IN THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE CURRICULUM

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English Language Education Section Curriculum Development Institute EDB

Jan 2019

EFFECTIVE ASSESSMENT PRACTICES

IN THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE CURRICULUM

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Warm up - How far do you agree?

• It’s the students’ responsibility to keep track of their own progress.

• Students only care about the results, not why they get the marks and how to improve.

• Process-writing is time-consuming and unrealistic.

Practice makes perfect. The more comprehension and compositions students do, the better their

reading and writing skills.

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* To explore effective strategies for implementing assessment FOR and AS learning to enhance

self-directed learning

To raise awareness of strategies for implementing formative assessment

To provide hands-on activities on

designing assessment activities to promote AaL To discuss the role of assessment in the LTA cycle

Objectives

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Part 1: Key concepts

Part 2: Strategies for designing quality items/tasks and implementing AfL & AaL in

reading assessment

Part 3: Strategies for implementing AfL & AaL in writing assessment

Part 4: Consolidation

Rundown

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Part 1: Key Concepts

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Extending from AfL to AaL –-

Empowering students to monitor & evaluate own progress

Summative AoL • describes the level students have attained

• shows what they know/can do over a period of time

• gives an overview of previous learning for reporting purposes

Formative AfL • integrates assessment into learning & teaching

• assists students to understand what they are learning, what they have attained, what is expected of them

• helps teachers collect learning evidence to provide timely feedback & refine teaching strategies

AaL • engages students in reflecting on & monitoring their progress of learning

• involves students in regulating the learning process, evaluating their own performance against the learning goals & planning for the next step in learning

English Language Education Key Learning Area Guide (Primary 1 – Secondary 6) (2017) p.84

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Learning, Teaching and Assessment Cycle

What students are expected to learn

Goals

What students can do as a result

Attainment

Process

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Five Keys Quality to Assessment

Identify Purposethe

Clarify Targetsthe

Design quality

items/tasks Involve

Students Provide

Effective Feedback

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Unpacking Formative Assessment

Where the learner is going

Where the learner is How to get there/

How to close the gap

Teacher

Peer

Learner

Providing feedback that moves learners

forward Clarifying,

sharing &

understanding learning intentions

Engineering effective tasks that elicit evidence

of learning

Empowering students to be learning resources for one another

Empowering students to be

owners of their own learning

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Part 2: Strategies for designing quality items/tasks and implementing AfL & AaL in

reading assessment

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Activity:

Draw up a list of what good readers can do.

Good readers can:

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Teaching and Assessing Reading

words

phrases

sentences and their interconnections

strategic reading

paragraph and discourse structure

connections to self , society and

the world

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References for Setting Reading Objectives and Describing Reading Performance

Appendix 5 of the English Language

Education Key Learning Area Curriculum Guide (P1 – S6) (2017)

The Learning Progression

Framework for English Language

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Assessing Reading

Watch a video on assessing reading , discuss

with your group members and complete the

activity sheet.

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Types of Reading Tasks

• MC questions

• True/False/Not Given

• Matching

• Labelling

• Sequencing

• Gap-filling

• Short answers

• Summary cloze

• Information-transfer

• Proofreading

• Summary writing

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Activity

• Study Texts 2-4 from Paper B1 of 2017 HKDSE English Language Paper and answer Questions 24, 30, 31, 32 & 39.

• Identify the question type for each

question and match the question

intents with the questions.

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Activity

24. “Snug in the nest” (slide 2) means Millennials are…

31. Match the following headings to each slide of Text 2. Write the slide number next to each heading.

32. In what period were Millennials born?

30. Based on the information given on slide 6, fill in the blanks. Write One word in each blank.

locate specific information by recognising simple text

structures

 work out the meaning of figurative language (e.g.

metaphors) by using semantic and syntactic clues

identify main ideas and some supporting details explicitly stated in the text

follow ideas by recognising simple text structures and understanding the use of cohesive devices

Study the questions. Identify the question type and match each question with a pointer/question intent in the right-hand column.

39. What does ‘that’ (line 39) refer to?

 deduce information and ideas by using semantic and

syntactic cluesclues

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Use of the LPF –

Designing Reading Activities

Setting appropriate

questions, ensuring a

balanced coverage of question types

and question intents

LPF

Consolidating and

developing students’

reading skills

and strategies

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Activity

Situation:

You find that your students have difficulty answering Question 30. Discuss with your group members

and suggest what you can do to help your students in

answering the question.

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Activity

• Focus students’ attention on the learning objectives.

 share the learning intentions with the students

• Provide steps to guide students towards the answers.

 ask guiding questions (1) scan Slide 6 for the gist; (2) study the text in Q.30 and circle the key words ; (3) study Slide 6 again and underline the key words; (4) fill in the blanks with words in appropriate word form; (5) read the text in Q.30 again to check whether each answer makes sense

• Demonstrate how to answer the questions.

(1) underlining the topic sentence “For Millennials, wellness is a daily, active pursuit.”

 (2) circle the words that help decide the parts of speech of answers , e.g. “than”,

“more”, “don’t”, “as much”

 (3) underlining the possible answers,

“exercising”, “smoking”

 (4) changing the word form of the words

Ways to promote assessment for learning in reading lessons:

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Paraphrasing Techniques

1. Change from a clause to a phrase (or vice versa)

2. Change from direct speech to indirect speech (or vice versa)

3. Change from active voice to passive voice (or vice versa)

4. Change words using synonyms, superordinates or subordinates

5. Change the word forms

6. Change the sentence structures or use different connectives

7. Change numbers and percentages to different forms

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Questions Requiring Paraphrasing Techniques

Other examples:

23. What do companies hope to achieve by understanding Millennials’ attitudes and lifestyle?

- to make a big difference to their business - to sell more to Millennials

36. Fill in the blanks based on information in paragraph 4.

The young have a (i)__________ chance of being

employed compared to their elders. More than a

quarter of those from (ii)___________ countries are

NEETs.

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Paraphrase this part using a connective indicating a causal

relationship.

Paraphrase this paragraph using the indirect speech.

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Task demand should increase with text complexity.

To cater for learner diversity, simple tasks can be included for

complex texts to cultivate learners’ confidence, and difficult tasks for simple texts to stretch their abilities.

To promote learner independence, the amount of support provided could be gradually reduced. To this end, various effective teaching strategies for reading could be integrated into the reading

programme.

Interplay between Tasks and Texts

Task Demand

Text Complexity

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Extending from AfL to AaL –-

Empowering students to monitor & evaluate own progress

Summative AoL • describes the level students have attained

• shows what they know/can do over a period of time

• gives an overview of previous learning for reporting purposes

Formative AfL • integrates assessment into learning & teaching

• assists students to understand what they are learning, what they have attained, what is expected of them

• helps teachers collect learning evidence to provide timely feedback & refine teaching strategies

AaL

• engages students

in reflecting on & monitoring their progress of learning

• involves students

in regulating the process, evaluating their own performance against the learning goals &

planning for the next step in learning

English Language Education Key Learning Area Guide (Primary 1 – Secondary 6) (2017) p.84

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Developing Self-assessing & Self-improving Abilities

(2) Design self-tracking and reflection activities:

• Application of reading & fix-up strategies — reflecting on the reading process

• Use of reading portfolios and journals — reflecting on the progress & product

• Design of self-directed reading tasks — metacognitive reflection (1) Provide comprehension monitoring instructions to help

students:

• Identify what they understand

• Identify what they do not understand

• Understand their difficulties in reading

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Understanding Your Reading Difficulties:

Which of the solutions do you think are most useful. Add yours.

“I lose concentration while reading.”

“Mark the text every time you notice you’ve lost concentration.”

“Set yourself reading goals, like continue reading until the end of the paragraph then take a brief pause.”

“I don’t understand the sentence even though I know most/all of the words in the sentence.”

“Go back and re-read the sentence before the difficult sentence.”

“Group the words in the difficult sentence into expressions/chunks and try to look at the meaning of the chunk/expression, not the individual words.”

“I read too slowly.” “Don’t worry so much about unknown words.

Circle them and keep reading.”

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Source:

https://thisreadingmama.com/

Reflecting on learning process: application of fix-up strategies

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Reflecting on the reading process:

fostering independent application of reading strategies

• Model self-monitoring reading behaviour with Traffic Light Reading strategy

• Provide opportunities to practise repairing comprehension

independently

Red = I need help with this

Orange = I’m not sure but I can try

Green = I’m confident with this

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1 thing I did well:

2 strategies I’ve learned well:

3 words/expressions I’ve learned from the

article:

4 things I want to find out now about the topic:

Reflecting on the reading progress:

reading portfolio

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Self-directed Reading:

Metacognitively reflecting on the content of reading

Evaluating own performance as independent readers:

•Observing,

•Questioning

•Critiquing

•Evaluating

•Comparing / contrasting

Double Entry Diary

Quotations from the text My Questions/Reactions/

Predictions

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Promoting AaL and Self-directed Learning through Literature Circles

• Literature Circles are small reading groups of 4 or 5 students each

• Each group reads the assigned reading materials or a book of their own choice at its own pace.

• Once a week, groups get together to talk about what they are reading.

• Every week, each group gives itself a reading assignment.

• In preparation for each week’s Literature Circles meeting,

students read their assigned pages/chapters and complete one of the Literature Circles jobs.

• At the end of each meeting, complete a group evaluation sheet.

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Literature Circles Jobs

• Discussion Director

Writes questions to be used for group discussions

• Word Finder

Locates and defines unknown and/or interesting vocabulary words in the book

• Connector

Takes events from the book and connects them to real- life experiences

• Correspondent

Writes letters to characters in the book

• Illustrator

Illustrates scenes from the book

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Part 3: Strategies for implementing AfL & AaL in

writing assessment

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1. Do you correct all errors in students’ compositions?

2. Do you think grammar and accuracy come first when it comes to marking compositions?

3. How do you ask students to do composition corrections?

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How to Answer the Three Guiding Questions

Seven Strategies of Formative Assessment

Where am I going?

1. Provide a clear and understandable version of the learning targets.

2. Use examples of strong and weak work.

Where am I now?

3. Offer regular descriptive feedback.

4. Teach students to self-assess and set goals.

How can I close

the gap?

5. Use evidence of student learning to determine next steps in teaching 6. Design focused instruction, followed

by practice with feedback.

7. Engage students in self-reflection and provide opportunities for them

to track and share learning progress. 36

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Strategy 1: Provide a clear & understandable version of the learning targets (enabling

strategy)

(1) Map out and present to students the writing skills and text- types to master over a period of time

(2) Analyse the topic to understand task requirements Pre-writing: Identifying key elements in the writing topic:

• Who am I?

• Who am I writing to?

• Why am I writing?

• What is the text-type?

• What am I writing about?

Where the learner is going

Who? (Your role + audience)

(Text-type + topic / content) (Purpose)

What?

Why

?

The 3Ws Approach

Highlight keywords in the writing topic

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2018 HKDSE English Language Paper 2 Question 1

You are Chris Wong, the class teacher of 6A. You will be taking your class on a school trip next month to sky100, show in the poster below.

Write a letter to parents giving them the necessary information about the trip. You may use the mind map to help you write the letter.

Use the 3Ws approach and highlight the keywords:

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Strategy 1: Provide a clear & understandable version of the learning targets (enabling strategy)

(3) Feed forward – present learning outcomes (or success criteria) with reference to the topic

Example

Some experts in education have observed that Hong Kong

teenagers are too pampered and spoilt by their parents, resulting

in their lack of self-management and problem-solving skills. One

proposed solution to this problem is requiring students to

undertake 50 hours of community service, in addition to the

community services organised by the schools for the Other

Learning Experiences (OLE), before they are allowed to graduate

from secondary school. Write an article to the school newspaper

to express whether you agree with this proposal and give at least

three reasons for your view.

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Establishing Success Criteria with Reference to Task Requirements

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Design task-specific assessment form

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Strategy 1: Provide a clear & understandable version of the learning targets (enabling strategy)

(2) Analyse the topic to understand task requirements

Identifying key elements in the writing topic:

Who am I?

Who am I writing to?

Why am I writing?

What is the text-type?

What am I writing about?

What tone should I use?

Where the learner is going

Who? (Your role + audience)

(Text-type + topic / content) (Purpose)

What?

Why

?

The 3Ws Approach

Highlight keywords in the writing topic Question 3 -- 2018 HKDSE English Language Paper 2

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(3) Feed forward – present learning outcomes (or success criteria) with reference to the topic

• To complete the task successfully, what are students expected to demonstrate in the following aspects?

• Think of 2 most important criteria for each.

Content Organisation Language

Question 3 -- 2018 HKDSE English Language Paper 2

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Strategy 2: Use examples and models of strong and weak work (enabling strategy)

(1) Show sample model texts from textbooks or teachers (2) Show peers’ work (discuss strengths & ways to improve)

Where the learner is going

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Strategy 3: Offer descriptive feedback during the learning process (enabling strategy)

Where the learner is

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Strategy 3: Offer descriptive feedback during the learning process (enabling strategy)

What is effective and quality feedback?

Informative – helping students know where they are and what to do next to make improvement step by step

Concrete and focused -- pointing out specifically what has been done well or not so well with examples

Student-centred – taking into consideration students’

existing ability and preferences

Motivating and confidence-building

Engaging learners in self-reflection and metacognitive

skills development

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Strategy 3: Offer descriptive feedback during the

learning process (enabling strategy)

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Strategy 4: Teach students to self-assess and set goals for the next steps (destination)

(1) Formulating directions for redrafting or rewriting

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Strategy 4: Teach students to self-assess and set goals for the next steps (destination)

(2) Setting goals for tracking progress in writing skills

development in a set period of time (e.g. a term)

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Strategy 5: Use evidence of student learning to determine next steps in teaching (floaters)

Strategy 6: Design focused instruction, followed by practice with feedback (floaters)

(1) Explicit strategy instruction

(2) Focused correction/rewriting for focused feedback

How to get there

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Examples

Problems identified in the task on “50 hours of compulsory community service”:

Too much copying of the question in the introduction

Weak and limited arguments

Lack of supporting evidence and elaboration

Boring or abrupt ending

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(1) Explicit strategy instruction

(2) Focused correction / rewriting for focused feedback

Rewriting the Introduction Re-writing 1 body paragraph Rewriting the conclusion

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(2) Focused correction / rewriting for focused feedback Effective (High-impact / lasting-effect) Writing Correction

Quality over quantity

(selective and focused, first things first, less is more)

Going beyond accuracy

(error / sentence / paragraph level correction)

Fostering learner awareness, independence and ownership

Allowing choice

Involving students in the thinking process

Encouraging inquiry / further exploration

Providing evidence for self-review and monitoring

For example, in the sample student writing on 50 hours of community service

correcting a few errors/slips (i.e. “insist”, “homeworks”, “theirself”)

rewriting 2 problematic sentences (i.e. “mindset/intention”, “deprive”)

rewriting the weakest paragraph (opening/ 3rd argument)

 individualised (learner-centred) to deepen learning

 economical version of process-writing (less time-consuming with lasting effects)

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(1) Explicit strategy instruction

Example: Writing short stories opening Hands-on practice

2018 HKDSE English Language Paper 2 Question 9

Learning English through Short Stories

Imagine you are a pet bird in a cage. One day your owner left your bird cage open.

Write a story from the bird’s point of view.

How to get there

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Strategy 7: Engage students in self-reflection and provide

opportunities for students to track and share learning progress

Self perception of Writing Habit and Competence

Tracking Progress on Goal Attainment

Reflection on Progress over Time and the Way Forward

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Establish the success criteria with learners and present them in a student friendly

language

Offer advice when learners set goal, and formulate plans to improve writing

Guide students to analyse the writing topic and task requirement

Promoting AfL and AaL in Writing

Teacher’s role

Provide focused feedback to help learners understand their strengths and weaknesses

Plan the writing curriculum carefully to provide opportunities for learners to practise, recycle and consolidate writing skills learned over time

Teach writing skills / strategies explicitly and adopt effective correction practices

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Part 4: Consolidation

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Shifting the Weight and Balance

Traditional Assessment Model:

AoL > AfL > AsL

Reconfigured Assessment Model:

AsL> AfL > AoL

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Shifts in Assessment

From assessing to learn what students do not know

From using results to calculate grades

From end-of-term assessments by teachers

From judgmental feedback that may harm student

motivation

To assessing to learn what students understand

To using results to inform instruction To students

engaged in ongoing assessment of their work

To descriptive feedback that empowers and motivates students

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References

Alderson, J.C. (2000). Assessing reading. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Black & Wiliam (1998). Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy and Practice, Vol 5, Issue 1

Booth, D., & Swartz, L. (2004). Literacy techniques: Building successful readers and writers (2nd ed.).

Ontario, Canada: Pembroke Publishers Limited.

Han, Z. H. (2001) Fine-tuning corrective feedback. Foreign Language Annals, 34, pp.582-95.

Chappuis, J. (2009). Seven Strategies of Assessment for Learning. Assessment Training Institute, Inc Series, Allyn & Bacon.

Chappuis, J. (2017). Seven Strategies of Assessment for Learning: An Overview

http://www.sdcoe.net/lls/assessment/Documents/Continuous%20Learning/Seven%20Strategies%20Ch appuis%202017.pdf

Daily Teaching Tools: https://www.dailyteachingtools.com/free-graphic-organizers.html Fix-up Strategies- Repairing Comprehension: https://thisreadingmama.com/

Hattie, J. (2009). Visible Learning A Synthesis of over 800 Meta-analyses Relating to Achievement.

Taylor & Francis Group

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Harlen, W., & James. (1997). Assessment and learning: Differences and relationships between

formative and summative assessment. Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practices, Vol 4, Issue 3

Increasing Reading Engagement: How to Use self-Directed Reading in Your Lesson Plans

http://lessonplanspage.com/increase-reading-engagement-how-to-use-self-directed-reading-in- your-lesson-plans/

Lorna, M.L. (2003). Assessment As Learning: Using Classroom Assessment to Maximize Student Learning. Crown Press, Inc.

Stiggins, R. (2007). Assessment for learning: an essential foundation of productive instruction. In Douglas Reeves (ed.), Ahead of the curve. Bloominton, IN: Solution Tree

The Learning Progression Framework for English Language Source: http://www.edb.gov.hk/LPFenglish

Zhang, L. (2001). Awareness in reading: EFL students’ metacognitive knowledge of reading strategies in an acquisition-poor environment. Language Awareness, 10 (4), 268-288

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THANK YOU

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