Machine Learning for Artificial Intelligence in Medicine Applications

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Machine Learning for Artificial Intelligence in Medicine Applications

林軒田 Hsuan-Tien Lin htlin@csie.ntu.edu.tw

國立台灣大學 National Taiwan University

Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, 2019/03/05

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About Me

Hsuan-Tien Lin

• Professor, Dept. of CSIE, National Taiwan University

• Chief Data Science Consultant, Appier

• Co-author of textbook “Learning from Data: A Short Course”

• Instructor of the NTU-Coursera Mandarin-teaching ML Massive Open Online Courses

“Machine Learning Foundations”:

www.coursera.org/course/ntumlone

“Machine Learning Techniques”:

www.coursera.org/course/ntumltwo

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Disclaimer

researched on quite a few ML-related topics, but . . .

limited first-hand experience

in ML for AI in Medicine Applications

Peng et al., . . . for fast disease diagnosis, NeurIPS 2018:

building family-medicine doctor-bot

Chou and Lin, ML for interactive verification, PAKDD 2014:

effective use of doctor’s time on screening X-ray scans

Jan et al., Cost-sensitive classification on pathogen species of bacterial meningitis . . ., BIBM 2011:

leveraging doctor’s domain knowledge

(to be introduced)

Lin and Li. Analysis of SAGE results with combined learning techniques. In ECML/PKDD Discovery Challenge 2015:

using machine learning properly on small medical data

will talk more about

general wisdom

(hopefully), less about specific techniques

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Outline

ML for (Modern) AI

ML for AI in Medicine Application: My Own Story

Suggestions to Medicine Researchers on Using ML-driven AI

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From Intelligence to Artificial Intelligence

intelligence: thinking and acting smartly

• humanly

• rationally

artificial intelligence: computers

thinking and acting

smartly

• humanly

• rationally

humanly

smartly

rationally

—are humans rational? :-)

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Humanly versus Rationally

What if your self-driving car decides one death is better than two—and that one is you? (The Washington Post http://wpo.st/ZK-51)

You’re humming along in your self-driving car, chatting on your iPhone 37 while the machine navigates on its own. Then a swarm of people appears in the street, right in the path of the oncoming vehicle.

Car Acting Humanly

to

save my (and passengers’) life, stay on track

Car Acting Rationally

avoid the crowd and crash the owner for

minimum total loss

which is

smarter?

—depending on where I am, maybe? :-)

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(Traditional) Artificial Intelligence

Thinking Humanly

cognitive modeling

—now closer to Psychology than AI

Acting Humanly

dialog systems

humanoid robots

computer vision

Thinking Rationally

formal logic—now closer to Theoreticians than AI practitioners

Acting Rationally

recommendation systems

cleaning robots

cross-device ad placement

acting

humanly or rationally:

more academia/industry attentions nowadays

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Traditional vs. Modern [My] Definition of AI

Traditional Definition

humanly ≈ intelligently ≈ rationally

My Definition

intelligently ≈ easily

is your smart phone ‘smart’? :-)

user-needs-driven

AI is important

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AI Milestones

logic inference

expert system

machine learning +deep learning

begin 1st winter 2nd winter revolution

1956 1980 1993 2012

time

heat

AI history

first AI winter: AI cannot solve ‘combinatorial explosion’ problems

second AI winter: expert system failed to scale

reason of winters:

expectation mismatch

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What’s Different Now?

More Data

cheaper storage

Internet companies

Faster Computation

cloud computing

GPU computing

Better Algorithms

decades of research

e.g. deep learning

Healthier Mindset

reasonable wishes

key breakthroughs

data-enabled

AI: mainstream nowadays

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Machine Learning and AI

Easy-to-Use

Acting Humanly Acting Rationally

Machine Learning

machine learning: core behind

modern (data-enabled) AI

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ML Connects (Big) Data and AI

From Big Data to Artificial Intelligence

big data ML artificial intelligence

ingredient tools/steps dish

(Photos Licensed under CC BY 2.0 from Andrea Goh on Flickr)

ML Scientist

≡ restaurant

chef

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Bigger Data Towards Better AI

best route by shortest path

best route by current traffic

best route by predicted travel time

big data

can

make machine look smarter

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ML for Modern AI

big data

ML AI

human learning/

analysis

domain knowledge

(HI)

method

model expert system

human sometimes

faster learner

on

initial (smaller) data

industry:

black plum is as sweet as white

often important to leverage human learning, especially

in the beginning

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AI: Now and Next

2010–2015

AI becomes

promising, e.g.

initial success of

deep learning

on ImageNet

mature tools for SVM (LIBSVM) and others

2016–2020

AI becomes

competitive, e.g.

super-human performance of

alphaGo

and others

all big technology companies become

AI-first

2021–

AI becomes

necessary

“You’ll not be replaced by AI, but

by humans who know how to use AI”

(Sun, Chief AI Scientist

of Appier, 2018)

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Outline

ML for (Modern) AI

ML for AI in Medicine Application: My Own Story

Suggestions to Medicine Researchers on Using ML-driven AI

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What is the Status of the Patient?

?

H7N9-infected cold-infected healthy

a

classification

problem

—grouping ‘patients’ into different ‘status’

are all mis-prediction costs equal?

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Patient Status Prediction

error measure = society cost XXXX

XXXXXX actual

predicted

H7N9 cold healthy

H7N9

0 1000 100000

cold

100 0 3000

healthy

100 30 0

H7N9 mis-predicted as healthy:

very high cost

cold mis-predicted as healthy:

high cost

cold correctly predicted as cold:

no cost

human doctors consider costs of decision;

how about computer-aided diagnosis?

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Our Works

binary multiclass

regular well-studied well-studied

cost-sensitive known

(Zadrozny et al., 2003) ongoing (our works, among others)

selected works of ours

cost-sensitive SVM

(Tu and Lin, ICML 2010)

cost-sensitive one-versus-one

(Lin, ACML 2014)

cost-sensitive deep learning

(Chung et al., IJCAI 2016)

why are people

not

using those

cool ML works for their AI? :-)

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Issue 1: Where Do Costs Come From?

A Real Medical Application: Classifying Bacteria

by human doctors:

different treatments

⇐⇒ serious costs

cost matrix averaged from two doctors:

Ab Ecoli HI KP LM Nm Psa Spn Sa GBS

Ab 0 1 10 7 9 9 5 8 9 1

Ecoli 3 0 10 8 10 10 5 10 10 2

HI 10 10 0 3 2 2 10 1 2 10

KP 7 7 3 0 4 4 6 3 3 8

LM 8 8 2 4 0 5 8 2 1 8

Nm 3 10 9 8 6 0 8 3 6 7

Psa 7 8 10 9 9 7 0 8 9 5

Spn 6 10 7 7 4 4 9 0 4 7

Sa 7 10 6 5 1 3 9 2 0 7

GBS 2 5 10 9 8 6 5 6 8 0

issue 2: is cost-sensitive classification

really useful?

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Cost-Sensitive vs. Traditional on Bacteria Data

. . . . . .

Are cost-sensitive algorithms great?

RBF kernel

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6

OVOSVM

csOSRSVM csOVOSVM csFTSVM

algorithms

cost

.

...Cost-sensitive algorithms perform better than regular algorithm

Jan et al. (Academic Sinica) Cost-Sensitive Classification on SERS October 31, 2011 15 / 19

(Jan et al., BIBM 2011)

cost-sensitive

better than

traditional;

but why are people

still not

using those cool ML works for their AI? :-)

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Issue 3: Error Rate of Cost-Sensitive Classifiers

The Problem

0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3

0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2

Error (%)

Cost

cost-sensitive classifier:

low cost but high error rate

traditional classifier:

low error rate but high cost

how can we get the

blue

classifiers?:

low error rate and low cost

cost-and-error-sensitive:

more suitable for

real-world medical needs

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Improved Classifier for Both Cost and Error

(Jan et al., KDD 2012)

Cost

iris ≈

wine ≈

glass ≈ vehicle ≈

vowel

segment

dna

satimage ≈

usps

zoo

splice ≈ ecoli ≈ soybean ≈

Error

iris

wine

glass

vehicle

vowel

segment

dna

satimage

usps

zoo

splice

ecoli

soybean

now,

are people using those cool ML works

for their AI? :-)

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Lessons Learned from

Research on Cost-Sensitive Multiclass Classification

? H7N9-infected cold-infected healthy

1

more realistic (generic) in academia

6=

more realistic (feasible) in application

e.g. the ‘cost’ of

inputing a cost matrix? :-)

2 cross-domain collaboration

important

e.g. getting the ‘cost matrix’ from

domain experts

3

not easy to win

human trust

—humans are somewhat

multi-objective

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Outline

ML for (Modern) AI

ML for AI in Medicine Application: My Own Story

Suggestions to Medicine Researchers on Using ML-driven AI

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Is Logistic Regression Part of ML?

No

developed in 1958,

even before “ML” named

applied on medicine

research

long before “ML”

popularized

(e.g.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.

nih.gov/pubmed/11576808

)

Yes

wikipedia: “Logistic

regression is an

important ML algorithm.”

special case of

modern

deep learning

approaches

widely included

in ML tool boxes

my biased opinion:

LogReg

analysis: not (typical) ML;

LogReg

algorithm: (typical) ML

but

both important for modern AI

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Shall We Replace Our Logistic Regression Model with Fancy ML Models?

Yes

ML may provide

more opportunities

for better solving your problem

consider

more factors

leverage

non-linear relationship

learn → analyze

(ML) v.s. analyze → regress

No

LogReg:

safe first-hand choice

in ML anyway

—philosophy of

linear first

not really

replacing,

but worth

comparing

super big ML jungle:

risky if lost

concrete suggestions:

compare with (“try”)

some mature ML models

consult/collaborate with

ML specialist

if using advanced ML models

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Some Mature ML Models Recommended

Random Forest

voting of many (random) decision trees

analysis:

feature importance

benefit:

robust

and

efficient

in general

Gradient Boosted Decision Tree

optimized combination of decision trees

analysis:

feature importance

benefit:

accurate

for many

applications

(RBF-) Support Vector Machine

optimized combination of key examples

analysis:

key examples

(support vectors)

benefit:

robust

for mid-sized data suggested reading:

A Practical Guide to Support Vector Classification

https://www.csie.ntu.edu.tw/~cjlin/papers/

guide/guide.pdf

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Can We Explain ML Predictions?

courtesy of my Appier colleague Jen-Yee Hong, M.D.

Yes

for simple models

like LogReg using statistics tools

or feature importance

ongoing research to explain complex ML models

with some initial success on visual data

No

not generally applicable

to every ML model nowadays

explainable ML is

getting more important

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Can We Trust ML Predictions?

courtesy of my Appier colleague Jen-Yee Hong, M.D.

Yes

ML can be more accurate if

properly used

No

non-ML-specialists may not

properly use

ML tools

need more

honest success stories

before winning human trust

trust

needs accumulation

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Summary

ML for (Modern) AI:

tools + human knowledge ⇒

easy-to-use application

ML Research for AI in Medicine Applications:

collaborative

to keep discovering new research directions

Suggestions to Medicine Researchers on Using ML-driven AI:

ML provides more

opportunities

but needs

care

Thank you! Questions?

Figure

Updating...

References

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