The Most Energetic
Particles in Nature

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Karl-Heinz Kampert Taipei Colloq, 7.04.2015

The Most Energetic
 Particles in Nature

Karl-Heinz Kampert


University of Wuppertal

ASIAA/CCMS/IAMS/LeCosPA/NTU-Phys Joint Colloquium, April 7, 2015

Area Grant

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Karl-Heinz Kampert – University Wuppertal 2 Taipei Colloq, 7.04.2015

1 event per m2 and sec

γ≈ 2.7 - 3.0

„ankle“

(1 per km2-year)

Energy Spectrum of Cosmic Rays

log(energy/eV)

log(fl ux)

32 orders of magn.

32 orders of magnitude:

hair

Universe

„Knee“

(1 per m2-year)

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Karl-Heinz Kampert – University Wuppertal 3 Taipei Colloq, 7.04.2015

1 event per m2 and sec

γ≈ 2.7 - 3.0

„ankle“

(1 per km2-year)

log(energy/eV)

log(fl ux)

32 orders of magn. „Knee“

(1 per m2-year)

Balloons Satellite

Air Shower
 Exps

<5 m

2

0.1 km

2

<1 m

2

3000 km

2

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Karl-Heinz Kampert 4 Taipei Colloq, 7.04.2015

Where do they come from?

What are they made of ?

How do their accelerators work?

Is there a maximum limit to their energy ?

What can they tell us about


fundamental and particle physics?

Key Questions about


Ultra High-Energy Cosmic Rays

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Karl-Heinz Kampert – University Wuppertal 5 Taipei Colloq, 7.04.2015 courtesy R. Engel

Particle Energy (eV)

1013 1014 1015 1016 1017 1018 1019 1020

)1.5 eV-1 sr-1 sec-2 J(E) (m2.5 Scaled flux E

1013

1014

1015

1016

1017

1018

1019

(GeV)pp Equivalent c.m. energy s

102 103 104 105 106

RHIC (p-p) e-p) HERA (

Tevatron (p-p)

LHC (p-p) ATIC

PROTON RUNJOB

KASCADE (QGSJET 01) KASCADE (SIBYLL 2.1) KASCADE-Grande (prel.) Tibet ASg (SIBYLL 2.1)

HiRes-MIA HiRes I HiRes II

Auger SD 2008

~E-2.7

~E-3.1

„Knee“

„Ankle“

Image of non-thermal Universe

„GZK?“

Features of CR spectrum

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Karl-Heinz Kampert – University Wuppertal 6 Taipei Colloq, 7.04.2015 courtesy R. Engel

Particle Energy (eV)

1013 1014 1015 1016 1017 1018 1019 1020

)1.5 eV-1 sr-1 sec-2 J(E) (m2.5 Scaled flux E

1013

1014

1015

1016

1017

1018

1019

(GeV)pp Equivalent c.m. energy s

102 103 104 105 106

RHIC (p-p) e-p) HERA (

Tevatron (p-p)

LHC (p-p) ATIC

PROTON RUNJOB

KASCADE (QGSJET 01) KASCADE (SIBYLL 2.1) KASCADE-Grande (prel.) Tibet ASg (SIBYLL 2.1)

HiRes-MIA HiRes I HiRes II

Auger SD 2008

SNR?

Diffusion losses from Galaxis ?

p

....

Fe

SNR ?

Galactic CRs?

Features of CR spectrum

Fe-knee p,He-knee

classical

ankle model

AGN ?

Extragal. CRs?

extragal.

component p

magn. confinement

Emax ~ Z

(7)

Karl-Heinz Kampert – University Wuppertal 7 Taipei Colloq, 7.04.2015 courtesy R. Engel

Particle Energy (eV)

1013 1014 1015 1016 1017 1018 1019 1020

)1.5 eV-1 sr-1 sec-2 J(E) (m2.5 Scaled flux E

1013

1014

1015

1016

1017

1018

1019

(GeV)pp Equivalent c.m. energy s

102 103 104 105 106

RHIC (p-p) e-p) HERA (

Tevatron (p-p)

LHC (p-p) ATIC

PROTON RUNJOB

KASCADE (QGSJET 01) KASCADE (SIBYLL 2.1) KASCADE-Grande (prel.) Tibet ASg (SIBYLL 2.1)

HiRes-MIA HiRes I HiRes II

Auger SD 2008

SNR?

Diffusion losses from Galaxis ?

SNR ?

Galactic CRs?

Features of CR spectrum

Fe-knee p,He-knee

AGN ?

Extragal. CRs?

p Fe

?

extragal.

component magn. confinement

Emax ~ Z

(8)

Karl-Heinz Kampert – University Wuppertal Taipei Colloq, 7.04.2015

Lamor radii at 1020 eV compared to Milky-Way

E

18

≤ Z·B

µG

·R

kpc

Conjecture:

Extragalactic origin

Size × B-Field needs
 to be very large …

Interesting feature:

Can do astronomy with cosmic rays !

10 20 eV CRs in our Galaxy ?

8

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Karl-Heinz Kampert – University Wuppertal Taipei Colloq, 7.04.2015

Cosmic Magnetic Fields

Halo B?

Extra-galactic B < nG ?

γ, ν

weak deflection RL = kpc Z-1 (E / EeV) (B / μG)-1

RL = Mpc Z-1 (E / EeV) (B / nG)-1

strong deflection

Milky way B ~ μG

E > 1019eV

E < 1018eV

(E, Z) ⇥ 0.8 1020 eV E

⇥ ⇤ L 10 Mpc

Lcoh 1 Mpc

B 1 nG

· Z

UHECR Astronomy

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Karl-Heinz Kampert – University Wuppertal

Active Galactic
 Nuclei (AGN)

LHC GRB

AGN-Jets

SNR

Colliding Galaxies

Potential Sources of 10

20

eV particles

10 Taipei Colloq, 7.04.2015

Neutron Stars

white dwarfts

Active Galactic Nuclei ?

jets from radio Interplanetary

Space

Galact. disk halo

eV pr oton

galaxies Galactic

Clusters

Size

Magnetic Fieldstrength (Gauß)

1AU

SNR

1012

10 6

1

10 –6

1km 10 6km 1pc 1kpc 1Mpc

IGM 10 20

{

LHC

GRB ?

Emax ~ βs·z·B·L

Fe

Hillas Diagramm

Realistic constraints more severe

small acceleration efficiency

synchrotron & adiabatic losses

interactions in source region

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Karl-Heinz Kampert – University Wuppertal Taipei Colloq, 7.04.2015

Cas A


(3.4 kpc)

Cygnus A

(250 Mpc)

Fornax A

(20 Mpc)

NRAO/AUI

1.4 , 5, & 8.4 GHz

Supernova Remnants Accreting 


Supermassive Black Holes

E < 10

16

eV

E ~ 10

20

eV ?

Radio Images of Cosmic Accelerators

(12)

Karl-Heinz Kampert – University Wuppertal

The Cosmic Zevatron

12 Taipei Colloq, 7.04.2015

courtesy R. Engel

Particle Energy (eV)

1013 1014 1015 1016 1017 1018 1019 1020

)1.5 eV-1 sr-1 sec-2 J(E) (m2.5 Scaled flux E

1013

1014

1015

1016

1017

1018

1019

(GeV)pp Equivalent c.m. energy s

102 103 104 105 106

RHIC (p-p) e-p) HERA (

Tevatron (p-p)

LHC (p-p) ATIC

PROTON RUNJOB

KASCADE (QGSJET 01) KASCADE (SIBYLL 2.1) KASCADE-Grande (prel.) Tibet ASg (SIBYLL 2.1)

HiRes-MIA HiRes I HiRes II

Auger SD 2008

SNR?

How much would LHC need to 
 grow to accelerate 1020 eV?


p-energy LHC

1020 eV protons in LHC would require size of Earth orbit around Sun

(13)

VOLUME 10, NUMBER 4 PHYSICAL RK VIEW LKTTKRS 15 I'EBRUARY 196)

cleon-nucleon scattering see, for example, M. L. Gold-

berger, Q. T. Grisaqu, S. %'. MacDow'ell, and D. Y.

Kong, Phys. Rev. 120, 2250 (1960). Other methods of

calculating phase shifts in terms of scalar and vector particle exchanges have been considered by a number of authors. See, for example, R. Bryan, C. Dismukes,

and W. Ramsay (to be published).

3R. Blankenbecler and M. L. Goldberger, Phys.

Rev. 126, 766 (1962); G. F. Che~ and S. C. Frautschi,

Phys. Rev. Letters 7, 394 (1961);S. Frautschi,

M. Gell-Mann, and F. Zachariasen, Phys. Rev. 126,

2204 (1962); D. %'ong, Phys. Rev. 126, 1220 (1962).

4H. Stapp (private communication).

SM. Hull, K. Lassila, H. Ruppel, F. McDonald, and

G. Breit, Phys. Rev. 122, 1606 (1961).

6C. de Vries, R. Hofstadter, and R. Herman, Phys.

Rev. Letters 8, 381 (1962).

7J. Ball and D. %'ong (to be published).

EVIDENCE FOR A PRIMARY COSMIC-HAY PARTICLE WITH ENERGY 10 eV~

John Linsley

Laboratory for Nuclear Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts (Received 10 January 1963)

Analysis of a cosmic-ray air shower recorded at the NIT Volcano Ranch station in February

1962 indicates that the total number of particles

in the shower (Serial No. 2-4834) was 5x10'0.

The total energy of the primary particle which

produced the shower was 1.0x10~ eV. The show-

er was about twice the size of the largest we had

reported previously (No. 1-15832, recorded in

March 1961).'

The existence of cosmic-ray particles having

such a great energy is of importance to astrophys- ics because such particles (believed to be atomic nuclei) have very great magnetic rigidity. It is

believed that the region in which such a particle originates must be large enough and possess a strong enough magnetic field so that REI» (1/300) x(E/Z), where R is the radius of the region (cm) and H is the intensity of the magnetic field (gauss).

E is the total energy of the particle (eV) and Z is its charge. Recent evidence favors the choice Z = 1 (proton primaries) for the region of highest

cosmic -ray energies.

'

For the pr esent event one

obtains the condition RB» 3 x 10' . This condition

is not satisfied by our galaxy (for which RH ~ 5

x10", halo included) or known objects within it, such as supernovae.

The technique we use has been described else-

where. ' An array of scintillation detectors is used to find the direction (from pulse times) and size (from pulse amplitudes) of shower events which satisfy a triggering requirement. In the present case, the direction of the shower was

nearly vertical (zenith angle 10+ 5'). The values of shower density registered at the various points of the array are shown in Fig. 1. It can be ver-

ified by close inspection of the figure that the

core of the shower must have struck near the

point marked "A," assuming only (1) that shower

particles are distributed symmetrically about an axis (the "core"), and (2) that the density of par-

ticl.es decreases monotonically with increasing distance from the axis. The observed densities

0.6

KlLOMETERS

FIG. 1. Plan of the Volcano Ranch array in February 1962. The circles represent 3.3-m2 scintillation de- tectors. The numbers near the circles are the shower densities (particles/m ) registered in this event, No.

2-4834. Point A is the estimated location of the shower core. The circular contours about that point aid in verifying the core location by inspection.

146

VOLUME 10, NUMBER 4 PHYSICAL RK VIEW LKTTKRS 15 I'EBRUARY 196)

cleon-nucleon scattering see, for example, M. L. Gold-

berger, Q. T. Grisaqu, S. %'. MacDow'ell, and D. Y.

Kong, Phys. Rev. 120, 2250 (1960). Other methods of calculating phase shifts in terms of scalar and vector particle exchanges have been considered by a number of authors. See, for example, R. Bryan, C. Dismukes,

and W. Ramsay (to be published).

3R. Blankenbecler and M. L. Goldberger, Phys.

Rev. 126, 766 (1962); G. F. Che~ and S. C. Frautschi,

Phys. Rev. Letters 7, 394 (1961);S. Frautschi,

M. Gell-Mann, and F. Zachariasen, Phys. Rev. 126,

2204 (1962); D. %'ong, Phys. Rev. 126, 1220 (1962).

4H. Stapp (private communication).

SM. Hull, K. Lassila, H. Ruppel, F. McDonald, and

G. Breit, Phys. Rev. 122, 1606 (1961).

6C. de Vries, R. Hofstadter, and R. Herman, Phys.

Rev. Letters 8, 381 (1962).

7J. Ball and D. %'ong (to be published).

EVIDENCE FOR A PRIMARY COSMIC-HAY PARTICLE WITH ENERGY 10 eV~

John Linsley

Laboratory for Nuclear Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts (Received 10 January 1963)

Analysis of a cosmic-ray air shower recorded at the NIT Volcano Ranch station in February

1962 indicates that the total number of particles

in the shower (Serial No. 2-4834) was 5x10'0.

The total energy of the primary particle which

produced the shower was 1.0x10~ eV. The show-

er was about twice the size of the largest we had

reported previously (No. 1-15832, recorded in

March 1961).'

The existence of cosmic-ray particles having such a great energy is of importance to astrophys- ics because such particles (believed to be atomic nuclei) have very great magnetic rigidity. It is

believed that the region in which such a particle originates must be large enough and possess a strong enough magnetic field so that REI» (1/300) x(E/Z), where R is the radius of the region (cm)

and H is the intensity of the magnetic field (gauss).

E is the total energy of the particle (eV) and Z is its charge. Recent evidence favors the choice Z = 1 (proton primaries) for the region of highest

cosmic -ray energies. ' For the pr esent event one

obtains the condition RB»3 x 10' . This condition

is not satisfied by our galaxy (for which RH ~ 5

x10", halo included) or known objects within it, such as supernovae.

The technique we use has been described else-

where. ' An array of scintillation detectors is used to find the direction (from pulse times) and

size (from pulse amplitudes) of shower events which satisfy a triggering requirement. In the present case, the direction of the shower was nearly vertical (zenith angle 10+ 5'). The values of shower density registered at the various points of the array are shown in Fig. 1. It can be ver-

ified by close inspection of the figure that the

core of the shower must have struck near the

point marked "A,"assuming only (1) that shower

particles are distributed symmetrically about an

axis (the "core"), and (2) that the density of par-

ticl.es decreases monotonically with increasing distance from the axis. The observed densities

0.6

KlLOMETERS

FIG. 1. Plan of the Volcano Ranch array in February 1962. The circles represent 3.3-m2 scintillation de- tectors. The numbers near the circles are the shower densities (particles/m ) registered in this event, No.

2-4834. Point A is the estimated location of the shower core. The circular contours about that point aid in verifying the core location by inspection.

146

Karl-Heinz Kampert – University Wuppertal

1962: The First 10

20

eV Event

13 Taipei Colloq, 7.04.2015

Volcano Ranch Air Shower
 Array, New Mexico

Extensive Air Shower

detector array

Figure

Updating...

References

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