot Scheme mentioned above are collectively known as the “Earn and Learn Pilot Scheme” in VTC.
2.30 VTC also launched the traineeship scheme at end 2011 which applies the mode of training-cum-work to the services industries, with the beauty care and hairdressing industries as the starting point. This traineeship scheme targets young people who are 15 years old or above and provides them with structured on-the-job training and vocational education. In a review conducted by VTC at end 2013, trainees and employers generally expressed satisfaction with the scheme. In view of this and the manpower shortage in the retail and the elderly care services industries, VTC has extended the traineeship scheme to these two industries in 2014. This provides youngsters with more training opportunities and helps meet the manpower requirements of these industries.
Industrial Attachment (“IA”)
2.31 With the evidence that IA could provide a real-life organisational context for students to develop specific or generic skills and effectively enhance their employability after graduation, starting from the 2014/15 academic year, the government has allocated recurrent funding of about $18 million to VTC to provide IA opportunities for about 9 000 students every year mainly studying HD programmes and certain Diploma in Vocational Education programmes.
Campus Development Plan of VTC
2.32 VTC has been invited to draw up a strategic development plan for its campuses to foster synergy and provide state-of-the-art facilities pivotal to enhancing the image and quality of vocational education. In this connection, VTC has set up a steering committee in July 2014 and the government will consider the strategic campus development plan to be submitted by VTC in due course.
Study Subsidy Scheme for Designated Professions/Sectors (“SSSDP”)
2.33 As one of the 2014 Policy Address initiatives, the government will launch the SSSDP starting from the 2015/16 academic year to subsidise about 1 000 students per cohort to pursue designated full-time locally-accredited self-financing undergraduate programmes in selected disciplines, with a view to nurturing talents to meet the manpower demand in Hong Kong. The SSSDP will be implemented on a pilot basis for three cohorts of students, and then subject to a review on its effectiveness. In consultation with all bureaux in the government, a total of 13 programmes with 940 subsidised places under six disciplines are covered under the SSSDP for the 2015/16 cohort –
Table 2.4 Disciplines covered under the SSSDP
2.34 The programmes selected have a high level of vocational/professional content. The unit subsidy for students will be administered by a two-tier arrangement in which a subsidy of up to $40,000 per year is provided to programmes which are not laboratory-based while a higher subsidy of up to $70,000 per year is provided to more costly programmes which are laboratory-based. The actual tuition fee paid by students will be adjusted downwards after deducting the subsidy.
2.35 It is noted that the SSSDP is well-received by bureaux, the relevant industries and the self-financing post-secondary sector. The programmes and number of subsidised places will be subject to annual review by the government taking into account the social and economic development in Hong Kong and the needs of the industries.
Discipline Number of Subsidised Places
Architecture and engineering 170
Creative industry 200
Health care 420
Testing and certification 50
Tourism and hospitality 30
Qualifications Framework Fund (“QF Fund”)
2.36 Recognising the importance of QF in maintaining a quality workforce, the CE announced in the 2014 Policy Address to establish a dedicated fund of $1 billion, namely the QF Fund to provide a steady source of income to support the sustainable development and implementation of QF. The QF Fund was established on 1 September 2014. The QF Fund will further encourage relevant stakeholders to participate in QF, thereby supporting the development of vocational education alongside academic and continuing education.
Career and Life Planning
2.37 Starting from the 2014/15 school year, EDB has provided each public sector school operating classes at senior secondary levels with a recurrent cash grant at about $500,000 per annum with a view to strengthening the provision of life planning education and career guidance services. Apart from issuing the “Guide on Life Planning Education and Career Guidance for Secondary Schools”, EDB also provides professional support, including enlisting Professional Development Schools to pair up with partner schools for professional sharing; increasing the number of structured training places for teachers; enhancing collaboration with the business sector, tertiary institutions and the QF Secretariat in organising activities for principals, teachers, students and parents; expanding the Business-School Partnership Programme (“BSPP”) to provide more opportunities for career-related experience for students; conducting advisory school visits on life planning education and revamping the career guidance website to provide teachers, students and parents with more information on life planning.
2.38 Since 2005, EDB’s BSPP has been in collaboration with over 170 business entities/organisations in providing students with knowledge of different jobs, and helping them develop positive work attitude and values via talks, workshops, workplace visits and career exploration activities to facilitate their life planning.
2.39 As announced in the 2015 Policy Address, EDB will enhance, reinforce and review BSPP in the three years from the 2015/16 school year. In this connection, EDB will strengthen partnership between schools and business organisations with a view to enhancing students’ understanding of different trades and preparing them for employment in the future through activities such as mentorship, career exploration and business-school pairing programmes, etc. To enhance life planning for students, EDB will review and consolidate key elements of effective practices to facilitate the setting up of a platform to showcase exemplars of business-school partnership, thereby attracting participation of more schools and businesses.
3.1 VET carries the mission of providing a valued choice to the youngsters and working adults to develop interests and acquire appropriate attitude, skills and knowledge in specific trades which would in turn provide the necessary manpower to support the economic development of a society. It is noted that the government, together with different VET providers and organisations, have been deploying various tactics to promote VET and to disseminate information to the community as a whole or specific targets such as secondary school students, their parents and teachers.
3.2 The ensuing paragraphs outline some of the major promotion strategies being adopted by different parties, but they are by no means exhaustive.
Vocational Training Council
3.3 VTC, a major VET provider in Hong Kong, has been actively promoting the value of VET and its multiple study pathways from certificate to degree levels through an integrated promotion strategy.
3.4 VTC strives to strengthen the engagement with different stakeholders, including parents, school principals, teachers and the general public in the community to further promote the importance of VET. In 2014, about 450 briefing sessions and campus visits for secondary schools were held to help young people gain a comprehensive understanding of VET. VTC also collaborates with the Hong Kong Federation of Youth Groups to hold a symposium and parent’s talk series annually, providing study and career guidance for senior secondary students and parents. The parent’s talk series in 2014 attracted 1 000 parents to attend. Career Masters Receptions, which are held twice a year; together with the Principal Forum, recorded the presence of over 450 representatives from secondary schools and non- governmental organisations (“NGOs”) in the 2013/14 academic year. VTC also tailored publications for distribution to parents and principals respectively to promote the benefits and value of VET.
3. Existing Promotion Strategies on Vocational Education
Publicity and Promotion
3.5 To increase public awareness and preference toward VET programmes, VTC launches advertising and promotion campaigns annually in various media including TV, newspapers, outdoor platforms, popular websites and social media. In 2015, a new advertising campaign featuring outstanding VTC alumni has been launched to highlight the positive impact and value of VET.
Use of Digital Media
3.6 Leveraging on the popularity of digital media, a multifaced approach is adopted to promote VET. Different introductory videos on VTC’s member institutions and programmes have been produced and uploaded to the dedicated VTC’s Channel on YouTube. Successful stories of VTC graduates, endorsements from industries and information for parents are also shared in this channel. About 1.5 million video views were recorded at the end of 2014. In addition, a Facebook fan page has been created to engage and connect with the young people. Updated news on VET is disseminated and online campaigns are organised to arouse the interest of young people in VET. To enhance interactivity with different stakeholders, a virtual ambassador, “V Wa”, has been created to answer online enquiries and as at January 2015, over 35 000 fans have signed up the VTC fan page.
3.7 An interactive corner was developed in the dedicated parent zone in the VTC website to provide first-hand information to parents. Emails on the latest VET information were disseminated to secondary school students, parents, teachers and career masters. A VTC mobile application tailor-made for secondary school students has also been produced, which includes practical features such as programme information, key dates of admission, event calendar as well as Question & Answer function. Over 20 000 accumulative downloads were recorded as at January 2015.
3.8 The WorldSkills Hong Kong Competition 2014 10 and the 8th Guangzhou/Hong Kong/Macao/Chengdu (“GHMC”) Youth Skills Competition11 were held in 2014 to showcase the best talent of the skilled workers and tradesmen, raise the awareness of youth, parents and teachers on the importance of skills training, and to encourage more young people to opt for the vocational education pathway. These competitions provide a platform for young people to excel in their vocational skills, strive for professionalism and make contribution to society. Interactive promotional activities were also organised alongside both competitions to engage the public, particularly the young people and their parents, to understand the importance and learning outcome of VET, and the skill levels and social status of young skilled workers in Hong Kong, including –
Tryout activities for school students to explore what they like best among various skills and trades;
Skills demonstrations by experts to inspire young people to choose a skill that they would like to further pursue; and
Career exhibitions by employers and trade associations to provide youth with information and advice on their career interests.
Attracting over 35 000 visitors, the two mega events successfully promoted skills excellence and enhanced community awareness of VET.
10 The WorldSkills Hong Kong Competition is a biennial event which VTC, CIC and CITA jointly organise.
The last Competition was held on 27 and 28 June 2014 to select the best local candidates and get them prepared to compete for Hong Kong in the WorldSkills Competition, a biennial international and the largest vocational skills competition for young people with 46 skills categories ranging from creative arts and fashion to manufacturing and engineering technology.
11 The GHMC Youth Skills Competition is a biennial regional event held among the four member cities (Guangzhou/Hong Kong/Macao/Chengdu) on a rotational basis. In 2014, VTC hosted the competition on behalf of Hong Kong on 31 October and 1 November.
Apprenticeship and Traineeship Scheme
3.9 Through social media, seminars and different activities, VTC is actively promoting its apprenticeship scheme to attract young people to work in various industries. Industry partners and organisations are invited from time to time to introduce and demonstrate industry-related professional skills to secondary school students in order to engage them in practical interactive experience. To effectively promote the apprenticeship scheme, VTC organises the Outstanding Apprentice/Trainee Award annually, in which awardees are interviewed by the public media. Sharing sessions are also held, in which awardees can share their experience as apprentices/trainees.
3.10 Separately, VTC has launched the Earn and Learn Pilot Scheme in the 2014/15 academic year by integrating structured apprenticeship training programmes and clear career progression pathways, as well as the traineeship scheme as detailed under paragraphs 2.21 to 2.30 above.
Employees Retraining Board
3.11 As detailed in paragraph 2.12 above, ERB provides training and retraining courses and services to eligible employees aged 15 or above with education attainment at sub-degree level or below. As at January 2015, ERB offers about 800 training courses straddling 28 industries. Young people who meet the relevant entry requirements are eligible to enroll in training courses that match their career aspirations and training needs. In addition, ERB provides vocational skills training and placement follow-up services to young people through dedicated training programmes, including the Youth Training Programme, the Youth Management Trainee Programme and the “Squad 3S” Training Programme. To assist young people aged 15 to 24 to gain a better understanding of the employment market and formulate their career plans, ERB introduced the May for Youth Programme in May 2014.
3.12 Since the 2013-14 financial year, ERB has been organising career talks for students of secondary schools and educational institutions offering sub-degree programmes to introduce the characteristics of the employment market in general and the customs, entry requirements and career pathways of different industries.
Construction Industry Council
3.13 To cope with the manpower demand of the construction industry, the Development Bureau (“DEVB”) has obtained a total of $320 million from the Legislative Council in 2010 and 2012 to support CIC to strengthen its role in training local construction personnel and enhance promotion and publicity activities to attract more people to join the industry. With this funding support, CIC launched the
“Enhanced Construction Manpower Training Scheme” with higher training allowance for training semi-skilled workers, targeting trades with projected labour shortage, acute ageing or recruitment difficulties. Up to end 2014, there were more than 6 000 graduates who have graduated from the enhanced scheme. Further, CIC launched the
“Enhanced Construction Supervisor/Technician Training Scheme” for training supervisors/technicians, and provided subsidies for fees of trade tests, specified training courses and skill enhancement courses to enhance the skill levels of in-service construction workers, and advanced training courses for senior construction workers.
3.14 To diversify the training modes and increase the training places for construction workers, CIC launched the Contractors Cooperative Training Scheme (“CCTS”) in collaboration with contractors. Under the CCTS, contractors hire trainees and provide them with relevant training on construction sites. Training allowances and other training expenses are provided by CIC to the participating trainees and contractors. Besides, CIC also launched other collaborative training schemes with relevant industry stakeholders to increase the training capacity.
3.15 CIC plans to kick-start new training measures to upgrade the skills of semi-skilled workers to the level of skilled workers in the coming years with a view to enhancing the supply of skilled workers to meet the needs of the industry. In the 2015 Policy Address, the government announced to provide $100 million for CIC to strengthen their work to train skilled workers for the industry. Continuous efforts will be made to enhance the professional development of construction workers and personnel and provide them with additional progression pathways.