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Section 3: Assessment Section 2: Teaching Reading and Writing Section 1: The Programme Contents

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© NET Section, CDI, EDB, HKSAR Contents

Contents

Page

Section 1: The Programme

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Rationale 2

1.3 Aims 2

1.4 Objectives 2

1.5 Links to EDB Curriculum Documents 3

1.6 Overview 3

1.7 Roles and Responsibilities of Stakeholders 11

Section 2: Teaching Reading and Writing

2.1 Introduction 14

2.2 Reading 14

2.3 The Process of Reading 15

2.4 Teaching Reading 17

2.5 Writing 21

2.6 The Process of Writing 22

2.7 Teaching Writing 28

2.8 Questioning 32

Section 3: Assessment

3.1 Introduction 34

3.2 The Reading and Writing Skills Frameworks 34

3.3 Formative Assessment in the Hong Kong Curriculum 35

3.4 Assessment in the Units of Work 39

3.5 Collecting Information – Using Assessment Techniques 40

3.6 Matching Students to Book Levels 40

3.7 Recording Assessment Information – Group Unit Checklists 41 3.8 Recording Assessment Information – Reading and Writing Skills Profiles 41

3.9 Analysing Assessment Information 42

3.10 Marking 43

3.11 Using Reading and Writing Portfolios 43

3.12 Assessment for Guided Reading 44

3.13 Reading Indicators 45

3.14 Assessment for Guided Writing 46

3.15 Writing Indicators 46

3.16 Reporting 47

3.17 Reading Skills Framework and Profiles 48

3.18 Writing Skills Framework and Profiles 50

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© NET Section, CDI, EDB, HKSAR Contents

4.1 Introduction 61

4.2 Routines 61

4.3 Getting to Know Each Other 62

4.4 A Positive and Supportive Climate 62

4.5 Management Systems 62

4.6 Collaborative Planning and Teaching 64

Section 5: Environment

5.1 Introduction 66

5.2 The English Room and Classrooms 66

5.3 The Whole School 67

Section 6: Units of Work

6.1 Introduction 69

6.2 Learning and Teaching Scope and Sequence 69

6.3 Hear We Go – Phonological Awareness Units 69

6.4 Setting Up Stage Units of Work Overview 71

6.5 Implementation Stage Units of Work Overview 72 6.6 The Four Component Exit Descriptors for Each Stage 74 6.7 P1 Units of Work: Learning and Teaching Scope and Sequence 79 6.8 P2 Units of Work: Learning and Teaching Scope and Sequence 83 6.9 P3 Units of Work: Learning and Teaching Scope and Sequence 87

6.10 P1, P2 and P3 Reading and Writing Skills 91

6.11 P1, P2 and P3 Language Items 98

Section 7: Integration Stage

7.1 Introduction 107

7.2 Integration of the PLP-R/W (KS1) and the GE Programme 107 7.3 Integrating the Teaching of Literacy/Language Skills 108

7.4 Creating Curriculum Space 108

Section 8: Books

8.1 Introduction 110

8.2 Big Books and Small Books 110

8.3 Letter and Sound Books 111

8.4 P1 Books: Learning and Teaching Scope and Sequence 112 8.5 P2 Books: Learning and Teaching Scope and Sequence 114 8.6 P3 Books: Learning and Teaching Scope and Sequence 118

8.7 Selecting Books or Other Texts 126

8.8 Matching Students to Book Levels 127

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© NET Section, CDI, EDB, HKSAR Contents

Section 9: Home Reading Programme

9.1 Introduction 130

9.2 Objectives 130

9.3 Materials 130

9.4 Roles and Responsibilities 132

9.5 Procedure for Borrowing Books 134

9.6 Information for Parents 134

Section 10: Parent Support

10.1 Introduction 141

10.2 At Home 141

10.3 At School 143

Section 11: Independence Stage

11.1 Introduction 144

11.2 Adapting a Unit of Work 144

11.3 Developing Own Units of Work 144

11.4 Developing School-based Curriculum 145

11.5 Curriculum Overviews 149

Section 12: Professional Development

12.1 Introduction 155

12.2 Professional Development Programme and Resources 155

References

158

Glossary

161

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© NET Section, CDI, EDB, HKSAR 1 Section 1: The Programme

Section 1: The Programme

1.1 Introduction

Curriculum Reform 2004

In 2004, the revised English Language Curriculum Guide (ELCG) was launched. As part of the curriculum reform it was suggested that the school-based English programmes should include a 40% Reading Workshop component.

NET Section and Primary Literacy Programme – Reading (Key Stage 1)

The Native-speaking English Teacher (NET) Section supported the curriculum reform through the development of the pilot Primary Literacy Programme – Reading (Key Stage 1) [PLP-R (KS1)]. The pilot PLP-R was launched in 104 schools in 2004 and 67 schools in 2006. This Programme aims to facilitate the professional development of the English teachers and improve the literacy levels of the students.

An evaluation of the Programme occurred during the first two years. After two years a major review occurred, which has resulted in the production of revised teaching, learning and professional development materials.

A Balanced Literacy Programme

The ELCG (2004) reiterates that learners should be given real-world tasks that reflect the integration of all language skills.

According to Milne (2005) reading and writing have an equal importance in a balanced literacy programme. Smith and Elley (1997) reiterates that reading and writing are two subheadings for literacy and that the “reciprocal interaction” between these two language skills is beneficial to both. “In a balanced language programme, writing plays a key role in helping a child match symbol with sound. Writing is a sequential process…writers must record every letter. Reading is not such a linear process…rather a series of jumps with many regressions.”

Fountas and Pinnell (1997) confirm “when students are learning how to think about text as readers, they are also learning how to notice and use the craft of writing.”

Learning Media, Reading for Life (1997) suggests that “reading goes hand in hand with writing, and teachers should make this link clear to learners.”

The Primary Literacy Programme – Reading/Writing (KS1) [PLP-R/W (KS1)] was produced by the Advisory Teaching Team (ATT), Native-speaking English Section (NET), Education Bureau (EDB). It provides direction and guidance for the teaching of literacy with a focus on reading and writing, as well as the tools necessary for the assessment of student needs and the knowledge of how they read and write. It advocates setting up supportive language-rich whole school and classroom environments and establishing classroom and resource management systems. It promotes the use, by teachers, of the five reading teaching strategies: Storytelling, Reading Aloud, Shared Reading, Guided Reading and Independent Reading; and the two writing teaching strategies: Shared Writing and Process Writing.

One of the major objectives of the Programme is to develop a holistic approach to English across the PLP-R/W and the General English lessons. To support the teachers in this approach, resources that link the PLP-R/W units to the G E materials are provided. This Integration Support Package includes schemes of work, lesson plans and activity sheets, which could be used in the GE lessons.

This Teacher Manual explains how the Programme should be implemented. The units of work, big books, small books and letter books, Home Reading Booklet, My

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© NET Section, CDI, EDB, HKSAR 2 Section 1: The Programme

support this implementation. These programme materials are introduced to teachers through a series of professional development workshops.

1.2 Rationale

Children in their early years of school are developing literacy in their first language.

They need explicit and systematic teaching to ensure that this development occurs.

This also applies to children learning literacy in their second language. Learning to read only happens once. Therefore, children’s understanding of concepts of print, which they have developed in their first language, should contribute to their reading development in their second language. They do, however, still need to adapt to a new set of sound/symbol correspondences, and for Hong Kong children, a new script, punctuation and directionality when they read in English. The teaching of writing enhances oral development and reinforces the language structures and vocabulary that learners acquire in reading. Therefore, an English as a second language literacy programme, is essential to ensure that Hong Kong children do learn these new skills and strategies.

Reading and writing are fundamental to learning a language. Children’s language acquisition will be enhanced when they are immersed in a literacy programme.

1.3 Aims

To provide professional development for key stakeholders and to foster the English language proficiency of students through a sustainable literacy programme with a focus on reading and writing.

1.4 Objectives

• Promote the use of innovative and appropriate learning and teaching practices and methods to support the learning of reading and writing in English

• Foster students’ independence and motivation in reading and writing

• Promote the use of appropriate English resources for the learning and teaching of reading and writing in English

• Promote the interrelationship between planning and assessment in the process of teaching reading and writing

• Foster teachers’ understanding of formative assessment as the practice of continuously looking for specific information to inform learning and teaching

• Provide directions and guidance for setting up, implementing and maintaining classroom routines and management systems

• Promote and support the creation and management of an environment that will encourage students to learn to read and write in English

• Support the development of school-based English literacy programmes

• Promote the involvement of parents in achieving the objectives of the PLP- R/W(KS1)

• Involve all relevant stakeholders, including Principals, Primary School Master/Mistress Curriculum Development (PSMCD), sponsoring bodies and EDB personnel, in the achievement of the objectives of the PLP-R/W (KS1)

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© NET Section, CDI, EDB, HKSAR 3 Section 1: The Programme

1.5 Links to EDB Curriculum Documents

The Programme incorporates key elements of the EDB’s curriculum document, English Language Curriculum Guide (Primary 1-6) [ELCG] 2004.

The ELCG recommends programming a Reading Workshop component for 40% of the School-based English Language Programme. The PLP-R/W (KS1) supports the development and implementation of a school’s Reading Workshop component as well as writing as part of the school’s English Language Programme. The PLP-R/W (KS1) requires schools to allocate 50% of their English lesson time for the Programme. Schools are also expected to integrate the PLP-R/W (KS1) within their GE Programme.

Components of a School-based English Language Curriculum

1.6 Overview

The diagram below provides a synopsis of how all the elements of the Programme fit together. At the heart of the Programme is the child’s Reading, Writing and English Language development. The Programme consists of four Components, which are:

Teaching Reading and Writing, Assessment, Classroom Management and Whole- school and Classroom Environment. The implementation of the Programme must be supported by commitment from and collaboration between all the stakeholders as well as the school-home connection. The Progamme incorporates recommendations provided by the ELCG. Its implementation is supported by professional development sessions for stakeholders and the provision of the PLP-R/W resources for schools.

English Language KLA Curriculum Guide Draft Nov 2003, CDI, p.90

General English Programme

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© NET Section, CDI, EDB, HKSAR 4 Section 1: The Programme

Stages and Suggested Three-year Timeline Assessment

Teaching Reading and

Writing

Classroom Management

Whole-school and Classroom Environment

Reading and Writing Language

Skills

Commitment of Stakeholders Collaboration between Stakeholders

Professional

Development EDB Curriculum

Documents

Parent Support Resources

Optional: Year 4

~ Develop own unit using commercial book

Setting Up – Year 1

~ Focus on Shared Reading and Shared Writing

Implementation – Year 2

~ Focus on Guided Reading (GR) and Guided Writing (GW)

Independence – Year 3

~ Optional unit adaptation

~ Option of developing own unit

Integration

Integrating R/W and GE lessons, using the ELCG and applying the GE themes and language

structures

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© NET Section, CDI, EDB, HKSAR 5 Section 1: The Programme

Setting Up Stage

This Stage supports the setting up of whole-school and classroom environments, classroom management routines and systems, assessment routines and the use of teaching strategies, especially Storytelling, Reading Aloud, Independent Reading, Shared Reading and Shared Writing. The students are introduced to two of the four stages of writing, copying and controlled. The Home Reading Programme is also introduced. Teachers may decide to adapt different aspects of the Programme to cater for student and school needs.

Implementation Stage

The Implementation Stage provides guidance for the establishment of the teaching strategies including the introduction of Guided Reading and Guided Writing, Process Writing and Independent Writing. The students are introduced to the remaining two stages of writing, guided and independent. During this Stage formative and summative assessment strategies are established as integral parts of the teaching and learning process. In particular they help with the formation of ability groups for Guided Reading and Guided Writing.

Integration Stage

The Integration Stage is the phase in which PLP-R/W (KS1) learning and teaching content and strategies are applied in other GE lessons. This is the main focus of the PLP-R/W and happens continually during the Setting Up, Implementation and Independence Stages.

Independence Stage

The Independence Stage is the phase in which teachers adapt and plan their own units of work.

Progression through the Stages will vary according to the school, teacher and/or student readiness.

Components

The four Components are:

• Teaching Reading and Writing

• Assessment

• Classroom Management

• Whole-school and Classroom Environment.

Classroom Management Programme Components

Teaching of Reading and

Writing

Assessment

Whole-school and Classroom Environment

Primary

Literacy

Programme

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© NET Section, CDI, EDB, HKSAR 6 Section 1: The Programme

Exit Descriptors have been developed for each of the Components. They provide guidelines for the learning and teaching and organisational content of the PLP-R/W (KS1) (see Section 6).

The Programme provides directions and support for setting up and establishing the Components and developing and maintaining them.

Materials

The Programme provides the teacher with a selection of materials, which will further develop the learning and teaching in the classroom. The materials include:

• Teacher Manual – providing pertinent information for the teacher to implement the Programme in the school

• Books (big books, small books and letter books) – introduce and reinforce the taught language structures, phonics, high frequency and content words

• Unit of work, Hear We Go, for use before the Setting Up units (P1) to help develop phonological awareness and establish classroom routines

• Unit of work, Hear We Go, for use before the Implementation units (P2) to further develop phonological awareness

• Unit of work, Hear We Go, for use before the Implementation units (P3) to further develop phonological awareness

• Units of work – providing direction and guidance for classroom environment, classroom management and routines, assessment and integration with the GE lessons and implementing the teaching of reading and writing

• Resources – providing video clips, song CDs, posters, worksheets, writing activity sheets, photos, information, exemplars and My First Dictionary, portfolio pages, PD workshops

• Integration Support Package – providing lesson plans and worksheets to support teachers with integrating the PLP-R/W with GE lessons

• Home Reading Booklet – used by the students and parents for recording books read and for making comments and responses to books.

Programme Materials

Professional Development Units of Work Books

Resources

Teacher Manual

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© NET Section, CDI, EDB, HKSAR 7 Section 1: The Programme

Units of Work

Units of work have been developed to provide direction and support for teachers as they work their way through the Setting Up, Implementation and Independence Stages. Each unit of work is based around a book and consists of eight literacy sessions, four sessions for reading and four for writing. Each unit of work provides opportunities for students to develop reading and writing skills and strategies. There is a learning and teaching developmental sequence to the units of work. Advice is given in Section 6 about this sequence.

The Reading and Writing Skills Frameworks (see below and Section 3) underpin the planning of the learning, teaching and assessment of reading and writing.

The Hear We Go Units of Work are for P1, P2 and P3 students, at the beginning of the year, to help develop the students’ phonological awareness and the classroom routines they will follow during the subsequent units.

Teachers can adapt a unit of work depending on student and school needs but there are criteria that need to be considered (see Section 6) before decisions are made.

Integration of the reading and writing with the GE lessons is essential but this will need to be collaboratively planned with all teachers involved in the PLP-R/W (KS1).

Textbook adaptation – PLP-R/W’s resources (e.g. big books, small books) are closely linked to the grammar items and structures that are recommended in the ELCG. Similar grammar items and structures will also be covered in the textbooks. In order to facilitate learning and teaching and to ensure effective teaching of the grammar items and structures listed in the ELCG, textbook adaptation must be done systematically. Teachers are supported with integration through professional development and the Integration Support Package.

The unit of work framework is to be used when teachers are ready for developing school-based units of work as part of the Independence Stage.

Reading and Writing Skills Frameworks

The Reading and Writing Skills Frameworks provide descriptions of Reading and Writing Skills that are based on those from the ELCG. There are three levels: I, II, III.

The learning and teaching in the units of work provides opportunities for students to work towards the development of the Level I, II and III Reading and Writing Skills.

The units of work also provide opportunities for teachers to assess the students’

progress towards the development of these Reading and Writing Skills.

Teaching Team

The teaching team consists of the local English teacher (LET), the native-speaking English teacher (NET) and the classroom assistant (CA).

The roles of the team will vary depending on the teaching of reading or writing strategies, the groupings of the students, the literacy session section and the needs of the students. All members of the teaching team need to teach and plan collaboratively.

The team will need the support of other stakeholders, which includes the principal, PSMCD, English panel chair (EPC), parents and other teachers.

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© NET Section, CDI, EDB, HKSAR 8 Section 1: The Programme

The literacy sessions in the units of work have been designed to be approximately 60 minutes (equal to two 35 minute lessons) each for reading and writing. Schools may need to make adjustments if the timetabled literacy session is less than 60 minutes.

During the literacy sessions, the students will participate in whole class, large group, small group and individual activities.

Shared Reading Sessions

The Setting Up Stage sections for Reading are:

• Before the Reading: Whole class – approximately 15 minutes – introducing the lesson objectives, revisiting previous learning, high frequency words, phonics, songs, rhymes and chants

• Reading the Text: Whole class – approximately 15 minutes – Reading the Text, or Storytelling

• After the Reading: Whole class and group work – approximately 30 minutes – After the Reading/After the Storytelling activities and Independent Reading, Concluding the Session

A typical Setting Up Stage Unit of Work Reading Session consists of:

• Before the Reading: The NET or LET starts the Session with a song or rhyme with the students grouped as a whole class at the front of the classroom. The NET and LET co-teach this section and the CA helps to monitor and support the students.

• Reading the Text: The NET and LET co-teach the reading activities and the CA helps monitor and support the students

• After the Reading: With the students seated in three/four groups, the teaching team alternates between them, supporting, guiding, assessing and providing feedback. The activities the students engage in, and duration, will depend on the number, size and composition of these groups and the number of staff members in the classroom. The CA monitors and supports the other groups that are not with a teacher. The students complete the reading activities and Independent Reading. The CA organises the borrowing of books for the students to take home. When concluding the session, the NET and LET end the session as a whole class usually with Reading Aloud, sharing of work or singing a song or rhyme. The CA helps to monitor and support the students.

Time Allocation of a Shared Reading Session (60 minutes)

15

15 30

Before the Reading Reading the Text

After the Reading

Group Whole

class

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© NET Section, CDI, EDB, HKSAR 9 Section 1: The Programme

Shared Writing Sessions

The Setting Up Stage sections for Writing are:

• Introduction: Whole class – approximately 10 minutes – introducing the lesson objectives, revisiting previous learning, high frequency words, phonics, songs, rhymes and chants

• Before the Writing: Whole class – approximately 10 minutes – Shared Reading

• Shared Writing: Whole class – approximately 30 minutes, OR

• Shared Writing and Independent Writing: Whole class and group work – approximately 30 minutes, OR

• Independent Writing: Whole class – approximately 30 minutes

• Conclusion: Whole class – approximately 10 minutes

A typical Setting Up Stage Unit of Work Writing Session consists of:

• Introduction: The NET or LET starts the Session with a song or rhyme with the students grouped as a whole class at the front of the classroom. The NET and LET co-teach this section and the CA helps to monitor and support the students.

• Before the Writing: The NET and LET co-teach the writing activities and the CA helps monitor and support the students

• Shared Writing: The NET and LET co-teach the writing activities and the CA helps monitor and support the students, OR

• Independent Writing: With the students seated in four groups, the teaching team alternates between them, supporting, guiding, assessing, conferencing and providing feedback. The activities the students engage in, and the duration, will depend on the number, size and composition of these groups and the number of staff members in the classroom. The CA monitors and supports the other groups that are not with a teacher. The students complete the writing activities.

• Conclusion: The NET, LET and CA sit with one/two groups and read the home readers.

Time Allocation of a Shared Writing Session (60 minutes)

10

10

15 15

10 Introduction

Before the Writing

Shared Writing

Independent Writing Conclusion

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© NET Section, CDI, EDB, HKSAR 10 Section 1: The Programme

The literacy sessions in the Implementation Stage units of work 7 to 12, in Weeks 2 and 4, have Before the Guided Reading section as a whole class activity. For the During Guided Reading section, the students work in ability groups for Guided Reading and related activities. Then in the After Guided Reading section, the students come back together as a whole class.

Guided Writing Sessions

In the Implementation Stage units of work 10, 11 and 12 (P2), it is suggested that schools trial Guided Writing. Week 4 of the units of work 13 to 18 (P3) have Before the Guided Writing section as a whole class activity. For the During Guided Writing section, the students work in ability groups for Guided Writing and related activities.

Then in the After Guided Writing section, the students come back together as a whole class.

Time Allocation of a Guided Reading Session (60 minutes)

10

40 10

Before Guided Reading

During Guided Reading

After Guided Reading

Whole class

Group

Time Allocation of a Guided Writing Session (60 minutes)

10

40 10

Before Guided Writing

During Guided Writing

After Guided Writing

Whole class

Group

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© NET Section, CDI, EDB, HKSAR 11 Section 1: The Programme

It is important that these sections occur in the sequence listed above. However, the duration of each section will depend on the needs of the students and may vary from week to week and over time.

The learning and teaching in the literacy sessions in the Implementation Stage units of work include all the sections.

1.7 Roles and Responsibilities of Stakeholders

The PLP-R/W (KS1) requires a collaborative team approach. Team members each have specific roles and responsibilities. To facilitate the effective implementation of the Programme, it is recommended that:

• Principal

− Supports and promotes the Programme in the school

− Adopts a positive attitude towards change and innovative practice in English language learning and teaching and assessment in the school

− Balances teachers’ workload to facilitate effective planning, teaching and professional development

− Provides weekly planning time

− Appoints a senior teacher as co-coordinator of the Programme

− Selects local teachers who are enthusiastic and prepared to carry the Programme for more than one year

− Provides a classroom assistant

− Provides an English Room

− Ensures that parents are informed about the Programme

− Supports school-based curriculum development, e.g. integrating the PLP- R/W with the GE lessons through textbook adaptation

• English Panel Chair (EPC)

− Supports and promotes the Programme in the school

− Liaises with other teachers

− Is involved in the planning of the Programme

− Supports innovative practice and change

− Is involved in teaching in the Programme where practical

− Supports school-based curriculum development, e.g. integrating the PLP- R/W with the GE lessons through textbook adaptation

• Primary School Mistress/Master for Curriculum Development (PSMCD)

− Is familiar with content and progress of the Programme

− Makes cross-curricular links and supports collaboration between all teachers

− Supports and promotes skills and strategies from the Programme in other curriculum areas

• Advisory Teacher (AT)

− Works collaboratively with members of the Advisory Teaching Team (ATT) and English teachers to facilitate the Programme in schools

− Supports the use and development of effective resources

− Provides curriculum support to staff involved

− Supports staff development programmes

− Provides classroom support

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© NET Section, CDI, EDB, HKSAR 12 Section 1: The Programme

− Works collaboratively with members of the ATT and English teachers to facilitate the Programme in schools

− Promotes and supports the Programme and the development of literacy in the school

− Engages and participates in co-planning and co-teaching

− Works with the NET to disseminate innovative/effective teaching methods and curriculum resources among the teachers

− Supports the development of curriculum materials

− Implements good teaching and learning strategies/activities

− Works collaboratively on school-based curriculum development, e.g.

integrating the PLP-R/W with the GE lessons through textbook adaptation

− Attends professional development sessions

− Explains the Programme to parents in informal settings

• Native-speaking English Teacher (NET)

− Promotes and supports the Programme and the development of literacy in the school

− Engages and participates in co-planning and co-teaching

− Disseminates innovative/effective teaching methods and curriculum resources among the teachers

− Undertakes the development and implementation of good teaching strategies/activities and curriculum materials

− Works collaboratively on school-based curriculum development, e.g.

integrating the PLP-R/W with the GE lessons through textbook adaptation

− Attends professional development sessions

− Provides support for the English panel through school-based professional development sessions

− Develops an effective bank of resources which includes lesson plans and teaching materials

• Co-ordinator

− Promotes and supports the Programme and the development of literacy in the school

− Informs the principal of progress

− Liaises with the ATT

− Facilitates effective implementation of the Programme

− Co-ordinates management of resources

− Also carries out the PNET Scheme SET duties

− Engages and participates in co-planning and co-teaching

• Librarian

− Promotes and supports the Programme and the development of literacy in the school

− Suggests and promotes quality English reading resources throughout the school

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© NET Section, CDI, EDB, HKSAR 13 Section 1: The Programme

• Classroom Assistant (CA)

− Assists in establishing the English, whole-school and classroom environment

− Supports teachers in the classroom, e.g. works with small groups

− Maintains resources

− Is involved in briefing as necessary

− Attends professional development sessions

− Assists in the setting up and the maintaining of the Home Reading Programme

• Parents/Guardians

− Support the Programme

− Provide home support where possible and appropriate

− Acknowledge, encourage and support children’s efforts in reading and writing

− Attend school-based information sessions related to the Programme

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© NET Section, CDI, EDB, HKSAR 14 Section 2: Teaching Reading and Writing

Section 2: Teaching Reading and Writing

2.1 Introduction

During the first years of school, the foundations of literacy are established. The skills and competencies that students acquire at this stage will “serve them throughout their lifetime” (Fountas & Pinnell, 2001, p.2).

Teachers’ practices and expectations are a vital part of this process as their vision for the students’ achievement affects what they, the students, will become as readers and writers. As teachers, the objectives should be that they not only “…learn to read and write but also to learn the many purposes of reading and writing.” Literacy should be an integral part of their lives (Fountas & Pinnell, 2001, p.2).

PLP-R/W is a literacy programme in which reading and writing are integrated and taught holistically. In this section, the teaching practices for reading and writing for the PLP-R/W will be described in detail.

People develop their own literacy practices in order to communicate through listening, speaking, reading and writing. They draw upon these literacy practices in their first language to help them acquire literacy in their second language. These practices are influenced by experiences:

• prior to school

• at school

• at home

• within their community.

They are also influenced by the:

• cultural background

• second language opportunities outside the classroom

• attitude to literacy, especially reading.

The PLP-R/W (KS1) acknowledges and values each student’s first language literacy practices and influences and builds on these through the suggested learning and teaching in the units of work. Teachers, when planning curricula, need to consider the influence of the literacy practices their students use in their first language, e.g.

directionality, reading environment at home.

2.2 Reading

Reading helps to develop thinking skills, enriches knowledge, enhances language proficiency and broadens life experience. Emphasis has to be placed on motivating learners and providing them with proper guidance and opportunity to enhance their learning capacity through reading.

Language teachers can help promote reading through encouraging students to read a wide range of materials with different subject content and text types. Teachers should select or develop appropriate tasks or activities based on the reading, in which learners find meaning and pleasure, so that they will learn to appreciate the value of reading and become motivated to make reading a lifelong habit.

Reading should be promoted in schools and integrated into regular English language lessons with the other skills of listening, speaking and writing. It should also be promoted across all KLAs and in the whole-school curriculum. Further, schools should help learners develop the habit of reading by encouraging them to read outside class time, such as during morning assembly, recess and after school

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© NET Section, CDI, EDB, HKSAR 15 Section 2: Teaching Reading and Writing

Guide (P.1-S3), 2002).

“Learning to read in a first language...is critical to success in learning to read in a second language” (Braunger & Lewis, 1998, p.23).

Research findings include the following:

• Many oral language experiences in both languages are critical – these include conversations and reading aloud (i.e. reading to)

• Print-rich environment is important to success in learning both languages

• Authentic opportunities to read and write in both languages should be available in the classroom

• Mastery of English vocabulary is a key determinant of reading comprehension when English is the second language

• When learners are allowed to transfer their reading skills from their first language to the second language, their confidence is supported.

(L.I.F.T. Literacy Instruction for Teachers. Learning Media New Zealand. 2003) A widely held belief, supported by many researchers, is that reading activity leads to many other cumulative advantages. Good readers have many more opportunities to accumulate extensive vocabularies, which in turn, assist them to read more, learn more word meanings, and thereby read even better. Poorer readers, on the other hand, who may read slowly and without enjoyment, read less, resulting in slower vocabulary development, which may discourage further reading growth (Ng, 2000).

“Learning to read is no longer sufficient for preparing students for a knowledge-based and life-long learning society. They have to be equipped with the skills of ‘Reading to Learn’. Possession of these skills enhances students’ overall learning capacity for life-long learning and whole-person development.” (Basic Education Curriculum Guide, 2002, 3B Reading to Learn p.1)

2.3 The Process of Reading

The PLP-R/W (KS1) provides the framework and support for the teaching of the process of reading and writing. Reading involves the development of reading skills and attitudes to help the students ‘read with understanding’ (English Language Education KLA Curriculum Guide (P1-S3), 2002, p. 93).

In order to develop these skills and attitudes, young readers need to be taught to use reading strategies, draw on their developing literacy practices and learn to take on various roles, or ways of interacting with a text.

Reading Skills

The PLP-R/W (KS1) provides opportunities for students to develop literacy skills with a focus on reading and writing skills.

The reading skills are:

• Understanding the basic conventions of written English

• Constructing meaning from texts

• Locating information and ideas.

(ELCG, 2004, pp.69-70) In the process of developing reading skills, learners from an early stage acquire, develop and apply:

• knowledge of the use of written symbols

• knowledge of letter-sound relationships

• skills of word recognition

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© NET Section, CDI, EDB, HKSAR 16 Section 2: Teaching Reading and Writing

• grammar knowledge

• skills in contextual understanding.

“Successful integration of reading skills into the English Language curriculum will help young learners develop a positive attitude towards learning to read and reading to learn” (ELCG, 2004, p.A27).

Reading Strategies

The PLP-R/W (KS1) provides opportunities for students to learn and practise reading strategies that will help them to “scan texts, sound out letters, analyse structures and interpret the sentences into meaningful messages” (ELCG, 2004, p.A28).

These are:

• Semantic strategies – finding out about meanings, e.g. word meanings, common expressions, picture cues

• Syntactic strategies – finding out about language structures, e.g. sentence structure, word order, text organisation

• Graphophonic strategies – finding out about:

− the sounds of language, e.g. rhyme, alliteration, onset and rime, individual sounds

− the relationships between sounds and letters and about combining sounds (blending), e.g. differences between letter sounds and letter names, alphabetic principle, analogy and letter clusters

− language in print, e.g. letter and word shapes, letter clusters, sight words, punctuation, layout

The following diagram from the ELCG (2004) shows the interrelationship between the three reading strategies.

(ELCG, 2004, p.A28) Vocabulary

Vocabulary development refers to the development of knowledge of stored information about the meanings and pronunciations of words necessary for communication. It is important for emergent reading because when a student comes to a word and sounds it out, he/she is also determining if the word makes sense based on his/her understanding of the word. If a student does not know the meaning

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© NET Section, CDI, EDB, HKSAR 17 Section 2: Teaching Reading and Writing

sentence.

When formal reading instruction begins, a limited vocabulary may impede the student’s ability to read fluently with meaning. Language learning experiences, which are purposeful, meaningful, challenging, contextually rich and age appropriate should be developed to build the English vocabularies of students.

The PLP-R/W (KS1) includes opportunities for the explicit learning and teaching of vocabulary.

2.4 Teaching Reading

Teachers can use different teaching strategies to help students develop and practise their reading skills and attitudes through the use of reading strategies and by taking on different reading roles.

The PLP-R/W (KS1) through the units of work incorporates the use of the teaching strategies listed below. Their use provides for the diverse needs of all students and even though there is a focus on reading, they also allow for the learning and teaching of the other literacy skills – listening, speaking and writing.

Teaching Strategies

• Reading Aloud involves the teacher reading aloud a text and demonstrating a positive attitude to reading, reading behaviour and book orientation.

Students are provided with opportunities to enjoy a variety of texts and to engage with the text afterwards through activities, such as discussion and mime.

• Storytelling involves the teacher telling a story with the use of pictures or real objects, e.g. puppets or storyboards, to support the students’ understanding of the content. Students are provided with opportunities to participate in the story and develop some listening and basic reading skills. After Storytelling activities can include retelling the story or role-play.

• Shared Reading involves teachers modelling, instructing and explaining reading skills and strategies through sharing the reading process with students. They read and reread the text, e.g. a big book or picture book, involving the students more and more with the reading. Students are provided with opportunities to learn and develop the skills, strategies and confidence needed to participate in Guided and Independent Reading as well as the Home Reading Programme. They complete After Reading activities either as a whole class, in groups or individually.

• Guided Reading involves teachers working with individual students or small groups of students with similar learning needs. Teachers provide opportunities for students to practise effective strategies they have been taught in Shared Reading sessions. Students read books at their Instructional Reading Level (Section 8).

• Independent Reading involves teachers providing uninterrupted time for students to practise and integrate skills and strategies they have learned in Shared and Guided Reading sessions as well as enjoy the reading experience. The students read books at their Independent Reading Level (Section 8).

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© NET Section, CDI, EDB, HKSAR 18 Section 2: Teaching Reading and Writing

• Home Reading involves teachers selecting books to be read at home with the guidance and encouragement of parents or guardians. The students will practise the strategies and skills they have learned during Shared and Guided Reading. The letter books revisit and consolidate the sounds taught in class while the small books revisit and consolidate the taught language structures.

Shared Reading

More detail about the use of Shared Reading is included here because it is this teaching strategy that provides a structure for most of the learning and teaching in the PLP-R/W (KS1) and an organisation for the use of the other teaching strategies.

It is important that the teacher reads the text more than once, using the subsequent readings to reinforce specific teaching points.

Why do we use Shared Reading?

Reading with learners:

• allows the teacher to act as the reader while actively involving children (modelling)

• is invaluable for those with little previous experience of books

• provides essential orientation for those whose first language is not English

• builds on children’s previous experiences of language and books

• draws attention to the conventions of print

• clearly demonstrates strategies such as one-to-one matching

• provides opportunities for teaching reading skills, including letter-sound relationships, i.e. phonics

• allows children to enjoy familiar patterns of language and to explore new ones.

(ELCG, 2004, p.A32) The Shared Reading approach supports English language learners by:

• Modelling the conventions of spoken English within an authentic context

• Enabling them to construct their own meaning from the illustrations and Shared Reading of the text

• Increasing their exposure to a wide variety of different text types and vocabulary

• Developing their awareness of visual and phonological information in English

• Providing a secure learning environment for them to join in and share a reading experience

• Developing positive attitudes towards learning to read in English.

(L.I.F.T. Literacy Instruction for Teachers. 2003. Learning Media New Zealand. p.69) The PLP-R/W (KS1) provides a learning and teaching sequence for the Shared Reading teaching strategy for reading and the activities to be included. This sequence is:

• Before the Reading

• Reading the Text

• After the Reading Before the Reading

During this part, teachers will familiarise the students with the cover of the book, find out about the students’ prior knowledge and experiences that relate to the book’s content and pre-teach relevant vocabulary that will help the students to understand the contents and read some of the text.

The following are some suggestions for the different focuses that teachers can take during Before the Reading and the sorts of ‘teacher talk’ they can use. The purpose of the ‘teacher talk’ is to engage the students with the new text and to model the ‘self- talk’ that proficient readers use.

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© NET Section, CDI, EDB, HKSAR 19 Section 2: Teaching Reading and Writing

1. Identifying the purpose of the book (the text type)

• Is this a story or an information book?

• Are these pictures or photographs?

• Who/what is on the cover?

• What can you see?

• What could the book be about?

• Is he/she happy/sad/angry? Why could this be?

2. Relating previous knowledge and experiences to the topic

• What/who is that?

• Where is that?

• When could this be happening?

• What is he/she doing?

• Where is he/she going?

• What noise does it make?

3. Establishing prior knowledge of vocabulary

• What is that?

• This is a _____?

4. Pointing out the title, author, illustrator, photographer

• I’m going to point to the title. Let’s read it together.

• Who is the author? Let’s read it together.

• Who is the illustrator? Let’s read it together.

5. Making predictions

• What could happen?

• What do you think this story is about?

6. Pre-teaching unknown vocabulary (that has picture cues on the cover)

• This word is ____________.

• Read it with me.

• Let’s sound it out.

7. Skimming the text

• Let’s go through the book quickly.

• What can you see in this picture?

• We know this word. What does it say?

• What do you think will happen next?

• We’ve seen this before, what was it?

Reading the Text

During this part the teacher can use the following activities to:

• focus students on specific teaching points

• make sure students are engaged with the book

• model how experienced readers read

• model how readers use different reading strategies.

1. In the first reading, the teacher leads the reading (using pointer) – modelling the fluency and expression

• I’ll read the text aloud. You read along with me silently.

2. In subsequent readings the teacher encourages students to join in

• Let’s read this together.

• This time we’ll read it together.

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© NET Section, CDI, EDB, HKSAR 20 Section 2: Teaching Reading and Writing

3. Modelling reading strategies

• What is this word?

• Let’s work it out.

• Did that make sense?

• Does it fit with the meaning/words that have gone before?

• Does this sound right?

• Would we say it like that?

• Does this look right?

• Do the sounds match the letters?

• What clues do the pictures give?

4. Interpreting responses

• Did you enjoy the story? Do you understand?

• Teachers need to observe and listen to student responses to identify any fluency and phrasing needs, their understanding and their motivation.

5. Emphasising teaching points that will help students develop reading skills. The following categories can be used to plan for this:

a) Layout

• What is this? How do we use it? What is its purpose? These are labels.

Labels are the names of parts of a picture.

b) Content

• What do we know/did we find out about _______? What was the story about? What will happen next?

c) Structure or organisation

• Who are the main characters? What is the setting? When does the story happen? How do we ____? What does the picture show?

d) Vocabulary

• What is this word? Can you find it again on this page?

e) Grammatical features

• What is the tense? What is this thinking verb? Can you find the adjective that describes the _____?

f) Letter and sounds

• What is that letter/sound?

g) Conventions of print

• What is this mark? What is it used for? How does it make us say this sentence? Where do we start to read?

After the Reading

After the Reading activities are whole class, group and individual work.

After the Reading activities can be:

• rereading the text while, e.g. asking questions, asking students to point out focus language and structures and matching word cards to text in the book

• completing activities, e.g. games, work sheets, writing activities, drawing pictures, completing cross-curricular activities (collage, learning a song, creating a drama performance) and role play.

After the Reading activities give students opportunities to develop their understanding about:

• the purpose of a text (the text type)

• how it has been written (structural and language features)

• what it means

• how they could use it

• what the author meant by writing it.

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© NET Section, CDI, EDB, HKSAR 21 Section 2: Teaching Reading and Writing

the reading of the text, e.g. layout, content, text type structure, vocabulary, grammar, letters and sounds, conventions of print.

Guided Reading

Guided Reading is introduced in the Implementation Stage of PLP-R/W (KS1).

Guided Reading is usually conducted in small groups with similar reading ability. The small group allows the teacher to encourage students to take control of their reading.

There are opportunities to help readers practise reading strategies, monitor their own reading, search for information, self correct and discover how to overcome challenges. There is a focus on promoting learning behaviours that will support students’ further learning, which is necessary for independent reading.

Teachers can:

• observe and evaluate the reading process in action

• give readers time to employ known strategies and skills, demonstrating how to look for and use available clues to understand the messages contained in text

• teach new reading strategies if appropriate.

Through the reading activities, students are introduced to language structures, vocabulary, reading skills and strategies. Through the writing activities, they develop, consolidate and practise these and learn to express themselves through written communication.

2.5 Writing

Writing is a complex process and teachers have a vital role in helping children, as they work through the challenges that allow them to become competent and confident writers (Pinnell and Fountas, 2000).

Through effective teaching of the writing process, children have the potential of becoming writers who:

• understand both the constraints and possibilities of written language conventions

• can organise and structure various kinds of texts

• understand that texts have multiple purposes and a range of audiences.

(Pinnell and Fountas, 2000) Communication through the medium of writing is a necessary part of everyday life (ELCG, 2004) and may be for personal, academic, commercial and other purposes and audiences. It is essential that students are given opportunities to learn and

A bridge to independence…

Guided Reading

Independent Reading Shared Reading

Reading Aloud Storytelling

To By With

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© NET Section, CDI, EDB, HKSAR 22 Section 2: Teaching Reading and Writing

practise the skills necessary to express their ideas clearly, accurately and in a form and format appropriate to the purpose and audience required.

Literacy teachers are in a position to create situations in which such learning takes place.

“Effective literacy teaching involves teaching children, not simply following a set program (sic)….It is about teaching …students to be good readers and writers of stories, informational pieces, and the extensive range of literacy processes that will be required of them in school and later in life.”

(Pinnell and Fountas, 1998, p.19) More details about the use of Shared Writing is included here because this teaching strategy provides a structure for most of the learning and teaching in the PLP-R/W (KS1) and a platform for the other teaching strategy – Process Writing.

In this section, the steps of Shared Writing are described, from the initial sharing of the writing of others, as a model and stimulus for students, to the revision and editing of students’ writing. During each of these steps, the teacher has a significant role, in interacting with the students and working as a partner in the evolution of their writing endeavours.

Research findings support the importance of this writing partnership and include the following ideas:

• Shared Writing demonstrates the links between spoken and written text as teachers use the children’s ideas to create a story (Milne, 2005; Pinnell and Fountas, 2000)

• children learn to see themselves as writers

• reading, talking and listening come together to create writing independence

• learner diversity is acknowledged and catered for

• there is a focus on children’s own language and knowledge. (Pinnell and Fountas, 2000, p. 237)

There should be an emphasis on the process of writing as well as the product. In the process of writing, students activate their knowledge, take in information, generate ideas, organise and reorganise ideas, and sometimes recreate meanings.

2.6 The Process of Writing

The PLP-R/W (KS1) provides the framework and support for the teaching of the process of writing. Writing involves the development of writing skills to help the students master the mechanics of writing and at the same time develop skills in writing with meaning.

Writing Skills The writing skills are:

• using the basic conventions of written English

• presenting information, ideas and feelings clearly and coherently.

(ELCG, 2004, pp. 69-70) Four Stages of Writing

The PLP-R/W (KS1) provides opportunities for students to learn and develop their writing skills through four stages.

These are:

Copying

• It is necessary to help students to acquire and apply concepts about basic conventions in writing and put language into use at an early stage of learning

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© NET Section, CDI, EDB, HKSAR 23 Section 2: Teaching Reading and Writing

across for a communicative purpose

• It need not be a mechanical and boring exercise.

Controlled Writing

• In controlled writing, students are given a limited choice in what language to use, and few errors are likely to occur

• Students can have some initial writing practice within a safe setting.

Guided Writing

• It provides explicit teaching through lessons focused on the specific needs of individuals and conferring with individuals within a small group

• Students are encouraged to use the language they know and to write for a range of purposes and audiences with substantial assistance from the teacher.

Independent Writing

• Students activate their linguistic knowledge in new contexts

• They make use of their creativity and express personal ideas and feelings

• They need to be assisted in getting started and in organising their ideas

• Guidance and language preparation are required for independent and free writing

• Teachers need to encourage students to take risks, to innovate and then to reflect on their work in order to improve it by themselves.

(ELCG, 2004, pp.153-154) Text types

• Different types of spoken or written texts have different purposes and are intended for different audiences

• Students should be introduced to the purpose and audience of the text as well as to its structure and language features

• Students need to be exposed to different examples of the same text type

• The knowledge and skills also enable them to produce texts of the same type when it is required.

(ELCG, 2004, p.158)

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© NET Section, CDI, EDB, HKSAR 24 Section 2: Teaching Reading and Writing

Overview of Text Types

DEFINITION EXAMPLES

(From the ELCG) PURPOSE STRUCTURE LANGUAGE

FEATURES

NARRATIVE

A narrative text tells an imaginative story, although some narratives may be based on facts.

Narratives are written in many different forms and each form has distinctive

characteristics.

A recount retells or recounts past

experiences. Recounts are generally based on the direct experiences of the author but may also be imaginative or outside the author’s experience. Young children often write recounts which follow directly from their ‘news telling’.

Πstories

Πfables and fairytales

Πmyths

Πpoems

Πrhymes

Πsongs

Πcartoons and comics

Πjokes and riddles

Πtongue twisters

Πnewspaper accounts

Πletters

Πjournals

Πdiaries

Πrecords

Πpersonal recounts

Πrecounts

Πbiographies

Πautobiographies

Πto entertain Πorientation

Πinitiating events

Πcomplications

Πproblems

Πresolution (may be repeated in episodes)

Πdefined characters

Πdescriptive language

Πdialogue

Πusually past tense

Πto retell events Πorientation

Πevents in time-order

Πre-orientation (optional)

Πevaluation in the form of a personal

comment (optional)

Πspecific participants

Πlinking words to do with time, e.g. later, after, before

Πaction verbs

Πsimple past tense

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© NET Section, CDI, EDB, HKSAR 25 Section 2: Teaching Reading and Writing

DEFINITION EXAMPLES

(From the ELCG) PURPOSE STRUCTURE LANGUAGE

FEATURES

INFORMATION TEXTS

Reports are factual texts that present information clearly and succinctly.

The stages of a report are context-specific and relate very closely to its purpose.

Πcharts

Πcoupons

Πexpositions

Πlabels

Πleaflets

Πlists

Πmenus

Πnotices

Πpersonal descriptions

Πpicture dictionaries

Πproduct information

Πrules

Πsigns

Πtables

Πtime-tables

Πannouncements

Πcatalogues

Œ children’s encyclopaedia

Πdictionaries

Πdirectories

Πinformation reports

Πmaps and legends

Πnews reports

Πpamphlets

Πquestionnaires

Πweather reports

Πto provide readers with information

Πgeneral classification

Πdescription

Πsummary (optional)

Πgeneralised subjects

Πimpersonal objective language

Πtimeless present tense

Πsubject specific vocabulary

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© NET Section, CDI, EDB, HKSAR 26 Section 2: Teaching Reading and Writing

DEFINITION EXAMPLES

(From the ELCG) PURPOSE STRUCTURE LANGUAGE

FEATURES

EXCHANGES

Exchanges are spoken or written

communications for which a response is generally expected.

Πcards

Πconversations

Πnotes and messages

Πpersonal letters

Πpostcards

Πe-mails

Πformal letters

Πtelephone conversations

Πto communicate Πsimple statement/s

Πpersonal comments

Πpresent or past tense

Πsaying or thinking verbs

Πaction verbs

Πimperative verbs

Πnouns, noun groups

Πadjectives

PROCEDURAL TEXTS

Procedural texts follow a discernible pattern- listing sequences of actions or steps to show the way to do

something. Procedural texts can be oral or written.

Πinstructions

Πrecipes

Πprocedures

Πdirections

Πto deal with the way to do things

Πgoal

Πmaterials

Πmethod

Πevaluation (optional)

Πdetailed factual description

Πreader referred to in a general way or not mentioned at all, e.g.

draw a line

Πlinking words to do with time, e.g. after, when, as soon as

Πtense is timeless

EXPLANATORY TEXTS

An explanation is an oral or written text that seeks to explain why things come to be the way they are, or to analyse how things work.

Πexplanation of how and why

Πcaptions

Πillustrations

Πto explain why things come to be

Πto explain how things work

Πphenomenon

Πexplanation

Πsequence

Πgeneralised non- human participants

Πcause and effect relationships

Πsome passives, e.g.

is driven by…

Œ timeless present tense, e.g. soil is deposited…

Πtechnical terms

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© NET Section, CDI, EDB, HKSAR 27 Section 2: Teaching Reading and Writing

DEFINITION EXAMPLES

(From the ELCG) PURPOSE STRUCTURE LANGUAGE

FEATURES

PERSUASIVE TEXTS

A persuasive text is the critical evaluation of ideas involving

argument, persuasion or debate.

Πadvertisements

Πposters

Πbrochures

Πdiscussions

Πexpositions

Πto argue or persuade Πthesis

Πargument (supporting reasons)

Πreiteration (may include a call for action)

Πgeneralised participants

Πpassives to help text structure

Πlinking words associated with reasoning, e.g.

therefore

Πnominalisation (actions become things), e.g. to pollute becomes pollution

Πsimple present tense

Adapted from the Education Department of Western Australia 2004, Writing Resource Book, Rigby, Western Australia and the English Language Curriculum Guide, 2004

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© NET Section, CDI, EDB, HKSAR 28 Section 2: Teaching Reading and Writing

Grammar

Grammar learning depends on meeting the same form again and again in different contexts, so that an ever-fuller understanding of when and how a form is used develops:

“Children need to hear written language so they can learn its structure and take in new information and ideas.” (Pinnell & Fountas, 1998, p.4)

“Ample opportunities should be given to students...to become familiar with the language form and to use it in a purposeful and meaningful way, so that links between form, meaning and use can be forged.” (ELCG, 2004, p.160)

Through involvement with a wide range of written and oral texts, children are “…expanding their vocabularies and their repertoire of language structures, knowledge that is important in beginning literacy.” (Pinnell & Fountas, 1998, p.4)

Phonics

It is seen as beneficial to learn phonics and spelling for authentic purposes (Pinnell & Fountas, 1998). In the PLP-R/W (KS1), the sounds introduced are linked to the vocabulary that will be used in the reading and writing. When students are in the role of writer, their phonemic knowledge is used to support them to write with correct spelling and to attempt to spell unknown words. Ideally, phonics and spelling instruction are conceptualised “…within a broad framework of literacy learning that is content-rich, and includes a range of teaching approaches from highly supportive instruction to encouraging the children’s independent action and practice (Pinnell &

Fountas, 1998, p. xvi).” This is the phonics practice in the PLP-R/W (KS1).

Vocabulary

Structured vocabulary development is vital in the teaching of writing. When students do not have adequate or appropriate words to understand others or to express themselves, written communication will be hindered. The actual words that students encounter, acquire and use vary according to the context. New vocabulary items should be introduced in meaningful contexts and learnt vocabulary items should be regularly revisited and practised in new contexts (ELCG, 2004, p.165). A language-rich environment that extends the core vocabulary can encourage students to explore new words from the environment.

2.7 Teaching Writing

Teachers can use different teaching strategies to help students develop and practise their writing skills through the use of writing strategies.

The PLP-R/W (KS1) through the units of work incorporates the use of the teaching strategies listed below. Their use provides for the diverse needs of all students and even though there is a focus on writing, they also allow for the learning and teaching of the other literacy skills – listening, speaking and reading.

Teaching Strategies Shared Writing

• It is a powerful teaching strategy and the principal means of teaching writing

• It is much more than the teacher merely scribing for students, writing down their ideas like an enthusiastic secretary

• The whole class and the teacher compose the text collaboratively.

(ELCG, 2004)

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