~€‚2ƒj GC-ECD (Gas Chromatograph - Electron Capture Detector) cd 18 s„ "#$%&amp YL‚K‰Y"# $%&'()*:Š7{K‹P"s "#$%&'()*7ƒe‹-tP ppb)7xzBxyŽq7u vw‚q"#$%&amp

全文

(1)

(2)  

(3)  Exposure of Taiwan Residents to Polychlorinated Biphenyl Congeners from Fish Consumption  :   

(4)

(5) 

(6)  : 87 8 1

(7) 88 7 31  :    `"#$%7Cž¦§7+,¨n.       ! " # $ % (polychlorinated biphenyls, PCBs) &' () * + ,- (exposure) ./ 0 1 - (toxic equivalent quantity)2 34 567"#$%89:;<=7 >?@ABCBDEBFGB.*H IJK2LMNOPQR "#$%+,ST2 "#$%U“&'()*”(congener) VWXYZ[\]/02^_ +,-PQRST`Lab7c deKfghc"#$%&'() *7ijkl]mnkop !Sq+,-2 rst`uvBw BxyBxz.{2i;|}~ ~€‚2ƒj GC-ECD (Gas Chromatograph - Electron Capture Detector) cd 18 s„ "#$%&'()*2 †‡567ˆYL‚K‰Y"# $%&'()*:Š7{K‹P"s "#$%&'()*7ƒe‹-tPŒ (2.8 ~ 203ppb)7xzBxyŽq7u vw‚q"#$%&'( )*e‹-tP2 {‘ !P"q"#$%7 ’“”7•W•–ˆq PCBs + ,-n—f˜™t 90ug2š PCBs / ›0"œ7s\]+,-ˆf ˜žŸq ¡¢£¤Z˜¥n2. Abstract The objective of this research was to assess the exposure of Taiwan residents to polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCBs) from fish consumption. Previous studies indicated that PCBs exist in Taiwan‘s environment including air, water, soil, sediment, and food. And fish consumption is the major source of general public intake of PCBs. The toxicity of PCBs is strongly related to their structures, different congener has different toxicity to human. This project tried to estimate the potential toxic effects of PCBs in congener-specific basis by assessing the major PCB exposure route to general public: fish consumption. Five fish species were studied, including tilapia, milkfish, hairtail, white pomfret, and cod. Fishes were bought at local markets of Keilung city. Only the edible parts of fishes were analyzed. Analysis was conducted by GC-ECD (Gas Chromatograph - Electron Capture Detector). Totally, 18 congeners have been analyzed and quantified. Results showed that cod samples had the highest PCB concentrations among them (2.8 ~ 203ppb), they also had more kinds of congeners than any other fishes. Hairtail and white pomfret samples had lower PCB concentrations. And tilapia and milkfish samples had lowest PCB concentrations among them. Cod consumption would result in highest exposure among those five species. 1.

(8) *K/7þ›"W7·h YB j. åB

(9) H Ý(Hsu, 1994)2Ÿ; 1979 î 1983 –7-þ›eK "#$%l]7ñò·t 38-99 ppb (Hsu, 1994)2Bv HW! ó"0 þ› ˆ Ÿ #$( %& ' ( ¹"#$%+,)7ñò)*Y+, -¥BŸ./0Hò1(Chen, 1992; Guo, 1994A, 1994B, 1995A, 1995B)2 Fein and Jacobson HW23"#$%+,®Œ4"ˆŸ#$7YXœ-5B 6  ® # B j . Visual Recognition Memory ®7HŸ89:2;4" +,ST7tgý"#$%¦§< KL7eK"#$%‹-Š 5.5=3.7 ng/ml (ppb) >?7+,@ AtK" # $ % ‹ - · ; 3ng/ml (ppb) (Fein, 1984; Jacobson, 1985; Jacobson, 1990)2 ;BÛ567"#$%Š¥+,-C (MNO<=+,)7ԑ D.E Æ7VWXYFŠG0/›02 "#$%/0e†)YH7^ U“&'()*”(congener)7YZ[\] /02ŠˆY&'()*K7¶It / 0 P J  7  † ) K ; 2,3,7,8,-tetrachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8,-TCDD, ¶ I t / 0 P J  M sL MN)  &' ( )* ( O PCB77, 126, 169 H) (Safe, 1985; Safe 1987)2L MNL¿P*Q0.R%07S 56ŠT*U V´(Murray, 1979; NCI, 1980; Weber, 1985)2ƒLMNL¿P* VUVT*Q/0tîWˆ»3¿ X * J K P J  (Gold, 1984; Gold, 1987)2kè7K–S7LMNL¿P* Y¶IteZ;L"0[\]7‘^_ ` c a   (endocrine-disrupting chemicals)7¹Vb0ŸcYZ 9 : (Colborn, 1993) 2 / 0 1 - š d (Toxic Equivalent Factor, TEF7TEF e fghŸ@ijk(Ahlborg, 1994)) Äj•&"#$%&'()*/0  2,3,7,8,-TCDD lm7nomp2j. On average, Taiwan residents’ would obtain about 90ug PCBs from cod consumption every year. The associated health effects of Taipei residents from fish consumption warrants more attention since PCBs have multiple health outcomes. Keywords polychlorinated biphenyls, seafood contamination, exposure assessment. 

(10)       ! " # $ % (polychlorinated biphenyls, PCBs) &' () * + ,- (exposure) ./ 0 1 - (toxic equivalent quantity)2  ©Vª«¬­®"¯sL fgh°±jcdeK"#$%& '()*(congener) l]2 ijkl ]mnkop !Sq" # $% & ' ( )*  + ,- . / 0 1 -2 "#$%Š²³´µ¶·-¸¹º g 7 » t ¼ ½ X . ¾ ¿ À (OECD, 1973)2;¶ÁŠål]ÄVWX Y Å › 0 (McFarland, 1989) 7 š k ; 1970 – Æ ¶ Ç È É Ê Ë Ì ¸ ¹ º g (Waid, 1984)7ÍÉÎÏÐ<=ÑÒÓÔ ; É Õ Ö Õ –× Ø Ù ÚÛ Ü Ý Ë g (<=ÑÒÓ7ÉÞÖ¯–)2ß7 ;e0JÖcà BZácâ7"#$ % ¤ 8 9 : Š ; Ü ã < = K (Swackhamer, 1988; Hargrave, 1988; Nakano, 1990; Iwata, 1993; Hornbuckle, 1993, Bergen, 1993; Cullen, 1996)2eŸ * !ä0ºefå*æ!ç; WX7ŠÉè7>?éêLBLBë ìLíîï‡LHð¶ñòY"#$%  ó ô (Hong, 1992; Kannan, 1992; Elskus, 1994; Winters 1994; Cullen, 1996)2 Š7É×ÖޖñŸŠ KBõ¿ö÷øùúK/ûü7Ät gýþ"#$%¦§øùú 2.

(11) ¤´ˆ¥7<=K89:Y" #$%7MNOX`¦"‹Y"#$ %7ƒel]Šf˜Y ¡9: `2e+,-QRST7fu§¨H WU+,op+,-n©7£t{  7   L t P Q R S T( u § ¨ , 1990)2šk7+,-P QRST`Lab7cdeKfg hc"#$%&'()*7jtxM y|ª2†‡sf«P ú¬7ýâú¬­.eV®@ L !"#$%+,-2i ffký⊷h¯¿°±²³´ µ¶·7XK"#$%¸¹p2 ef É W  ž¬ ­ jk (º ³ – B, ÉÞÖ»–)7„ ýj£¼s L`uvBwBxyBxz.{ 7»trs2uvt Ü›BKB½¾÷¬­PŒs, Z ;`¿Àc2wtÜ›BKB½ ¾÷¬­ŽŒs(Œž è)7Z` ¿Àc7½h(ŒžB ½)tQRÁ £÷2xyt›hö÷¬­E¾°7S TŽtKéBÃÄ.ÅÆÇÈ7j ›ÉBœtP·2xzÔt¬­· }7j½h¬­®"7STŽtÅ ÆBKé.ÃÄÇÈ7jŒžÉ~tP ·}7|}Žq2{txÊ·}7 ÔtÉWËsqM7ƒjÌl H7nÍe total PCBs ‹-tˆ YLqÎ(Ž, 1983)7šk ÔÏÐ{K"#$%&'() *l]7jýâÉW{S "#$%&'()*+,-2 Kˆ„ "#$%& '()*t`PCB 28, 31, 52, 66, 77, 105, 118, 126, 128, 138, 153, 156, 157, 167, 169, 170, 180, 189 Ñ 18 s2„ÒÓ>?`(1) VWXFŠ/›0· &' ( ) * (McFarland, 1989; Ahlborg, 1994)˜(2) ŠÔ§¸¹ÕP*K7Ö. qIJK"#$%&'()*l]  e TEF l r 7 Ä f n e / 0 1 (Toxic Equivalent Quantity, TEQ)2sˆ n"#$%&'()*l]e/0 1-šd(Toxic Equivalent Factor, TEF) lr7ÄfnU&'()*/01(Toxic Equivalent Quantity, TEQ)2 ;tuLMNL¿P*VWX+ ,-7Yv;sSwxMyýâ;/ 0*JVWXśzœ02 MNO"#$%+,-7PQ RSTt{(USEPA, 1994)7>? | L B  L B ë ¸ ì H (Maack, 1988; Hong, 1992; Kannan, 1992; Asplund, 1994; Elskus, 1994 ; Winters, 1994; Stow, 1995)7eK|Lt·}2WXˆ ! "#$%Ԛeá:;~@iKƒ Zခ7škVWXYFŠ.‚/ ›02 Š7ƒ„ B†·µ‡ˆ< =K"#$%7‰UeŠ:;‹! D (52 samples, 0-658 ppb) B C X (56 samples, 0-1 ppb) B C ž(133 samples, 0-248 ppb) . ë ¸ ì K (56 samples, 1.8-395 ppb, fat basis)(ƒ„ B†·7 1980)7jŒdl]PŒ(2177.80 ppb)2è7ŽB‘’“HWµ© V ö÷ ì ”3 M•– ‡ˆ( Ž   , 1983, 1984, 1986, 1987; ‘ ’ “ , 1991)756(0.6-687 ppb)B(0.7-133.5 ppb)B—(0.1-66.6 ppb)Bë(0-395.9 ppb) LìK“‹Y"#$%7eK7{  Œ  d  l] P Œ (419 ppb & 687 ppb)˜|L89mLl]¥2™• šcd›BœBKh(KBõ¿)B Œžö÷«WK"#$%q‹-7 ýKhö÷f˜šµñŸøùúK/7 Y-Œl]è(up to 105 ppb)7e) ö ÷ O " Š 1-5ppb q  (™ • š 7 1983A, 1983B, 1985A, 1985B)2kl] mÈɟ e4"-¥(5.5=3.7 ppb)7¡ ¤ Š f ˜ Y   ¡ 9 :    ` (>3 ppb)7(¢eV£MÆ)2 Y®Œmœ7škáŠ×ßhK:Š &'()* (Hutzinger, 1974), t. ýÏÐsSÍ*jk˜e)ØÙm V7f˜¦ §ST˜(3) «¶ñ 3.

(12)  Kuderna-Danish l    (K-D concentrator)l7j 30cm*1.2 cm I.D. » ¿7j All ‚ìî 1ml >?7ºg GC-ECD with a 30m*0.25mm ID*0.25um HP5 capillary column c d & ' ( ) * 2 i j 60ml n-hexane jLu þñò7

(13)  oven 7nú~‹-2ijLu »œcd2 UV\@x‰Š 1ng j£,5 6Š þñ H· 8 3\ K² þ¦ §,  rìq 90%j´Š 80-110%  K(È É< ÑÓ fþ q  t 70-130%), Matrix Spike q  " Š 77-110%, Ô Š f  þ q   ` 2 š PCB31  28 . PCB105  153 Ü c7šks*ŠMÙòe†‡2 cd †‡ 56 7PCB 31/28B 77 B 118B105/153B126B156 . 180 ö 3òŠwK, xzKY PCB77B105/153B138 . 180 3ò, u vKY PCB52B66 . 138, xyK Y PCB66B77B138B126 . 180 :Š,  ý PCB169 qè7e)ˆY q PCB !"ð3òŠˆY{‚K2. òŠX ‚K &' ()* (Pruell, 1988; Bergen, 1993)˜(4)tý«Pú¬­ 7Ú„Òý)*ŠÛKˆ -o&'()*2.  4– ]cd Kö ÷ ˆqì7–]—܍aœ; ›ö÷Oqì2š›ö÷ Oqì"èöS7P·q STötPKqÝÊ|}7^;|}q Þñ~#߀ì7iÈnžö STjk2àрnS×áAâãÀc w 10 ä, •ä™œ 790 å; S× æ<çKÀcuv 10 ä, •ä™œ 670 å; S×è]é·¿xy 10 ä, •ä™œ 420 å, S×›héê xz 10 ä; •ä™œ 425 å;ëìxÊ {í 2 í, •í™œ 200 å, j. ›Åîïð€qëìxÊ{í 8 í, •í™œ 100 å2 ‚ìñnò7óôõœ7ƒ4ö gh(6B÷BøBù H)7fg húõœò7j“Jûüý7j 80ml 8:2 hexane/acetone ÕPÛþñ¾Ž7.  mean fat content. 

(14)       . .

(15) .  .  .  . . .   1.0 ~ 2.03   

(16) .   0.05 ~ 0.65 0.28 ~ 3.6 0.3 ~ 95.2.   0.02 ~ 2.11 0.10 ~ 10.2 1.0~ 356.   2.8 ~ 203 20 ~ 3612 12.5 ~ 983. range of concentration ng/g wet wt 0.10 ~ 0.87 ng/g dry wt 0.23 ~ 12.19 ng/g fat 0.44 ~ 8.0. #Mòˆcdì‚q’“ú ~‹-Bj$œBœ.ú~‹-t|. q total PCBs l]2šVú~‹- qXúœq-%7‘-·;7šk 4.

(17) jú~‹-t|q total PCBs l]& ŠkÁ'Ó2 ´#fÍ7{t¯sK 7 ‹ PCBs PŒs2ƒ{íK7‰89 ‹Y(Œl]q PCBs2W–]ˆY‚  K7 ‰ é "é  ‹ Y Ms j ´ q PCBs2Àcqw.uv‚ q(0(·7¡ˆ3qPŒl] ‰mèéÇÈqxy.xzt¥2 ú)e~‹-”7{q~ ‹-tP"7ƒeK89‹Y(Œl] q PCBs 7  e   s q ~  ‹ - . PCBs l]i²Y*qH•07^m sqŸ.<=.eŸ.qCf˜ t9:eK PCBs ‹-qP·š+2 W–]ˆnql]Š 0 î 203ppb > ? 7 m 4 – ] ˆ  n q 0~25ppb Œ 3 ™ Ö , 2 e    ƒ „ B † ·  (1980)(0-240ppb) B Ž   (1983, 1984, 1986, 1987) . ‘ ’ “ (1991)(0.6-687ppb) H W jÌ ˆ ” q ‡ ˆ†‡®K2m Hong(1992)cdÈÉ - ™ . /  (1-6ug/g wet wt basis) B Loganathan(1995) c d - ™ . 0  (2400-5000ng/g wet wt basis) . Elskus(1994)c d È É1 2 ì. . 3 . m  K  " # $ % l ](3.1-500ug/g dry basis)-¥¥2¡m Kannan Š4½ˆ ”qìcd†‡ (3.1-24ppb) RŒ7 ¦m Johansen(1996)5678K "#$%()*(™Š 0-30ng/g fat basis)ql]RŒ2 jö÷•W•–ˆqž œ-t 42.27 9:(K;É<Ï)7eK ìq’“ =>· ™t 44%(« ?ì@ÀAB)Smn7CDfgq hc·™t 18.6 9:7Eß{tFþ GHqì7IJeÖìqïc q¯7™ 0.93 9:2j{ K’™q PCBs l]t 96.4ppb Sn—7’“•W • – f ˜   q PCBs + , - ™ t 90ug2Eß PCBs /›0"œ7 s\]+,-ˆf˜žŸq ¡¢ £¤Z˜¥n2.   šå­YK7±´cd PCBs q3 \LM7šk7ˆ˜cdq‚¼Ãt YK7)·ˆnqjk”7Ny ýâOª«¯sLˆ¹q "#$%&'()*q+,OP2Qj òˆcdq‚¼R±qò7S˜TÁ w"wUjV7Vö÷  PCBs ¹q+,-. !q/0 1-7»wxMymW2.  K;ÉÎÏÐX³ YZ‘ [è, K; É<Ï, ÉÞÖ¾–\ÖMØ, ÎÏÐX³YZ‘2 K;ÉÎÏП Ó[è, «? ì@ÀAB, K;ÉÞ ÖՖ ÞØ, ÎÏПÓ2 K;ÉÎÏÐ<=ÑÒÓ7 "#$% 8b]7ÉÞÖ¯–^Ø K;Éö÷º³–B(K;ÉÞ Ö»–)7X_`º³a7É ÞÖ¯–×Ø ƒ„ B†·7“"#$%q<=¦§ ”7·XbXП¿ˆ7 1980 ŽB‘’“7“ì.ckK"#$% ‹-q‡ˆ”7ÎÏПÓì Ÿ71983 ŽB‘’“7“Œd"#$%‹-‡ ˆ”, d*ì Va‡ˆ–B 5:229-230, 1987 ŽH7“|LK"#$%."e$% q‡ˆ”7ìfX711 g73,4 ‚7218-224, 1984 ŽB[åhBij7“"#$%Š › É  | L k l - q cd ” 7 CHEMISTRY, (The Chinese Chem. Soc.), Vol. 44, No. 2, 43-53, June 1986 ‘’“BmnoBŽ7“ÕÖp–]~ qLBLBëLB—LK"#$ 5.

(18) %q‡ˆ”7d*ì Va‡ˆ –B 9:404-406, 1991 ™•š7›ö÷«WK"#$%q‹ -7<=fX73(2):26-32, 1983A ™•š7Khö÷«WK"#$%q‹ -7îéXB724 g7479-487, 1983B ™•š7œö÷«WK"#$%q‹ -7îéXB726 g7733-739, 1985A ™•š7Œžö÷«WK"#$%q‹ -7<=ÑÒ78 g725-30, 1985B Ahlborg, U.G. et al., “Toxic Equivalency Factors for Dioxin-like PCBs”, Chemosphere, 28 (6):1049-1067, 1994 Asplund, L. et al., “Polychlorinated Biphenyls, 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)e thane (p,p‘-DDT) and 1,1,-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-et hylene (p,p’-DDE) in Human Plasma Related to Fish Consumption”, Archives of Environmental Health, Vol. 49, No. 6, 1994 Bergen, B.J., Nelson, W.G., and Pruell R.J., “Bioaccumulation of PCB Congeners by Blue Mussels (Mytilus Edulis) Deployed in New Bedford Harbor, Massachusetts”, Environ. Toxi. & Chem. Vol. 12, 1671-1681, 1993 Colborn, T., vom Saal, F.S., and Soto, A.M., “Developmental Effects of Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals in Wildlife and Humans”, Environmental Health Perspectives, Vol. 101, No. 5, 1993 Cullen, A.C., Vorhees, D.J., and Altshul, L.M., “Influence of Harbor Contamination on the Level and Composition of Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Produce in Greater New Bedford, Massachusetts”, Environ. Sci. Technol., Vol. 30, 1581-1588, 1996 Elskus, A. A., Stegeman, J. J., and Gooch, J. W., “ Polychlorinated Biphenyl Congener Distributions in Winter Flounder As Related to Gender, Spawning Site, and Congener. Metabolism”, Environ. Sci. Technol. Vol. 28, pp401-407, 1994 Fein, et al., “Prenatal Exposure to Polychlorinated Biphenyls: Effects on Birth Size and Gestational Age”, The Journal of Pediatrics, 105:315-320, 1984 Gold, L.S. et al., “A Carcinogenic Potency Database of the Standardized Results of Animal Bioassays”, Environ. Health Perspect. 58:9-319, 1984 Gold, L.S. et al., “Second Chronological Supplement to the Carcinogenic Potency Database: Standardized Results of Animal Bioassays Published Through December 1984 and by the National Toxicology Program Through May 1986” Environ. Health Perspect. 74:237-329, 1987 Guo, Y.L., Chen, Y.C., Yu, M.L., and Hsu, C.C., “Early Development of Yu-Cheng Children Born Seven to Twelve Years after the Taiwan PCB outbreak”, Chemosphere, Vol. 29, No. 9-11, pp2395-2404, 1994A Guo, Y.L., Lin, C.J., Yao, W.J., Ryan, J.J., and Hsu, C.C., “Musculoskeletal Changes in Children Prenatally Exposed to Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Related Compounds (Yu-Cheng Children), Journal of Toxi. and Environ. Health, 41:83-93, 1994B Guo, Y.L., Lai, T.J., Chen, S.J., and Hsu, C.C., “Gender-Related Decrease in Raven‘s Progressive Matrices Scores in Children Prenatally Exposed to Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Related Contaminants”, Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 55:8-13, 1995A Guo, Y.L., Lambert, G.H., and Hsu, C.C., “Growth Abnormalities in the Population Exposed in Utero and Early Postnatally to Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Dibenzofurans”, Environmental Health Perspectives, 103(Suppl 6): 117-122, 1995B Hargrave, B.T., Vass, W.P., Erickson, P.E., and Fowler, B.R., “Atmospheric Transport of Organochlorines to the 6.

(19) Arctic Ocean” Tellus 40B, pp. 480-493, 1988 Hong, C., Bush B., and Xiao J. “Coplanar PCBs in Fish and Mussels from Marine and Estuarine Waters of New York State”, Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 23, 118-131, 1992 Hornbuckle, K.C., Achman, D.R., and Eisenreich, S.J., “Over-Water and Over-Land Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Green Bay, Lake Michigan”, Environ. Sci. Technol. Vol. 27, No. 1, 87-98, 1993 Hsu C., Yu M. M., Chen Y. J., Guo Y. L., and Rogan W. J., “The Yu-cheng Rice Oil Poisoning Incident” Chapter 20 in “Dioxins and Health”, Arnold Schecter. Plenum Press, New York, 1994 Hutzinger, O and Safe S, “The Chemistry of PCBs”, CRC Press, 1974 Iwata, H., Tanabe, S., Sakal, N. and Tatsukawa R., “Distribution of Persistent Organochlorines in the Oceanic Air and Surface Seawater and the Role of Ocean on Their Global Transport and Fate”, Environ. Sci. Technol., Vol. 27, No. 6, 1080-1098, 1993 Jacobson, et al., “The Effect of Intrauterine PCB Exposure on Visual Recognition Memory”, Children Development, 56, 853-860, 1985 Jacobson, L.J., Jacobson, S.W., and Humphrey, H.E.B., “Effects of Exposure to PCBs and Related Compounds on Growth and Activity in Children”, Neurotoxicology and Teratology, Bol. 12, pp 319-326, 1990 Johansen, H.K., Alexander, J., Rossland, O. j., Planting, S., Levik, M., Gaarder, P. I., Gdynia, W., Bijerve, K. S. and Becher, G. ”PCDDs, PCDFs, and PCBs in Human Blood in Relation to Consumption of Crabs from a Contaminated Fjord Area in Norway” Environmental Health Perspectives. Vol.104, Number 7, July 1996. Kannan, K., Tanabe, S., Quynh H. T., Hue N. D., and Tatsukawa R., “ Residue Pattern. and Dietary Intake of Persistent Organochlorine Compounds in Foodstuffs from Vietnam”, Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. Vol. 22 pp367-374, 1992 Loganathan, B. G., Kannan, K., Watanabe, I., Kawano, M., Irvine, K., Kumar, S.and Sikka, H. C. ”Isomer-Specific Determination and Toxic Evaluation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls, Polychlorinated/Brominated Dibenzo-p-dioxins and Dibenzofurans, Polybrominated Biphenyl Ethers, and Extractable Organic Halogen in Crap from the Buffalo River, New York” Environ. Sci. Technol.1995, 29, 1832-1838. Maack L., and Sonzogni, W. C., “Analysis of Polychlorobiphenyl Congeners in Wisconsin Fish”, Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 17. 711-719, 1988 McFarland V. A. and Clarke J. U., “ Environmental Occurrence, Abundance, and Potential Toxicity of Polychlorinated Biphenyl Congeners: Considerations for a Congener-Specific Analysis”, Environmental Health Perspectives Vol 81, pp.225-239, 1989 Murray, F.J. et al., “Three generation reproduction of rats gives 2,3,7,8,-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in the diet” Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 50:241-252, 1979 Nakano, T., Tsuji, M. and Okuno, T., “Distribution of PCDDs and PCBs in the Atmosphere”, Atmospheric Environment Vol. 24A, No.6, pp. 1361-1368, 1990 NCI (National Cancer Institute), “Bioassay of a mixture of 1,2,3,6,7,8-hexachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and 1,2,3,7,8,9-hexachloro-p-dioxin (dermal study) for possible carcinogenesis technical report series 202” NTP 80-13, Washington DC: National Cancer Institute, 1980 Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, “Polychlorinated 7.

(20) Biphenyls Their Use and Control”, Paris Weber, H., Harris, N.W., Hasaman J.K., 1973 Birnbaum L.S., “Teratogenic Potency of TCDD, TCDF and TCDD-TCDF Pruell, R.J., Bowen, R.D., Fluck, S.J., Combination in C57BL/6N Mice” LiVolsi, J.A., Cobb, D.J., and Lake Toxicology Letters 26:159-167, 1985 J.L., “PCB Congeners in American Lobster, Homarus Americanus, and Winter Flouder, Pesudopleuonectes Americanus, from New Bedford Harbor, Massachusetts” Final Report to USEPA, Exposure Assessment Group, Dec 1988 Safe, S. et al., “PCBs: Structure-Function Relationships and Mechanism of Action”, Environmental Health Perspectives, Vol. 60, pp. 47-56, 1985 Safe, S. “The determination of 2,3,7,8,-TCDD Toxic Equivalent Factors (TEFs): Support for the Use of the in Vitro AHH Induction Assay”, Chemosphere, Vol. 16, No.4, pp791-802, 1987 Stow, C.A., “Factors Associated with PCB Concentrations in Lake Michigan Salmonids”, Environ. Sci. Technol. 1995, 29, 522-527 Swackhamer, D.L., McVeety, B.D., and Hites, R.A., “Deposition and Evaporation of Polychlorobiphenyl Congeners to and from Siskiwit Lake, Esle Royle, Lake Superior”, Environ. Sci. Technol, Vol. 22, No.6, 664-672, 1988 United States Environmental Protection Agency “Drinking Water Criteria Document for Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs)”, Cincinnati: U.S.EPA, ECAO-CIN-414,1988 United States Environmental Protection Agency “Estimating Exposure to Dioxin-like Compounds”, Exposure Assessment Group, Office of Health and Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development. EPA/600/688/OO5Ca-c, June, 1994 Winters, D. et al., “A Statistical Survey of Dioxin-like Compounds in the United States Beef Supply”, International Symposium on Chlorinated Dioxins, PCBs, and Related Compounds, Vol. 20, 73-77, Kyoto, Japan, 1994 8.

(21)

數據

Updating...

參考文獻

Updating...

相關主題 :