Table of Contents
Unit 1 Verb Moods
Part A Indicative and Imperative 6
B Present Subjunctive 10
C Past Subjunctive 14
D Review 18
Unit 2 Tenses
Part A Simple and Progressive Tenses 20
B Perfect Tenses 24
C Review 28
Unit 3 Subject-Verb Agreement
Part A Recognizing Subjects 30
B Quantifiers 34
C Review 38
Unit 4 Modals
Part A Ability, Permission, Polite Requests, and Suggestions 40 B Obligation, Prohibition, and Lack of Necessity 44 C Probability: Past, Present, and Future 48
D Review 52
Unit 5 Adjectives and Adverbs
Part A Collective Adjectives 54
B Adjective Clauses (Restrictive and Non-restrictive) 58
C Adverbs and Adverb Order 62
D Review 66
Unit 6 Nouns and Articles
Part A Uncountable Nouns and Quantity 68
B Indefinite Articles 72
C The Definite Article 76
D Generic Nouns 80
E Review 84
Unit 7 Pronouns
Part A Reflexive and Reciprocal Pronouns 86 B Interrogative Pronouns and Relative
Pronouns as the Object of a Preposition 90
C Indefinite Relative Pronouns 94
D Review 98
Unit 8 Prepositions
Part A Advanced Prepositions 100
B Verbs and Prepositions 104
C Phrasal Verbs 108
D Review 112
Unit 9 Direct and Indirect Speech
Part A Verb Tense and Form 114
B Question Forms and Time Shifts 118
C Modals in Indirect Speech 122
D Review 126
Unit 10 Passive Voice
Part A Passive Tenses 128
B Stative Passives 132
C Direct and Indirect Objects in the Passive Voice 136
D Passive Voice Clauses 140
E The Passive of Modal Auxiliaries 144
F Review 148
Transcripts & Answer Key
Indicative and Imperative
Grammar Explanation Preview
Verb Moods: Indicative and Imperative
The indicative mood is the most common verb mood in English. It is used to express facts and opinions, or to ask questions about them. The indicative mood is used in all verb tenses.
The imperative mood is used to make requests or give orders and warnings. It is used only in the simple present and future tenses.
I am going to visit Paris next week.
You looked happy yesterday.
My dog is barking at passing cars.
Does she have my book?
Do they study English on Tuesdays?
The subject in the imperative mood is always you. In simple present tense, the you-subject is not usually stated.
In the simple future tense, the you-subject is usually stated. It is used to place stronger emphasis on a command.
Pass me the salt, please.
Don’t walk near my vegetable garden.
Look out for those bees!
Finish your homework tonight. (command) You will finish your homework tonight!
(strong command) Indicative Conjugation (Simple Present):
am walk is walks are walk I
He / She / It
You / We / They
There will be no computer class tomorrow as we are upgrading the computer server. The new server is bigger and faster than the previous one. The classroom door will be locked all day, so do not attempt to enter. Use the time for your private study and remember to collect your new log-in password. Send me your email address so I can give you some homework. The work must be finished by Friday.
People use cars to drive around.
Part A 7 1. Smoking is dangerous for your health. _____________________
2. Talking in the library is forbidden. _____________________
3. Walking alone downtown at night can be dangerous. _____________________
4. Eating a lot of fatty snacks can damage your heart. _____________________
5. It is not nice to lie to your parents and teachers. _____________________
6. Littering the streets makes the city dirty. _____________________
Exercise 2 Write negative imperative sentences based on the information given.
Exercise 3 Look at the pictures. Write indicative sentences with the phrases in the box.
1. Is Carlos from Spain? _____________________
2. Jack is cooking dinner. _____________________
3. Be careful of the hot stove. _____________________
4. Tell your sister to call me when she gets home. _____________________
5. When will you give me my allowance? _____________________
6. You will eat all your vegetables! _____________________
Exercise 1 Write indicative if the sentence is in the indicative mood or imperative if the sentence is in the imperative mood.
1. drive around 2. call their friends 3. tell the time 4. stay dry
Brazil will beat Argentina in the soccer game tomorrow.
Exercise 5 Write indicative sentences in the correct tense.
Exercise 6 Unscramble the imperative sentences.
1. Brazil - beat - Argentina - soccer game - tomorrow
2. snow - New York - last - Friday
3. James - go - Japan - on vacation - next summer
4. Kyle - study - science - library - now
5. How long - you - be - wait - for me?
Exercise 4 Listen and take notes. Then answer the following questions.
1. What is wrong with Simon? ____________________________
2. What did Simon’s doctor tell him to do? ____________________________
3. What should Simon avoid? ____________________________
4. What do his parents have to do next week? ____________________________
1. turn / lights / off / Please / the / later.
2. be / if / Call me / late. / you / going to / are
3. use / cell phones / the test. / your / Don’t / during
4. the trash, / Throw / please. / papers / these / in
Simon: - caught ___________
Doctor: - rest ___________,- take ___________,- avoid ___________
Simon’s parents: - bring ___________________________
Part A 9
Grammar in Use
Exercise 7 Underline the imperative sentences.
Hiking through the Rocky Mountains can be a rewarding experience. The clean air and breathtaking scenery attract tourists from all around the world.
However, this area is also home to the grizzly bear. Because of the dangers associated with grizzly encounters, hikers should heed the following safety precautions. Check with park rangers for information on bear activity before choosing a trail. Travel in large groups and make a lot of noise. Grizzlies tend to avoid people and noise. Carry bear
spray and keep it easily accessible. When this pepper spray gets into a bear’s eyes, the bear will usually retreat. Always remain alert. The sooner you know a bear is near, the easier it will be to avoid trouble!
1. Where do grizzly bears live?
2. What would you tell a friend to do before going hiking in the Rocky Mountains?
3. What do grizzlies tend to avoid?
4. Why should hikers keep bear spray easily accessible?
Exercise 8 Answer questions about the passage.
Principal: I am recommending that Mrs.
Robinson stay home until after her baby is born.
Jenny: When is her baby due?
Principal: Around September 15th. I requested that she return to school in January.
Mark: Who is going to teach us until then?
Principal: Ms. Shaw. I insist you be as respectful to her as you are to Mrs. Robinson!
Grammar Explanation Preview
The subjunctive mood is used to express uncertain actions or states.
The present subjunctive* is formed with the base form of a verb. It follows verbs, nouns, or adjectives that express suggestion, demand, or request.
Words of suggestion used: determine, determination, propose, recommend, recommendation, suggest, suggestion, advise, advisable, critical, desirable, important, vital, urge
Words of demand used: demand, imperative, insist, necessary, order, require, required
Words of request used: ask, beg, prefer, request, wish
The doctor suggested I sleep more.
My recommendation is that he sleep more.
The doctor’s recommendation is that they sleep more.
It is advisable that she sleep more.**
My parents demand that I be quiet at night.
Your parents require that you be quiet at night.
It is imperative that she not be noisy at night.
I ask that you have more patience with the other students.
The teacher requested that Nick have his project finished a day earlier.
* The term “present” refers to the form of the subjunctive verb (base form) rather than the time in which the action happens. The following sentences all use the present subjunctive mood:
The patient asked that he be given more medicine.
The patient requests that he be given more medicine.
The patient is demanding that he be given more medicine.
The patient will insist that he be given more medicine.
** Often, that is not omitted from sentences.
1. I strongly urged that he (will find / find / finds) his wallet before leaving the beach.
2. The doctor suggested she (gets / got / get) more exercise.
3. I’ll email it to you when I (be / will be / am) finished.
4. They demanded that we not (is / is being / be) so loud.
5. Please (pass / passes / be passing) me the salt.
6. The police officer insisted my father (shows / show / have shown) him his driver’s license.
Part B 11
Exercise 1 Circle Sub if the verb in bold is in the subjunctive mood, circle Ind if it is in the indicative mood, or circle Imp if it is in the imperative mood.
Exercise 2 Choose the best word(s) to complete each sentence.
1. The doctor insisted that Stan remains in bed. ________
2. The commander ordered that the thief is arrested. ________
3. The police request all citizens avoids the highway during the snowstorm. ________
4. Karen like to play basketball. ________
5. The bank manager demanded that he pays the debt on time. ________
1. My sister insisted that she getthe large room in our new house. Sub Ind Imp 2. Ms. O’Malley suggestedthat her students choose a research
topic as soon as possible. Sub Ind Imp
3. Turndown your radio! Sub Ind Imp
4. The young couple is requestinga table by the window. Sub Ind Imp 5. The ranger recommended we becareful around bears. Sub Ind Imp 6. It is critical that she sendin her application before the deadline. Sub Ind Imp
Exercise 3 Underline the mistakes. Then write the corrections.
Exercise 4 Listen and number the pictures from 1-- 4.
Exercise 5 Match the sentence parts.
1. Tom suggested we go fishing ● ● she apply to Harvard.
2. Her math teacher advised that ● ● travel plan before he goes away.
3. Mom insisted that Bob make a ● ● if the weather is nice tomorrow.
4. Our French teacher demanded that ● ● we meet twice a week.
5. My tutor prefers that ● ● we be quiet during the test.
Exercise 6 Unscramble the sentences.
1. advised / I / they / scenic / route. / the / take
2. citizens / taxes. / The / insists / that all / pay / government
3. a / new / start / He / suggested / that / she / hobby.
4. students / the / be / recommend / I / that / quiet.
5. demanded / The father / a traditional / have / wedding. / daughter / his
_______ _______ _______ _______
Part B 13
Grammar in Use
Steve: Hey Jo, what’s up? Are you planning our surfing holiday?
Jo: No, my parents are insisting that I 1._____________
Steve: Why? Is it because it’s too dangerous?
Jo: Yeah, they asked that we 2._____________ a safer activity.
Steve: How about we 3._____________ sightseeing in Beijing instead?
Jo: That’s an idea. I’ll bet that they 4._____________ me do that.
I’ll call you if they agree.
Steve: Even if they 5._____________, call me anyway. I want to catch a movie with you tonight.
Exercise 8 Read the statements about Exercise 7. Circle T for true or F for false.
1. Jo’s parents think that surfing is dangerous. T F 2. Jo’s parents asked that they not go to Hong Kong. T F 3. Steve suggests that they see a movie tonight. T F 4. Steve recommends that Jo and her family go to Beijing. T F
go let stay don’t choose
Exercise 7 Fill in the blanks with words from the box.
Part C Past Subjunctive
I’m having a great time here in Canada. So far, I have been skiing, ice skating, and fishing. It looks as if it’s going to be sunny tomorrow, so we might even go camping! There’s so much to do. If I were back home, I would never have done all these fun things. I wish you were all here with me. If only you weren’t so busy, you could join me. Well, hope to see you soon.
Your friend, Claire
The subjunctive mood is also used to express uncertain actions or states.
The past subjunctive* is formed with the simple past form of a verb that describes a state, condition, or habit. With the verb be, the form were (not was) is always used. It refers to hypothetical or imaginary situations.
The past subjunctive is used after the verb wish to express an unfulfilled desire.
It is also used after the verbs suppose and imagine or with if (only) phrases to express unreal conditions. Such sentences are usually followed by would or could.
The past subjunctive is also used when a comparison to an imaginary condition is made. In this case, as though or as if usually precedes it.
I wish Sally were here to help us.
He wishes he could run faster.
Suppose you met the president. What would you say?
Imagine you were rich. What would you do first?
If people drove smaller cars, we could all breathe cleaner air.
She acts as though she were very rich, but she’s not.
He drives as if he were in a Formula 1 race.
* The term “past” refers to the form of the subjunctive verb (past simple) rather than the time in which the action happens. The following sentences all use the past subjunctive mood:
If I were more organized, I would have arrived yesterday.
If I were you, I would call her right now.
If I weren’t sick, I would go skiing with you tomorrow.
Part C 15 1. I wish I know my sister’s secret. _____
2. Suppose I were very ugly. Will you still like me then? _____
3. The boy speaks as if he is a man. _____
4. She wishes she can speak English fluently. _____
5. If he was born in Berlin, he would speak German. _____
1. If I ___________ (be) rich, I ___________ (will) buy a new car.
2. If only I ___________ (be) taller, I ___________ (can) reach the top shelf.
3. The teacher demanded that Elaine ___________ (stop) talking in class.
4. If they ___________ (be) so lazy, all the work ___________ (will) be finished by now.
5. If he ___________ (study) more, he ___________ (will) get higher grades.
Exercise 2 Underline the mistakes. Then write the corrections.
1. I could go to the party ● ● I would trust him.
2. She speaks Japanese as ● ● if I were not sick.
3. Imagine you were ● ● were nicer today.
4. If he kept his promises, ● ● though she were a native speaker.
5. They would get married ● ● born on Mars!
6. I wish the weather ● ● if their parents approved.
Exercise 3 Match the sentence parts.
Exercise 1 Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verb.
Use negative forms when necessary.
If it had wings, it could fly.
Exercise 4 Listen and use the information you hear to complete the sentences.
1. It can’t fly because it doesn’t have wings.
2. She can’t get a job, because she is so lazy.
3. She can’t buy a new car because she doesn’t have enough money.
4. He doesn’t keep his promises, so I don’t trust him.
5. I can’t write to her because I don’t know her address.
Exercise 5 Rewrite the sentences using the past subjunctive and if.
Exercise 6 Look at the pictures and complete the sentences.
1. If I were a genius, I ____________ the meaning of life.
2. If I were a fortune-teller, I _____________ your future.
3. If she were a pilot, she _____________ planes.
4. If we were living in the past, we _____________ for food.
5. If you were a frog, you _____________ green skin.
1. Peter plays soccer as if __________________________________________.
2. Lisa cries as though ____________________________________________.
3. Jenny runs as if ________________________________________________.
4. Allen speaks as though ___________________________________________.
1. 2. 3. 4.
Part C 17
Grammar in Use
Exercise 7 Fill in the blanks with words from the box.
I 1.__________ you were here. We’re having an exciting time in Hong Kong. The food is great, and the buildings are so tall. But the weather is so hot!
2.__________ that the weather back home were hot and humid every night.
That’s what it’s like here! Yesterday, we were in a taxi. The driver was driving 3.__________ we were in a race. Suddenly, we crashed into another taxi.
The two drivers were yelling at each other, and it looked as though they 4.__________ going to fight. Eventually,
we got back to our hotel OK. The trip has been perfect so far, except I wish our room 5.__________ air conditioning.
Your friend, Andy
Exercise 8 Write your own answers to the questions.
imagine had as if wish were
1. What would you do if you visited Hong Kong?
2. Suppose you were in a taxi and the driver were driving too fast. What would you do?
3. If your taxi were hit by another taxi, what would you do?
A: Clean up your room, please.
A: If you were cleaner, I wouldn’t have to ask.
A: I recommend you start savingnow.
B: If I were older, you wouldn’t ask me to do that.
B: I wish I had my own house!
Exercise 1 Practice the conversations with a partner. Change roles for each conversation.
1. It is important that you (be given / will given) your medication by a qualified nurse.
2. I suggest that he (finishes / finish) his homework by twelve.
3. He recommended that I (took care / take care) to study longer than twenty minutes for the next test.
4. My mother insists that my father (exercise / exercises) regularly.
5. Jerry requested that Kim (helps / help) him with his essay.
1. Julie’s father demands that she ____________ home early. (come) 2. He insisted that she ____________ a lawyer. (see)
3. I suggested that he ____________ for the job. (apply) 4. If I were happier, I ____________ smile more often. (will) 5. If we had more time, we ____________ go to the zoo. (can) 6. If it ____________ snowing, we could go skiing. (be)
Exercise 2 Choose the correct verbs to complete the sentences.
1. 2. 3.
Clean up your room / Go upstairs / Stop talking on the phone /
older / a famous musician / a boy /
cleaner / my own house / quieter / nicer parents / more responsible / my
start saving apologize to us own phone / hang up
Exercise 3 Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verb given.
Be careful of the big dog.
If wishes were fishes, we’d all have some fried.
Exercise 4 Rewrite the sentences in the past subjunctive tense. Use the words given.
1. If it is sunny tomorrow, I will go hiking.
→ _________________________________________________________________ (now) 2. She sings as well as a pop star.
→ _________________________________________________________________ (as if) 3. I am short, so I can’t dunk a basketball.
→ ________________________________________________________________ (taller) 4. Three players on our team are injured, so we will probably lose the game.
→ ________________________________________________________ (healthy . . . win)
Review 19 1. Be - careful - big - dog.
2. Where - be - Sheila - from?
3. It - be - important - she - check - her doctor - before - starting - diet.
4. If - he - have - longer - hair, - he - will - look - like - girl.