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(1)

Sharing Session

Reading Fair 2011 16 th April

Hong Kong Tang King Po College

(2)

Where does meaning reside?

In the text?

In the reader?

In the culture?

In the interplay between texts?

Somewhere between?

(3)

Tick each box!

because it depends on the purpose….

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Five Purposes of and approaches to Reading in English

Functional

We want students to be able to decode and functionally read –meaning in the text and culture and is dug out and used by the reader.

• Logical

We want students to be able to think about the logic of what they are reading – a meaning is in the text but the reader evaluates its validity

• Critical

We want students to ask to what extent society is constructed or reflected through language and texts. We want students to question the underlying assumptions in particular representation in texts and dominant discourses e.g. consumerism. The

student negotiates the meaning they feel is valid.

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Experiential

We want students to experience their own emotions and feelings, and to empathize with others. The meaning is created by the interaction with the text. The reader also evaluates the artistry of the text and is open to

idea that the text is symbolically organised and invested with meaning by the author which they can unpack and respond to it for personal

enjoyment and human/moral development .

• Wider Reading

We want students to be exposed to a wide range of ideas and worlds, develop reading habits etc. and to see the genre, plot and thematic connections between texts across cultures and time. To promote growth of a local literature .The meaning is created by

the interaction with the text.

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Pre-workshop Exercise

Reading a short text and responding to a number of questions with different

reading purposes.

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Listen to the song, and complete the lyrics using the correct prepositions.

Sa-a-a-d movies always make me cry!

He said he had to work, so I went ___ the show alone.

They turned _______ the lights and turned the projector ___, and just ___ the ‘News of the World’ started to begin, I saw my darlin' and my best friend , walk ____.

Though I was sittin' there, they didn't see, and so they sat right down ___ front of me!

When he kissed her lips, I almost died,

and ____ the middle of the colour cartoon I started ___ cry.

Oh-oh-oh sa-a-a-d movies always make me cry Oh-oh-oh sa-a-a-d movies always make me cry

And so I got ____ , and slowly walked ____ home, And mama saw the tears and said, "What's wrong?"

And so to keep _______ telling her a lie, I just said "sa-a-a-d movies make me cry."

Oh-oh-oh sa-a-a-d movies always make me cry Oh-oh-oh sa-a-a-d movies always make me cry

Ooh, ooh, ooh, ooh, ooh Ooh, ooh, ooh, ooh

Sa-a-a-d movies make me cry-i-i

Sad Movies

by Sue Thompson 1. What is the ‘setting’ of the song’s story?

______________________________

2. Why did the girl go to the show alone?

______________________________

______________________________

3. Who did the girl’s boyfriend take to the show?

______________________________

______________________________

4. Why did the couple sit in front of the girl? _________________________

_____________________________

_____________________________

5. How does the girl learn that her boyfriend now likes the other girl?

_____________________________

_____________________________

6. The girl began to cry because:

a. she didn’t like the cartoon b. she was angry

c. she felt betrayed

d. sad movies make her cry 7. What did the girl do when she

discovered her boyfriend with someone else? She:

a. confronted them

b. broke off the relationship c. told her mother

d. kept the secret to herself

8. What would you do in her situation?

Why? _________________________

______________________________

______________________________

9. Write some advice for the girl?

______________________________

______________________________

______________________________

Questions

How many lies are there in the song? What is the song saying about lies and why people tell them?

________________________________________

________________________________________

________________________________________

________________________________________

________________________________________

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Listen to the song, and complete the lyrics using the correct prepositions.

Sa-a-a-d movies always make me cry!

He said he had to work, so I went to the show alone.

They turned down the lights and turned the projector on, and Just as the ‘News of the World’ started to begin, I saw my darlin' and my best friend , walk in.

Though I was sittin' there, they didn't see, and so they sat right down in front of me!

When he kissed her lips, I almost died,

and in the middle of the colour cartoon I started to_ cry.

Oh-oh-oh sa-a-a-d movies always make me cry Oh-oh-oh sa-a-a-d movies always make me cry

And so I got up, and slowly walked on home, And mama saw the tears and said, "What's wrong?"

And so to keep from telling her a lie, I just said "sa-a-a-d movies make me cry."

Oh-oh-oh sa-a-a-d movies always make me cry Oh-oh-oh sa-a-a-d movies always make me cry

Ooh, ooh, ooh, ooh, ooh Ooh, ooh, ooh, ooh

Sa-a-a-d movies make me cry-i-i

Sad Movies

by Sue Thompson 1. What is the ‘setting’ of the song’s story?

The setting of the song is a cinema.//

The song is set in a cinema

2. Why did the girl go to the show alone?

She went alone because her boyfriend said that he had to work.

Who did the girl’s boyfriend take to the show?

He took her [the girl’s] best friend.

Why did the couple sit in front of the girl? They sat in front of the girl because it was dark and they couldn’t see her.

3. How does the girl learn that her boyfriend now likes the other girl?

She learns this when she sees her boyfriend kiss the other girl.// She knows he likes the other girl when he kisses her.

4. The girl began to cry because:

a. she didn’t like the cartoon b. she was angry

c. she felt betrayed  d. sad movies make her cry 5. What did the girl do when she

discovered her boyfriend with someone else? She:

a. confronted them

b. broke off the relationship c. told her mother

d. kept the secret to herself  What would you do in her situation?

Why? If I were her, I would have//

wouldn’t have….

(open answer)

6. Write some advice for the girl?

(Remind students to begin with verbs and use present tense)

ANSWERS

How many lies are there in the song? What is the song saying about lies and why people tell them?

There are two lies in the song. The first lie is the one the boy tells the singer/writer i.e. that he has to work. The second lie is the lie the girl tells her mother that sad movies make her cry. People often tell lies to avoid causing other people unhappiness or to avoid getting into trouble.

However, when those people find out they have been lied to, they feel worse, often feeling

betrayed.

Ensure Ss have correct tense

Perception verb so a present tense

verb/infin itive follows

Introduce the idea of feeling

betrayed as being an emotion.

E.g. I felt betrayed// It was a terrible

b t l ( )

Even though sad movies usually make this girl cry, this wasn’t the real reason she was crying, so she does in fact, tell a lie:

a white lie. C lass can discuss the idea of whether it is sometimes right to tell a white lie or an incomplete truth.

Reported speech

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Features of Our

Integrated Programme

Ss read, view and listen to a range of texts – films, songs, stories, articles etc.

Selected for thematic coherence–

juxtapositioning of viewpoints

Questions devised to meet the demands of

the syllabus and examinations, thus particular text types and question types are used.

However, we go beyond the above to achieve

our school’s particular aim of a well-balanced

literacy programme.

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Functional Reading

- Aim: Help Students be functionally literate

- Genre/Text recognition – reading cues/practices

- We accept there is culturally shared knowledge about texts and how information is conveyed in particular texts e.g. newspaper stories/

advertisement

- Recognition of text types positions the reader to read the text in a particular way (fiction/factual) and to form expectations about

accuracy/authority etc.

- Functional purpose - largely to extract

information for use in social interactions etc.

Focused on getting the invited dominant meaning

(sometimes intended meaning)

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How to teach it

Steps to achieve:

- Content – Develop topic knowledge and language

- Genre/text-type awareness

- Awareness of contextual variables:

field/audience/mode/medium

- Organisation/formatting – headings – paragraphs – pictures/captions

- Language system – adaptation of this ‘style’ to above (langue/parole)

- Reference rules (pronouns/synonyms etc.) punctuation.

- Vocabulary

NOTE: In previous models of English the last two elements were focused

on the most (pre –language in context)

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It’s all teachable

How?…

- Accessing and building on prior experience of the topic, content knowledge and language.

- Progressively building pathways in the Ss’ synaptic system through songs, films, readers, short texts with language exercises etc. before reading deeper, more difficult texts that bring content and language together.

- exposure… surrounded with texts along the mode

continuum through which Ss learn to distinguish how texts change according to contextual variables.

- More intense reading thus comes QUITE LATE

SOMETIMES in a unit (& earlier in others depending on the nature of the information etc.)

- We then use the reading passages as models for students

own writing. In this way, they get to read and write a range

of texts.

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Did you know that Mr. Donald Tsang, the current Chief Executive of Hong Kong, started the first young players’ baseball programme in Hong Kong as early as 1983, and that by 2005, there were 31 little league teams in the territory? Would you like to know more about baseball, and how it is played? Read on!

History

Origins of the Game

The game was invented in America, but probably developed from the English game, rounders, which itself developed from cricket around the 15th century.

Town ball, an early form of baseball, was played in America in the 18th and 19th centuries. The first American baseball club, The Knickerbockers, began playing games in 1845 in New Jersey.

Other Countries

In 1872, Japan became the first Asian country to form a baseball team. The sport is now hugely popular with the Japanese. In 1992, it was made an Olympic sport.

Women and the Game

Women have played and umpired baseball games from earliest times till the present. From 1943-1954 a league of professional women players entertained Americans and kept ball parks full during World War II. The league gave young women a chance to play professional baseball and have careers beyond the traditional female roles of teacher, secretary, nurse, librarian, or housewife. After the war was over, the men’s league resumed, and the women’s league was disbanded.

The Game

Baseball is a team sport. It is the national pastime of America, where during spring and summer, millions of people both young and old, watch and play the game.

The game is played with a hard, round ball, a wooden bat, and a glove. It is played on a baseball field, called a ‘diamond’. The teams, each with 9 players, take 9 turns (or innings) to bat and field.

The object of the game is to score more ‘runs’ when batting than the opposing team, and, when fielding, to get as many as possible of the opposing team members ‘out’ before scoring. A ‘run’ is scored when a batter hits the ball, and is able to move to first, then second, then third, and finally, home base,

without being ‘tagged’ or ‘caught out’.

Players

The player is an all-round athlete. He wears a cap and a loose-fitting uniform to allow freedom of movement. His shoes have metal spikes to stop slipping.

The Pitcher

The pitcher, or hurler, is the most important member of the team. He pitches the ball in a variety of ways to try to prevent the batter from scoring. He can throw: a curve ball, a speed ball, a spinner, a spit ball, a slow ball, or a drop ball. A pitcher

t t l th b ll

to pass through the ‘strike zone’ of a batter which is the area over home plate between the batter’s shoulders and knees. Any throw inside this area is called ‘a strike’. Anything outside is ‘a ball’. His colourful ‘wind-up’ and pitching actions also entertain and fascinate the crowd.

The Batter

The batter is also an important member of the team. The ideal hit is the ‘home run’

whereby a batter hits the ball high, and or far enough away, to allow himself - and players on other bases - to return home and score runs. A home run is the best option when all the bases are full or ‘loaded’. Sometimes, a batter may ‘bunt’, allowing the ball to hit the bat without striking it. When he does this so that other players can score, risking getting out himself, it’s called a ‘sacrifice bunt. A hit ball that falls outside of the foul line is called a ‘foul’.

Base Men and Fielders

Basemen and fielders can ‘catch’ a runner ‘out’ on a ball batted ‘on the full’.

However, a baseman thrown a fielded ball, must ‘tag’ the runner out, while keeping one foot on the base.

The Umpire

The umpire controls the game, interprets the rules, and makes decisions on events in the game.

Main Rules of Baseball

A team is allowed only 3 outs in an inning.

A batter is allowed only 3 strikes before being called ‘out’.

A ball hit ‘over the fence’ is a home-run.

If a pitched ball hits the batter, or if a pitcher throws 4 ‘balls’, the batter walks to first base.

Famous Players

There are currently 278 players in the USA’s National Baseball Hall of Fame. In 1969, George Ruth, nicknamed ‘Babe’, was named baseball's Greatest Player Ever in a vote commemorating 100 years of professional baseball. He ‘slugged’ 714 home runs in his career. However, the record for the most home runs is held by Sadaharu Oh of Japan, who hit 868 home runs over the course of his career. Other famous baseballers include Mickey Mantle who hit 536 home runs, Jackie Robinson, who broke the ‘colour bar’when he became the first black major league player in the modern game and Willie Mays, who was greatly admired for his patience and persistence.

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Answer in complete sentences except where told otherwise.

1. What other games did baseball probably develop from? (paragraph 2)

___________________________________________________________________________________

2. Many countries now have baseball teams. How do we know this from the passage? (paragraph 3) __________________________________________________________________________

3. In paragraph 2, line 3, what does ‘itself’ refer to? ___________________ (one word answer) 4. In paragraph 3, line 2, what does ‘the sport’ refer to? ________________ (one word answer) 5. Match the occupations from paragraph 4 with the pictures below:

A. ________________ B. _________________ C. __________________ D. ________________ E. _________________ F.

___________________

6. In paragraph four, (line 7) what do you think the word ‘traditional’ means?

________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

7. In paragraph 4, lines 3 and 6, ‘professional’ means:

a. hard-working c. paid experts b. high class d. like a professor

8. In paragraph 4, line 9, ‘resumed’ means:

a. started again c. fell back b. was made stronger d. was replaced

9. In paragraph 4, line 10, ‘disbanded’ means:

a. thrown away c. banned b. forbidden d. broken up

10. Why do you think women had a chance to play professional baseball during World War 11?

(The answer is not given in passage)

____________________________________________________________________________

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11.  A ‘diamond’ (paragraph 6) is an example of:

a.  a simile c.  a rhyme

b.  a metaphor d.  none of the above  

12.  In paragraph 9, line 9, ‘colourful’ means:

a.  rainbow c. interesting

b.  strange d. crazy

13.  Which positions have the following duties? Write the positions in the spaces provided:

a.    guard the bases _________________________

b.    throw the ball at the batter _________________________

c.     return the ball after the batter has hit it   _________________________

d.     make decisions on the rules       _________________________

e.     score runs _________________________ 

14.  In paragraph 9, we learn about a number of different types of balls a pitcher can throw.

Match the types of throws a pitcher can make with the definitions below: 

a. a curve ball 1.  a ball that falls suddenly at or near the batter’s feet

b. a speed ball 2.  a straight ball that turns around and around as it is moving

c. a drop ball 3.  a ball that doesn’t follow a straight path

d. a spinner 4.  a ball that doesn’t move fast

e. a slow ball 5.  a ball that is moves very fast in a straight line

14.   Label the following diagram using information from paragraphs 9 and 10. 

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15. From information in paragraph 14, name an American baseball player who:

a. is a role model for black players ______________________

b. was the most popular with fans ______________________

c. was best known for his personal qualities ______________________

16. Why do you think Sadaharu Oh is NOT honored in the USA’s National Baseball Hall of Fame even though he holds the world record for home runs?

_______________________________________________________________________________

17. Choose the best alternative title for this descriptive report:

a. Everything you wanted to know about baseball b. History of Baseball

c.

Baseball – Women Strike Out! d. A Guide to Baseball

Use the information from the report above to complete the following mind-map. Then, in pairs, give a short presentation of 1-2 minutes on Baseball to your partner. You can use the introduction and conclusion given if you wish.

“Did you know that Hong Kong has 31 little league baseball teams? No? It was a surprise to me too! So, I decided to find out more about the game to share with you today during Sports Week. So, what is baseball?

4. famous players 4. famous

players

Informative Speaking - What is baseball? A Descriptive

oral report

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Logical

In the past called ‘critical’ – before real critical literacy Harder to teach - beyond knowledge of the language to thinking (cognitive) skills & sometimes challenging authority of the text

Applying concepts

(syllogism//generalisations//inductive/deductive argument etc.) to identify and evaluate the text’s

argumentation (process of developing the argument) etc.

So we need to teach students how facts are gathered/interpreted and //presented

Editorials// debates// argument

Is the argument non-sequitur (does it follow that… or

is it ethical)

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How do we teach it?

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Sex education essential for our young

In the past two weeks, three babies have been found abandoned in public places. While the public may accuse their mothers of being heartless, the incidents highlight a more serious problem: that of teenage pregnancy, as all the mothers concerned were under the age of eighteen.

In Chinese society, sex is often considered taboo and this attitude is not only prevalent in the family but also in the classroom. So, while teenagers can adequately name the different parts of the male and female reproductive systems, their knowledge of birth control and attitude towards sexual relationships is comparatively poor.

So where do our young people learn about the subject? Unfortunately they rely on the media, which doesn’t help. TV programmes like the hit Japanese drama Mother at 14 often romanticise teenage parenthood, and they fail to address the financial and emotional problems that teen mothers frequently encounter.

The problem of teenage prenancy should be addressed immediately. Schools and parents should work together to establish a

dialogue with teenagers about safe and responsible sexual behaviour. With both parties working together, we can be sure that our

young will grow up with the right knowledge and values. This should lead to fewer regrets and fewer tragedies.

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Critical

Again, reading goes beyond the words on the page, or even the genre, or even the argument…

Critical reading asks about the ideology/discourses the text

privileges, occludes, marginalizes/

condemns, and asks “Who is best

served by this text?”

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How do we teach it?

- Look for the invited reading

- Ask is the text ‘carrying’ any other

messages ‘innocently’ or ‘as natural’?

- Challenge those meanings/assumptions in the text

- Rewrite the text / suggest other possible

interpretations

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Experiential

Reading to empathize

Involve students and elicit

emotional response

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How do we do it?

Select age appropriate texts pitched at appropriate language ability

Select texts that appeal to our students (boys- in all their diversity) and represent fairly the absent sex etc.

Relate Ss personal experience to the text through journals, oral presentations, group discussions.

Support through film, songs etc.

Provide opportunities to apply concepts from

the text – charity/ reflection on issues.

(28)

Novel:

Oliver Twist

By Charles

Dicken s

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Background to the clip: The sandlot is a sandy, vacant lot [a piece of land that hasn’t any buildings on it] where David and his friends play their ‘backyard baseball’ games. David’s gang is trying to keep another group of boys, led by a boy called Singleton, from taking over the sandlot. However, they also have to face another, unexpected, challenge.

The clip is about what happens when David’s gang arrive to find a group of girls, led by Haley, and a small boy called Johnny Smalls, on ‘their’ sandlot.

Labelthe pictures with the right words (some are used more than once) after you have viewed the film:

hero setting minor characters the secret weapon the breakthrough the surprise the conflict heroine the challenge the hero to the rescue the deal [the terms of the compromise]

the stalemate [a situation where neither side can win] the impasse [situation where neither side will give in] the options Language Arts – Viewing a Film Clip The Sandlot 2

P. the deal / agreement

Picture 16

J. the stalemate

Picture 10

D. heroine

Picture 4

O. compromise

Picture 15

I. hero to the rescue

Picture 9

C. hero

Picture 3

N. the options M. The impasse

Picture 14 Picture 13

L. minor characters K. the stalemate

H. the surprise G. the secret

weapon

Picture 12 Picture 11

Picture 8 Picture 7

F. the challenge E. the conflict

B. setting A. setting

Picture 6 Picture 5

Picture 2 Picture 1

Pictures captured from the movie are

removed due to copyright permissions

restrictions.

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Use: some of the words below to match with the pictures and to make a list of Dos and Don’ts to solve a conflict.

threaten stand-up for yourself tease taunt insult compromise name-calling bully use violence calm down mock brainstorm options Discuss : The actions of the children in the video clips and write out a list of dos and don’ts for people to help others know what to do in a conflict. Use the above words to help you.

What to do in a Conflict - dos + don’ts

O. compromise

Picture 9

I. name-calling

Picture 6

C. brainstorming options

Picture 3

N. calm down M. mocking / teasing / taunting

Picture 8 Picture 7

H. resorting to / using violence G. using [resorting to] violence

Picture 5 Picture 4

B. insult A. stand up for yourself

Picture 2 Picture 1

©M. Bushell 2007

Pictures captured from the movie are

removed due to copyright permissions

restrictions.

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Wider Reading

Thematic in Junior

SBA – Senior

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How do we teach it?

Provide a reading ‘frame’ for students e.g.

‘Survival Theme’ or ‘Solving a Conflict’

By tracking themes through short and longer texts

Juxtapositioning of texts

Noticing how texts ‘talk back’ to other texts.

Use texts that support the work done in the

school curriculum.

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Fantastic Mr. Fox & Oliver Twist

Fantas tic Mr. Fo x

By Roald

Dahl

Oliver Twist

Charles By

Dickens

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How to Teach SBA W/R

- SBA not just organised by text type e.g. fiction but also by theme:

- Provide a

* Relationship between Humans

&Animals

* Survival in Nature

* Survival in Society

(35)

Title Robinson Crusoe

Author Daniel Defoe

Publisher Philadelphia, Pa. : Courage Books

Annotation During one of his several adventurous voyages in the 1600's an Englishman becomes the sole survivor of a shipwreck and lives for nearly thirty years on a deserted island.

Call number JF DEF

Title Rescue Josh McGuire

Author Ben Mikaelsen

Publisher New York : Hyperion Books for Children

Annotation When thirteen-year-old Josh runs away to the mountains of Montana with an orphaned bear cub destined for laboratory testing, they both must fight for their lives in a sudden snowstorm.

Call number JF MIK

Title The Chinquapin Tree Author Jerry Kimble Holcomb

Publisher New York : Marshall Cavendish

Annotation Fearing they will be sent from a loving foster home back to their abusive mother, three children hide out in a secluded spot on Oregon's coast, trying to find food and shelter

Call number JF HOL

Title The Wreckers

Author Iain Lawrence

Publisher New York : Delacorte Press

Annotation Shipwrecked after a vicious storm, fourteen-year-old John Spencer attempts to save his father and himself while also dealing with an evil secret about the English coastal town where they are stranded.

Call number JF LAW

Title The Coral Island

Author R.M. Ballantyne

Publisher London : Puffin

Annotation Three English boys, shipwrecked on a deserted island, create an idyllic society despite typhoons, wild hogs, and hostile visitors. Then evil pirates kidnap one of the youths whose adventures continue among the South Sea Islands.

Call number JF BAL

Survival

Stories

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Title Julie of the Wolves

Author Jean Craighead George Publisher New York : HarperCollins

Annotation While running away from home and an unwanted marriage, a thirteen-year-old Eskimo girl becomes lost on the North Slope of Alaska and is befriended by a wolf pack.

Call number JF GEO

Title Robert Crews

Author Thomas Berger

Publisher New York : Wm. Morrow

Annotation When a plane crash strands Robert Crews, a ne'er-do-well alcoholic, beside a north woods lake, he must use his ingenuity and what supplies he can salvage to find food and build shelter. After struggling for weeks believing he is completely alone, he discovers a mysterious footprint.

Call number F BER

Title Far North

Author Will Hobbs

Publisher New York : Morrow Junior Books

Annotation After the destruction of their floatplane, sixteen-year-old Gabe and his Dene friend, Raymond, struggle to survive a winter in the wilderness of the Northwest Territories.

Call number JF HOB

Title The Shark Callers

Author Eric Campbell

Publisher San Diego : Harcourt Brace

Annotation Two teenage boys, one on a shark hunt and the other traveling with his family, face the challenge of their lives when a volcano erupts causing a massive tidal wave in the South Seas.

Call number JF CAM

Title A girl named Disaster

Author Nancy Farmer

Publisher New York : Orchard Books

Annotation While journeying to Zimbabwe, eleven-year-old Nhamo struggles to escape drowning and starvation and in so doing comes close to the luminous world of the African spirits.

Call number JF FAR

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Title Tomorrow, when the war began

Author John Marsden

Publisher New York : Bantam Doubleday Dell Books for Young Readers

Annotation Seven Australian teenagers return from a camping trip in the bush to discover that their country has been invaded and they must hide to stay alive.

Call number JF MAR

Title The Dead of Night

Author John Marsden

Publisher Boston : Houghton Mifflin Co.

Annotation Six determined Australian teenagers try to find their missing friends while continuing to resist the enemies who have invaded their country.

Call number JF MAR

Title Hatchet

Author Gary Paulsen

Publisher New York, N.Y. : Atheneum Books for Young Readers

Annotation After a plane crash, thirteen-year-old Brian spends fifty-four days in the Canadian wilderness, learning to survive with only the aid of a hatchet given him by his mother, and learning also to survive his parents' divorce.

Call number JF PAU

Title The voyage of the Frog

Author Gary Paulsen

Publisher Macmillan Children's

Annotation When David goes out on his sailboat to scatter his recently deceased uncle's ashes to the wind, he is caught in a fierce storm and must survive many days on his own as he works out his feelings about life and his uncle.

Call number JF PAU

Title Bridle the wind

Author Joan Aiken

Publisher London : Jonathan Cape

Annotation His journey back to Spain interrupted by shipwreck, loss of memory, and a stay in a forbidding French monastery, twelve-year-old Felix finally continues his journey in the company of a mysterious boy that he had rescued from hanging. Sequel to "Go saddle the sea."

Call number JF AIK

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Robinson Crusoe by Daniel Defoe

Robinson Crusoe is an Englishman from the 1) t_______ of York in the seventeenth century, the youngest son of a merchant of German origin. 2) E_____________ by his father to study law, Crusoe expresses his 3) w______ to go to sea instead. His family is 4) a__________ Crusoe going out to sea, and his father explains that it is better to 5) s______ a modest, secure life for oneself. Initially, Robinson is committed to 6) o_____________ his father, but he eventually succumbs to temptation and 7) e_____________ on a ship bound for London with a friend. When a 8) s________ causes the near deaths of Crusoe and his friend, the friend is dissuaded from sea 9) t____________, but Crusoe still goes on to set himself up as merchant on a ship leaving London. This trip is financially successful, and Crusoe plans another, leaving his early profits in the care of a friendly widow. The second 10) v___________ does not prove as fortunate ……

Robinson Crusoe is an Englishman from the town of York in the seventeenth century, the youngest son of a

merchant of German origin. Encouraged by his father to study law, Crusoe expresses his wish to go to sea

instead. His family is against Crusoe going out to sea, and his father explains that it is better to seek a modest,

secure life for oneself. Initially, Robinson is committed to obeying his father, but he eventually succumbs to

temptation and embarks on a ship bound for London with a friend. When a storm causes the near deaths of

Crusoe and his friend, the friend is dissuaded from sea travel, but Crusoe still goes on to set himself up as

merchant on a ship leaving London. This trip is financially successful, and Crusoe plans another, leaving his

early profits in the care of a friendly widow. The second voyage does not prove as fortunate ……

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參考文獻

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