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Topic M03: Risk Management Topic Overview p.1

BAFS Learning and Teaching Example As at April 2009

Learning Objectives:

1. To identify different types of risks faced by business;

2. To review the risk management strategies implemented in a company;

3. To suggest appropriate risk management strategies for business; and 4. To describe various types of business insurance protection.

Overview of Contents:

Lesson 1 Types of Risk

Lesson 2 Risk Management Process and Strategies

Extended Learning Activity Surfing on the NET for information of Insurance Products

Resources:

„ Topic Overview and Teaching Plan

„ PowerPoint Presentation

„ Student Worksheet

Suggested Activities

„ Group discussion

„ Case study

„ Surfing on the NET

Topic Overview

Topic BAFS Elective Part – Business Management Module – Financial Management

M03: Risk Management Level S5 / S6

Duration 2 lessons (40 minutes per lesson)

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Topic M03: Risk Management Topic Overview p.2

BAFS Learning and Teaching Example As at April 2009

Lesson 1 Theme Types of Risk

Duration 40 minutes Expected Learning Outcomes:

Upon completion of this session, students will be able to:

1. State the nature of the risk; and

2. Identify different types of business risks.

Teaching Sequence and Time Allocation:

Activities Reference Time

Allocation Part I: Introduction

— Teacher begins the lesson by asking students to think about these questions, “Are all risks avoidable?”, “Can risks and the associated losses be reduced?” and “How can we reduce risk and the associated losses?”

— Teacher then introduces the concept of insurance.

PPT#1 - 4 3 minutes

Part II: Content

— Activity 1: Can we get insurance protection

„ Students are divided into groups of four or five to discuss which situation(s) are qualified for

insurance protection.

„ Students present their answers.

„ Teacher gives feedback and provides correct answers.

PPT#5 Student Worksheet

p.1

5 minutes

— Teacher explains the classification of risk in two dimensions.

— Activity 2: Pure or Speculative Risk

„ Students remain in their groups to complete the task on differentiation of pure and speculative risk.

„ Students present their answers with justification.

„ Teacher provides and explains the correct answers.

PPT#6 - 9 Student Worksheet

p.2

8 minutes

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Topic M03: Risk Management Topic Overview p.3

BAFS Learning and Teaching Example As at April 2009

— Teacher explains the classification of risk according to

‘cause and effect’.

— Activity 3: Fundamental or Particular Risk

„ Students remain in their groups to complete the task on differentiation of fundamental and particular risk.

„ Students present their suggestions.

„ Teacher provides and explains the correct answers.

PPT#10-13 Student Worksheet

p.3

8 minutes

— Teacher explains that all businesses face different types of risks and potential losses. ‘Ah Chan’s fast food’ is a case illustrating the situation that a sole proprietor is facing.

— Activity 4: Case Study (Ah Chan’s fast food)

„ Students remain in their groups to think about the kind of risks Ah Chan is facing and the types of insurance Ah Chan is required to operate his fast food shop.

„ Invite students to share their views and teacher gives comments.

„ Provide the suggested answers for student reference.

PPT#14-16 Student Worksheet

pp.4 - 5

12 minutes

Part III: Conclusion

— Activity 5: Group Work Assignment

„ Teacher concludes and highlights the key concepts covered in the lesson.

„ Distribute Student Worksheet p.6 to students and ask them to complete the work in groups (i.e.

suggest a few methods to reduce the risks that Ah Chan is facing.

„ Students will have to report their answers in the next lesson.

PPT#17 Student Worksheet

p.6

4 minutes

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Topic M03: Risk Management Topic Overview p.4

BAFS Learning and Teaching Example As at April 2009

Lesson 2

Theme Risk Management Process and Strategies Duration 40 minutes

Expected Learning Outcomes:

Upon completion of this session, students will be able to:

1. Understand the concept of risk management;

2. Identify the risk management strategies in a business;

3. Suggest appropriate risk management strategies for business; and 4. Describe different types of insurance protection for business.

Teaching Sequence and Time Allocation:.

Activities Reference Time

Allocation Part I: Introduction

— Teacher starts the lesson by recapping Ah Chan’s case and asks students to report their answers in Activity 5.

Teacher wraps up the activity by giving student feedback and introducing the concept of risk management.

PPT#18-21 Student Worksheet

p.6

6 minutes

Part II: Content

— Activity 6 – Risk Management Process

„ Students remain in their groups to rearrange the order of the 5 steps involved in the risk

management process.

„ Teacher checks the answers with students.

PPT#22-23 Student Worksheet

p.7

7 minutes

— Activity 7 – Risk Management Strategies

„ Students remain in their groups to:

(a) Match the 4 approaches of risk management strategies with their corresponding definitions, and

(b) Suggest appropriate risk management strategy for different situations.

„ Invite students from each group to report and explain their answers.

„ Teacher gives feedback and provides suggested answers for student reference.

PPT#24-26 Student Worksheet

pp.8-9

10 minutes

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Topic M03: Risk Management Topic Overview p.5

BAFS Learning and Teaching Example As at April 2009

— Activity 8 – Case Study

„ Students should remain in their groups, using their suggested methods for Ah Chan in Activity 5 to group into the four kinds of risk management strategies.

„ Invite students to report and explain their answers.

„ Teacher gives feedback and provides suggested answers for student reference.

PPT#27-28 Student Worksheet

p.10 6 minutes

— Provide students with some information about the

insurance market. PPT#29 3 minutes

Part III: Conclusion

— Teacher wraps up the lessons by discussing the benefits

of risk management. PPT#30 3 minutes

Part IV: Extended Learning Activity (Home Assignment)

— This is extended activity of Activity 4 (Ah Chan’s fast food).

— Distribute Student Worksheet p.11 to students and briefly explain the tasks with them.

„ Students, in groups, should visit a few websites of the insurance companies in Hong Kong. Then select the appropriate insurance products for Ah Chan in running his fast food business and describe the scope of coverage of these products.

[Hints to students: Visit the website of Office of the Commissioner of Insurance

(http://www.oci.gov.hk/download/ins.pdf) to obtain the names of HK insurance company.]

„ Students are strongly recommended to make use of the leaflets provided by various insurance

companies / banks as reference.

„ Students are invited to present their findings in the next lesson.

PPT#31-33 Student Worksheet

pp.11-12

5 minutes

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BAFS Elective Part

Business Management Module – Financial Management

Topic M03:

Risk Management

Technology Education Section Curriculum Development Institute

Education Bureau, HKSARG April 2009

Introduction

This session aims to provide students with fundamental knowledge of risk management in business. Students will learn about different types of risks. They will also learn the various types of business insurance protection available to companies. Through case study, they will learn how to implement the risk management strategies in a company.

Duration

Two 40-minute lessons

Contents

Lesson 1 – Types of Risk

Lesson 2 – Risk Management Process and Strategies

Topic M03 2 Risk Management

BAFS Elective Part Learning and Teaching Example

Think about it……

Are all risks avoidable?

Lesson 1

Ask students to think about the question “Are all risks avoidable?”

The answer is NO.

Typhoon is an example. We cannot stop its coming or change its track to avoid its destruction in Hong Kong.

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3

Topic M03 3 Risk Management

BAFS Elective Part Learning and Teaching Example

Think about it……

Can risks and the associated losses be reduced?

Then, ask students to think about another question “Can risks and the associated losses be reduced?”

The answer is Yes.

Let’s continue to use the Typhoon as an example. We can avoid personal risks by staying at home when typhoon signal number 8 is hoisted. But sometimes, we still encounter the risks at home, such as window breakage due to strong winds.

4

Topic M03 4 Risk Management

BAFS Elective Part Learning and Teaching Example

Think about it……

How can we reduce the risks and the associated losses?

Buying insurance is one way to reduce risk and the associated losses.

However, not all kinds of risks are qualified for insurance protection.

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Topic M03 5 Risk Management

BAFS Elective Part Learning and Teaching Example

Activity 1:

Can we get insurance protection?

Activity 1:

Referring to Student Worksheet p.1, ask students to identify which situations are qualified for insurance protection.

The purpose of this activity is to present the concepts of pure risk, speculative risk, particular risk and fundamental risk. These kinds of risk will be discussed in the following slides.

Ask students to circle the correct answers on the Student Worksheet.

Invite students to present their answers to the class.

Answers for teacher:

(a). Physical damage to a private car due to an unexpected traffic accident. (Yes) (b). Money invested in the Mark Six tickets. (No)

(c). Damage to a safe caused by theft. (Yes)

(d). Emotional depression caused by breaking-up the relationship between a boyfriend / girlfriend. (No)

(e). Water damage to store stock. (Yes) (f). Investment returns on property. (No) (g). Machinery fire damage. (Yes)

(h). Accidental window breakage at the office. (Yes) (i). Gains from Casino. (No)

(j). Injuries of employees while performing their duties. (Yes)

Topic M03 6 Risk Management

BAFS Elective Part Learning and Teaching Example

Classification of Risk

Risks can be classified in two dimensions:

¾

Pure Risk

¾

Speculative Risk (i) Potential Financial Results

¾

Fundamental Risk

¾

Particular Risk (ii) Cause and Effect

We may classify the risk in two dimensions which are ”potential financial results” and “possible cause and effect” of the hazard involved. Under each dimension, risks are further divided into two categories.

Source: Adapted from Insurance Intermediaries Quality Assurance Scheme, Principles and Practice of Insurance Examination Study Notes, Office of the Commissioner of Insurance, 2004 ed Item 1.1.2

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7

Topic M03 7 Risk Management

BAFS Elective Part Learning and Teaching Example

Classification of risk according to Financial Results

Pure Risk Speculative Risk

‰ Risks with only potential loss (no gain), or, at best, no change.

‰ Risks with potential loss or gain.

Example:

Fire damage on property

Example:

Investment on stock market

According to the potential financial results, risks can be categorised as

“pure risk” and “speculative risk”.

Pure risks are risks with only potential loss, no possible gain. Such risks include fire, accident, …etc. Most pure risks are insurable.

Speculative risk refers to risks with potential loss or gain. Such risks include stock market investments, gambling, …etc.

Source: Adapted from Insurance Intermediaries Quality Assurance Scheme, Principles and Practice of Insurance Examination Study Notes, Office of the Commissioner of Insurance, 2004 ed Item 1.1.2a

8

Topic M03 8 Risk Management

BAFS Elective Part Learning and Teaching Example

Think about it……

Do insurance companies provide protection on pure risk and speculative risk?

Most speculative risks are normally not accepted by insurance companies. The reason is that speculative risks are engaged in voluntarily for gain, and, if they were insured, the insured would have little incentive to strive to achieve that gain.

Source: Adapted from Insurance Intermediaries Quality Assurance Scheme, Principles and Practice of Insurance Examination Study Notes, Office of the Commissioner of Insurance, 2004 ed Item 1.1.2a)

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Topic M03 9 Risk Management

BAFS Elective Part Learning and Teaching Example

Activity 2:

Pure or Speculative Risk

Referring to Student

Worksheet (p.2) of Activity 2, identify which situations incur pure risk and speculative risk respectively.

Referring to the Student Worksheet (p.2) of Activity 2, ask students to identify which situations incur pure risk and speculative risk respectively.

Invite students to present their answers to the class.

Answers for teacher:

a) Physical damage to a private car because of an unexpected traffic accident. (Pure risk, physical loss on private care)

b) Money invested in Mark Six tickets. (Speculative risk, the possible outcome can be winning $5,000,000 or losing $5 per bet)

c) Damage to a safe caused by theft. (Pure risk, physical loss on safe) d) Water damage to store stock. (Pure risk, physical loss on stock) e) Investment return on property. (Speculative risk, the possible

outcome can be a gain or loss in the investment)

f) Machinery fire damage. (Pure risk, physical loss on machinery) g) Accidental window breakage at the office. (Pure risk, physical loss

on window)

h) Gains from the Casino. (Speculative risk, the possible outcome can be a gain or loss of money)

i) Employee injuries while executing their duties. (Pure risk, personal injury)

Topic M03 10 Risk Management

BAFS Elective Part Learning and Teaching Example

Classification of risk according to Cause and Effect

Fundamental Risk Particular Risk

‰ Losses are impersonal in origin and effect

‰ Be outside the control of any individual or even a group of individual

‰ Affect large number of people

‰ Losses are personal in origin and effect

‰ Have relatively limited consequences

‰ Affect an individual or a fairly small number of people

Example:

Disaster in Sept. 11, 2001

Example:

Traffic accident happened and two pedestrians suffered severe injuries.

According to cause and effect, risks can be categorised as ‘fundamental risk’ and ‘particular risk’. The distinction between fundamental and particular risk is based on the difference in the origin and consequences of the losses.

Fundamental risk involves losses that are impersonal in origin and effect. Fundamental risk originates in the economic, social and political phenomena. The disaster in September 11, 2001 is an example. It also arises from natural phenomenon, such as floods, forest and grass fires.

Fundamental risk affects a large number of people or even all of the population.

Particular risk involves losses that are personal in origin and effect. It affects an individual or a small number of people. For example, a traffic accident occurs and two pedestrians suffer severe injuries.

Source: Adapted from Emmett J. Vaughan, Therese M. Vaughan (1995) Essentials of Insurance: A Risk Management Perspective, Wiley, p.8 – p.9

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11

Topic M03 11 Risk Management

BAFS Elective Part Learning and Teaching Example

Think about it …

Do the insurance companies provide protection on the fundamental and particular risks?

Normally, the majority of risks insured by insurance companies are particular risks. Fundamental risks are not normally insurable because they are considered financially infeasible for insurers to handle them commercially.

Particular risk can be regarded as the individual’s own responsibility. It can be handled by the individual through the use of insurance, loss prevention ……etc.

And fundamental risks are handled by social insurance or a government transfer program. For example, unemployment is a fundamental risk treated through social insurance. Flooding that destroys a district can be recovered by federal funds.

Source:

Adapted from Insurance Intermediaries Quality Assurance Scheme, Principles and Practice of Insurance Examination Study Notes, Office of the

Commissioner of Insurance, 2004 ed Item 1.1.2b

Adapted from Emmett J. Vaughan, Therese M. Vaughan (1995) Essentials of Insurance: A Risk Management Perspective, Wiley, p.8 – p.9

Topic M03 12 Risk Management

BAFS Elective Part Learning and Teaching Example

Referring to Student Worksheet (p.3) of Activity 3, identify which situations incur fundamental risk and particular risk respectively.

Activity 3:

Fundamental and Particular Risk

Teacher asks students to refer to the Student Worksheet (p.3) of Activity 3, identifying which situations incur fundamental risk and particular risk respectively.

Invite students to present their answers in the class.

Answers for teacher:

a) Employees were injured due to a boiler explosion. (Particular risk, the losses were personal in origin and effect)

b) Earthquakes devastated a province. (Fundamental risk, the losses were impersonal in origin and in consequence)

c) Thousands of Vietnamese were killed during a civil war. (Fundamental risk, the losses were impersonal in origin and in consequence)

d) A tsunami struck Thailand on December 26, 2004. (Fundamental risk, the losses were impersonal in origin and in consequence)

e) A bank robbery occurred last week. (Particular risk, the losses were personal in origin and effect)

f) A car window was accidentally broken. (Particular risk, the losses were personal in origin and effect)

g) Chongqing (重慶) has experienced abnormally high temperatures for weeks and more than 500,000 hectares of farmland were hit by a serious drought. (Fundamental risk, the losses were impersonal in origin and in consequence)

h) A house was damaged by a fire. (Particular risk, the losses were personal in origin and effect)

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Topic M03 13 Risk Management

BAFS Elective Part Learning and Teaching Example

Business Risks

z

Businesses bear many different kinds of risks (e.g. theft, fire……)

z

Risks can lead to potential losses in business.

z

To reduce risks/losses, businesses have to buy insurance according to their needs.

Teacher tells students that businesses face many different kinds of risks of losses and the losses can be substantial. In order to minimise the possible risk of loss, most businesses will buy certain kinds of insurance according to their business nature and needs. To protect the

stakeholders (e.g. employees or customers), some businesses are required to buy a specific type of insurance (e.g. theft insurance, fire insurance … …).

Teacher can use Ah Chan’s case on Student Worksheet p.4 as an example to illustrate this.

Topic M03 14 Risk Management

BAFS Elective Part Learning and Teaching Example

Ah Chan is a sole proprietor of a fast food shop. He needs your advice on buying insurance.

Activity 4: Case Study

Activity 4:

The purpose of this activity is to check students’ understanding on the kinds of risks and scopes of insurance protection in today’s business society.

Referring to Student Worksheet p.4, explain to the class the background of the case.

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15

Topic M03 15 Risk Management

BAFS Elective Part Learning and Teaching Example

Activity 4: Case Study

What kind of risks is Ah Chan facing in his business?

Part (a)

Ask students to underline the parts reflecting the risks borne by Ah Chan in the Student Worksheet p.4.

Invite students to present their answers.

Suggested answer:

Ah Chan is a sole proprietor who runs a fast food shop with 3 employees namely John, Mary and Tom. Chan has made a considerable profit from the business in the past three years.

Every morning, Chan drives his van to the market to buy ingredients.

John is the chef of the fast food shop. Once while he was cooking in the kitchen, he fell on the slippery floor and broke his arm.

Mary is the cleaning lady and frequently sweeps the floor. Every night, Mary is always the last one to leave the shop. In the past two months, Mary forgot to lock the door three times.

Tom is responsible for maintaining the stock. As part of his job, he has to move the stock around sometimes. However, because of his awkward posture, he often hurts himself.

Last month, the shop caught a fire due to overloading a single socket which caused a short circuit.

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Topic M03 16 Risk Management

BAFS Elective Part Learning and Teaching Example BAFS Elective Part Learning and Teaching Example Topic M03 16

Risk Management

Activity 4: Case Study

What are the potential impacts of the risks found in Ah Chan’s fast food shop?

Part (b)

Referring to Student Worksheet p.5 of Activity 4(b), ask students the impacts of the risks which they have identified in 4(a).

Invite students to present their answers.

Suggested answer:

Fire damage on property Business interruption Overloading a

single socket

Bodily injury or disablement

Medical expenses for bodily injury or disablement Moving stock

around

Loss of money or property Forgot to lock

the door

Third party bodily injury

Medical expenses for bodily injury Frequently

sweeps the floor

Bodily injury or disablement

Medical expenses for bodily injury or disablement Slippery

Floor

Physical damage of Ah Chan’s van/ third party’s vehicle

Injuries or death in traffic accident Drives his

van

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Topic M03 17 Risk Management

BAFS Elective Part Learning and Teaching Example

How can Ah Chan minimise the risks he is facing in his business?

Activity 5:

Group Work Assignment

To prepare for the next lesson, students have to complete Student Worksheet p.6 with their group members before the next lesson.

Referring to Student Worksheet p.6 of Activity 5, ask students to determine the methods which can minimise the risks Ah Chan is facing in his business.

Students will have to present the findings in the next lesson.

Teacher may provide hints by saying that:

Buying insurance is one method and more can be found on the HK insurance companies’ websites.

End of Lesson 1

Topic M03 18 Risk Management

BAFS Elective Part Learning and Teaching Example z Ah Chan runs a fast food shop with 3

employees.

z Chan drives his vanto the market every morning.

z John is the chef of the fast food shop.

Once while he was cooking, he fell on the slippery floorand broke his arm.

z Mary is the cleaning lady and she frequently sweeps the floor.

z Mary forgot to lock the doorthree times.

z Tom is responsible for maintaining the stock. As part of his job,he has to move the stock around sometimes.However, he often hurts himself.

z Last month, the shop caught a fire due to overloading a single socket.

Case Review:

Group Work Assignment

How can Ah Chan minimise the risks he is facing in his business?

Activity 5:

Lesson 2

In this lesson, the focus is on the risk management process and strategies. To start with, teacher may review Ah Chan’s case (Student Worksheet p.5) briefly with students and ask them to report the answers of their assignment (Student Worksheet p.6 – Activity 5).

Suggested answer:

Buy insurance Avoid socket overloading

Install water spring system to avoid fire Overloading a

single socket

Buy insurance

Avoid carrying heavy goods (Tom) Move the stock

around

Buy insurance (Burglary Insurance)

Assign another person to lock the door (not Mary) Install alarm system to avoid theft

Avoid keeping money at shop overnight (suggest putting it in night safe)

Keep reasonable amount of stock Forgot to lock

the door

Buy insurance (Employees' Compensation Insurance) Sweep the floor frequently

Frequently sweeps the floor

Buy insurance (Employees' Compensation Insurance) Dry the floor immediately when it gets wet

Slippery floor

Buy insurance (Motor Insurance)

Use delivery service for food ordering (rather than driving by Ah Chan)

Drives his van

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Topic M03 19 Risk Management

BAFS Elective Part Learning and Teaching Example

It is important for all businesses to minimise risks / losses in running their companies.

Running Business

From Ah Chan’s case, teacher explains to students that it is important for all to minimise risks or losses in running their companies. And the answers from students in Activity 5 (Group Work Assignment) can help teacher introduce the concept of risk management.

20

Topic M03 20 Risk Management

BAFS Elective Part Learning and Teaching Example

Risk management is a process to identify the loss exposures faced by a business and to select the most suitable methods to address such exposures.

Risk Management

Teacher explains to students that risk management is a process to identify loss exposures faced by an organisation and to select the most appropriate techniques to address such exposures.

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Topic M03 21 Risk Management

BAFS Elective Part Learning and Teaching Example

z

To minimise potential risks or losses.

z

To enhance the performance of the company.

Purpose of Risk Management

The purpose of risk management is to minimise potential risks or losses.

It will, in turn, helps to enhance the performance of the company.

Topic M03 22 Risk Management

BAFS Elective Part Learning and Teaching Example

What is the correct sequence of the risk management process?

Identify all significant risks.

Evaluate the potential frequency and severity of losses.

Implement the risk management methods chosen.

Develop and select methods for managing risk.

Description Step

Monitor the performance and suitability of the risk management methods and strategies on an ongoing basis.

A.

B.

C.

D.

E.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Activity 6: Risk Management Process

Activity 6:

Referring to Student Worksheet p.7, ask students to sort out the correct sequence of steps involved in the risk management process .

Invite students to present their answers.

See next slide for the answer.

Source: Adapted from Scott E. Harrington, Gregory R. Niehaus (2004) Risk Management and Insurance, 2nd ed., McGraw-Hill, p.8 – p.9

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23

Topic M03 23 Risk Management

BAFS Elective Part Learning and Teaching Example

What is the correct sequence of the risk management process?

Identify all significant risks.

Evaluate the potential frequency and severity of losses.

Implement the risk management methods chosen.

Develop and select methods for managing risk.

Description Step

Monitor the performance and suitability of the risk management methods and strategies on an ongoing basis.

A.

B.

C.

D.

E.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

C D B E A

Activity 6: Risk Management Process

Answers for teacher:

The process of risk management involves the following five steps:

1. The first step is to find out all the major risks in the business. (C) 2. The second step is to estimate the potential losses. This can be

done by evaluating the potential frequency and severity of loss. (D) 3. The third step is to develop and select suitable methods for treating

loss exposures. (B)

4. The fourth step is to carry out the chosen method. (E) 5. The last step is to monitor the implementation of program by

periodic review and evaluation. (A)

Hints for teacher:

Teacher should use Ah Chan’s case to illustrate the process of risk management to help students’ understanding of the concept.

Source: Adapted from Scott E. Harrington, Gregory R. Niehaus (2004) Risk Management and Insurance, 2nd ed., McGraw-Hill, p.8 – p.9

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Topic M03 24 Risk Management

BAFS Elective Part Learning and Teaching Example

Activity 7: Risk Management Strategies

Part (a) Matching the four risk management strategies with the correct description

Risk avoidance

Risk assumption

Risk reduction

Risk transfer

Eliminateloss exposure by not entering an activity that produces the peril.

Accepta risk since the cost of eliminating it is too expensive.

Reducethe risk by introducing safety measures to lower the possible losses.

Transferthe risk to another party to bear the consequences of one’s exposure to loss.

Activity 7 Part (a):

Referring to Student Worksheet p.8, ask students to match the risk management approaches on the left with their definitions on the right.

See the answers in the next slide.

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Topic M03 25 Risk Management

BAFS Elective Part Learning and Teaching Example

Risk avoidance

Risk assumption

Risk reduction

Risk transfer

Eliminateloss exposure by not entering an activity that produces the peril.

Accepta risk since the cost of eliminating it is too expensive.

Reducethe risk by introducing safety measures to lower the possible losses.

Transferthe risk to another party to bear the consequences of one’s exposure to loss.

Activity 7: Risk Management Strategies Part (a) - Answer

Answers for teacher:

Risk avoidance refers to elimination of loss exposure by not engaging in an activity that produces the peril. For example, you can avoid drowning by not going to swim.

Risk assumption refers to accepting a risk since the cost of eliminating it is too high. For example, the insurance premium is so expensive for a camera, you accept the risk by not buying insurance protection.

Risk reduction refers to reducing the risk by introducing safety measures to lower the potential losses. For example, factories install a fire sprinkler system to reduce losses during a fire.

Risk transfer refers to transferring the risk to another party to bear the consequences of one’s exposure to loss. For example, buying insurance transfers the risk to the insurance company.

Topic M03 26 Risk Management

BAFS Elective Part Learning and Teaching Example

Suggest an appropriate risk management strategy for the different situations listed on Student Worksheet (p.9).

Activity 7: Risk Management Strategies Part (b)

Matching the Cases with Appropriate Strategies

Activity 7 Part (b):

The purpose of this activity is to remind students of the types of risk management strategies which can be used in a company.

Ask students to write down their answers on Student Worksheet p.9.

Invite students to present their answers and write the answers on the board.

Answers for teacher:

a) Tom wears a seat belt when he is driving his motor vehicle. (3. Risk reduction)

b) The fire loss to the property of ABC Company was covered by the insurance. (4. Risk transfer)

c) In order to ensure the store a strong cash flow, the store manager will only accept cash. (1. Risk avoidance)

d) XYZ Company has 1,000 employees and a $100,000 insurance premium was paid for the medical insurance last year but only 30 employees consulted doctors last year. Therefore, the total claim for the medical expenses last year was only $10,000. Thus, XYZ has decided not to buy the medical insurance this year. (2. Risk assumption)

e) The Building Owners’ Association paid the repair fees using the owner’s fund. (2. Risk assumption)

f) Tai Fat Trading Company installs a warehouse security and alarm system.

(3. Risk reduction)

g) John prefers taking a taxi rather than driving when he is drunk. (1. Risk avoidance)

h) Customers deposit their money in a bank rather than keeping it at home.

(4. Risk transfer)

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27

Topic M03 27 Risk Management

BAFS Elective Part Learning and Teaching Example

Referring to Activity 5 (Group Work Assignment), group your suggested

methods for Ah Chan into the four kinds of risk management strategies.

Activity 8: Case Study

Activity 8:

Ask students to write down their answers on Student Worksheet p.10.

Invite students to present their answers to the class.

28

Topic M03 28 Risk Management

BAFS Elective Part Learning and Teaching Example

Report the answers of your group.

Activity 8: Case Study

Suggested answers for teacher:

1. Risk avoidance

• Avoid socket overloading.

• Avoid carrying heavy goods (Tom).

• Assign another person to lock the door (for Mary).

• Dry the floor immediately once it gets wet.

• Sweep the floor frequently.

• Use delivery service for food ordering (rather than driving by Ah Chan).

• Avoid keeping money at shop overnight (suggest putting it in night safe).

2. Risk assumption

• Keep reasonable amount of stock.

• Pay medical expenses by Ah Chan.

3. Risk reduction

• Install alarm system to avoid theft.

• Install water sprinkler system to avoid fire.

4. Risk transfer.

• Buy insurance.

Remarks:

Though “Pay medical expense for his employees” is not mentioned in the suggested answer in Activity 5, it is also a method under “Risk Assumption”.

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Topic M03 29 Risk Management

BAFS Elective Part Learning and Teaching Example

Do you know the number of authorised insurers in Hong Kong (as at 30 June 2008)?

Understanding the Insurance Market

A. 76 B. 176 C. 276 D. 376

Some background information about the insurance market:

Insurance is one of the major elements in the financial services sector in Hong Kong. Many of the world’s top insurance companies have expanded their business in Hong Kong. The major insurance companies include American International Assurance Company (Bermuda) Limited, AXA General Insurance (Hong Kong), Bank of China Group Insurance Company, HSBC Insurance (Asia), ING General Insurance Company Limited, Manulife (International) Limited etc.

Ask the class “Do you know the number of authorised insurers (insurance companies) in Hong Kong?”

Answer for teacher:

As at 30 June 2008, there are 176 authorised insurers in Hong Kong.

In 2006, the total gross premiums of insurance business (general business and long term business) recorded a growth of 13.65% to HK$156 billion compared with 2005. The figure shows that the insurance business is in expansion. And people think that insurance protection is more necessary and important.

Source:

Office of the Commissioner of Insurance, http://www.oci.gov.hk

Topic M03 30 Risk Management

BAFS Elective Part Learning and Teaching Example

9

Enhances company performance

9

Helps company profits and growth

9

Increases customer and market confidence

9

Attracts investors to the company Conclusion:

Benefits of Good Risk Management

Conclude the lesson with the benefits of good risk management.

For a company with good risk management, the owners would try to maximise the profit for further expansion in their business. This helps company growth and increases the market and customer confidence. A profitable and well managed company can also attract potential investors.

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31

Topic M03 31 Risk Management

BAFS Elective Part Learning and Teaching Example

Task:

Suggest insurance products for Ah Chan’s business by visiting the websites of some insurance companies in Hong Kong.

Extended Learning Activity:

This is an optional extended learning activity (Student Worksheet pp.11- 12). Teacher may ask students to complete the task at home and report their findings in the next lesson.

Students are required to visit the websites of insurance companies in Hong Kong to find out the insurance products for Ah Chan’s business.

Write down the name of products and their scopes of coverage in Student Worksheet p.11.

For example, students may write down:

¾Fire insurance (Covers loss of or damage to the insured property caused by fire, lightening and or explosion.)

Hints to students:

Go to the website of Office of the Commissioner of Insurance

(http://www.oci.gov.hk/download/ins.pdf) to get the name and website of the insurance companies in Hong Kong. Students are strongly

recommended to make use of the leaflets provided by insurance companies / banks as reference and bring the leaflets to the class for circulation.

32

Topic M03 32 Risk Management

BAFS Elective Part Learning and Teaching Example

Suggest the insurance products for Ah Chan’s business and state the scope of coverage.

Extended Learning Activity:

Presentation and Sharing

Extended Learning Activity:

Referring to Student Worksheet pp.11-12, ask students to report their findings to the class.

Invite students to circulate the insurance leaflets collected to classmates for reference.

Teachers can also go to the website of Office of the Commissioner of Insurance (http://www.oci.gov.hk/download/ins.pdf) to get the name and website of some HK insurance companies and download their leaflets to pass around in class.

Suggested answer:

Ah Chan needs to buy the following insurance:

1. Fire insurance (protect against losses from the fire resulting from socket overloading)

2. Vehicle (Motor) insurance (protect against damage or injury from driving by Ah Chan)

3. Burglary (Theft) insurance (protect against loss of property caused by theft) 4. Public Liability insurance (protect against legal liability to third parties resulting from

employee negligence)

5. Employer’s Liability insurance (protect against legal liability of Ah Chan concerning his employees)

6. Keyman insurance (protect against loss of expertise and experience key persons (such as Ah Chan) who may affect the operation of the shop and even cause a loss of profit)

7. Business Interruption insurance (protect against business interruption and subsequent loss of gross profit or additional expenses following accidental loss of or damage to property caused by fire in Ah Chan’s shop)

8. Medical insurance (protect against the medical expenses resulting from accident or sickness)

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Topic M03 33 Risk Management

BAFS Elective Part Learning and Teaching Example

The End

End of Lesson 2

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(25)

Topic M03: Risk Management Student Worksheet P.1

BAFS Learning and Teaching Example As at April 2009

BAFS Elective Part – Business Management Module – Financial Management Topic M03: Risk Management

Activity 1: Can we get insurance protection for…?

Read the following situations carefully and circle the correct answer.

Situations Insurable Risk

(a). Physical damage to a private car due to an unexpected traffic accident.

Yes / No

(b). Money invested in a Mark Six ticket. Yes / No

(c). Damage to a safe caused by theft. Yes / No

(d). Emotional depression caused by ending a relationship between a boyfriend / girlfriend.

Yes / No

(e). Water damage to store stock. Yes / No

(f). Investment returns on property. Yes / No

(g). Machinery fire damage. Yes / No

(h). Accidental office window breakage. Yes / No

(i). Gains from the Casino. Yes / No

(j). Employee injuries while performing tasks. Yes / No

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Topic M03: Risk Management Student Worksheet P.2

BAFS Learning and Teaching Example As at April 2009

Activity 2: Pure or Speculative Risk

Referring to the situations in Activity 1, identify which of them incur pure risk and speculative risk respectively.

Read the following situations carefully and circle the correct answer.

Situations Risk (a). Physical damage to a private car because of

unexpected traffic accident. Pure / Speculative

(b). Money invested in the Mark Six tickets. Pure / Speculative

(c). Damage to safe caused by theft. Pure / Speculative

(d). Water damage to stock in the store. Pure / Speculative

(e). Investment return on property market. Pure / Speculative

(f). Fire damage on machinery. Pure / Speculative

(g). Accidental breakage of window in the office. Pure / Speculative

(h). Gains from Casino. Pure / Speculative

(i). Injuries of employees arising in the course of employment.

Pure / Speculative

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Topic M03: Risk Management Student Worksheet P.3

BAFS Learning and Teaching Example As at April 2009

Activity 3: Fundamental or Particular Risk

From the situations below, identify which of them incur fundamental risk and particular risk respectively.

Read the following situations carefully and tick (9) the correct answer.

Situations Risk (a). Employees were injured due to a boiler explosion. … Fundamental

… Particular (b). Earthquakes devastated a province. … Fundamental

… Particular (c). Thousands of Vietnamese were killed during a civil

war.

… Fundamental … Particular (d). A tsunami struck Thailand on December 26, 2004. … Fundamental

… Particular (e). A bank robbery occurred last week. … Fundamental

… Particular (f). A car window was accidentally broken. … Fundamental

… Particular (g). Chongqing (重慶) has experienced abnormally high

temperature for weeks and more than 500,000 hectares of farmland were hit by a serious drought.

… Fundamental … Particular

(h). A house was damaged by a fire. … Fundamental

… Particular

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Topic M03: Risk Management Student Worksheet P.4

BAFS Learning and Teaching Example As at April 2009

Activity 4: Case Study

Read the following case carefully and answer the question below.

Ah Chan a sole proprietor who runs a fast food shop with 3 employees namely John, Mary and Tom. Chan has made a considerable profit from the business during the past three years.

Every morning, Chan drives his van to the market to buy ingredients. John is the chef of the fast food shop. Once while he was cooking in the kitchen, he fell on the slippery floor and broke his arm.

Mary is the cleaning lady and frequently sweeps the floor. Every night, Mary is always the last one to leave the shop. In the past two months, Mary forgot to lock the door three times.

Tom is responsible for maintaining the stock. As part of his duties, he has to move the stock (such as rice, flour, cans and drinks) around sometimes.

However, because of his awkward posture, he often hurts himself.

Last month, the shop caught a fire due to overloading a single socket which caused a short circuit.

Part (a)

What kind of risks is Ah Chan facing in his business? Underline the

parts reflecting the risks you have identified in the above case.

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Topic M03: Risk Management Student Worksheet P.5

BAFS Learning and Teaching Example As at April 2009

Activity 4: Case Study

Part (b)

What are the potential impacts of the risks found in Ah Chan’s fast food shop?

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

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Topic M03: Risk Management Student Worksheet P.6

BAFS Learning and Teaching Example As at April 2009

Activity 5: Group Work Assignment

How can Ah Chan minimise the risks he is facing in his business?

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

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Topic M03: Risk Management Student Worksheet P.7

BAFS Learning and Teaching Example As at April 2009

Activity 6: Risk Management Process

Organise the 5 steps below into the correct step sequence to effectively manage risk:

Step Description 1 A. Monitor the performance and suitability of the risk

management methods and strategies on an ongoing basis.

2 B. Develop and select methods for managing risk.

3 C. Identify all significant risks.

4 D. Evaluate the potential frequency and severity of losses.

5 E. Implement the risk management methods chosen.

(Source: Adapted from Scott E. Harrington, Gregory R. Niehaus (2004) Risk Management and Insurance, 2nd ed., McGraw-Hill, p.8 – p.9)

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Topic M03: Risk Management Student Worksheet P.8

BAFS Learning and Teaching Example As at April 2009

Activity 7: Risk Management Strategies

Part (a)

Match the risk management approaches on the left with the appropriate definitions on the right.

Risk avoidance • • Reduce the risk by introducing safety measures to lower possible losses.

Risk assumption • • Transfer the risk to another party to bear the consequences of one’s exposure to loss.

Risk reduction • • Eliminate loss exposure by not entering an activity that produces the danger.

Risk transfer • • Accept a risk since the cost of eliminating it

is too expensive.

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Topic M03: Risk Management Student Worksheet P.9

BAFS Learning and Teaching Example As at April 2009

Activity 7: Risk Management Strategies

Part (b)

Suggest an appropriate risk management strategy for each situation below and write the corresponding number in the circle on the right.

Risk Management Strategies 1.

Risk avoidance

2.

Risk assumption

3.

Risk reduction

4.

Risk transfer

(a). Tom wears a seat belt when driving his motor vehicle.

(b). The property loss due to a fire at ABC Company was covered by the insurance.

(c). In order to ensure the store a strong cash flow, the store manager will only accept cash.

(d). XYZ Company has 1,000 employees and a $100,000 insurance premium was paid for the medical insurance last year but only 30 employees consulted doctors last year. Therefore, the total claim for the medical expenses last year was only $10,000. Thus, XYZ decided not to buy the medical insurance this year.

(e). The Building Owners’ Association paid repair fees by using the owners’ fund.

(f). Tai Fat Trading Company installs a security and alarm system in its warehouses.

(g). John prefers taking a taxi rather than driving when he is drunk.

(h). Customers deposit their money in a bank rather than keep it at

home.

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Topic M03: Risk Management Student Worksheet P.10

BAFS Learning and Teaching Example As at April 2009

Activity 8: Case Study

Referring to Activity 5 (Group Work Assignment), group your suggested methods for Ah Chan into the four kinds of risk management strategies.

1. Risk avoidance

2. Risk assumption

3. Risk reduction

4. Risk transfer

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Topic M03: Risk Management Student Worksheet P.11

BAFS Learning and Teaching Example As at April 2009

Extended Learning Activity:

Visit a few websites of the insurance companies in Hong Kong Then select some insurance products for Ah Chan’s business and describe their scope of coverage.

Hints:

You can go to website of Office of the Commissioner of Insurance (http://www.oci.gov.hk/download/ins.pdf) to get the name and website of the insurance companies in Hong Kong. Also, you are strongly recommended to make use of the leaflets provided by insurance companies / banks as reference.

Write down the type and scope of coverage for the suggested insurance products for Ah Chan’s business below:

Insurance products Coverage

(36)

Topic M03: Risk Management Student Worksheet P.12

BAFS Learning and Teaching Example As at April 2009

Insurance products Coverage

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