Unit Two The Travel and Tourism Industry

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Unit One Tourism and the Tourist


To enable students to:

1. acquire a general understanding of the travel and tourism industry, different forms of tourism and types of tourists;

2. find out why people travel and the different forms of tourism;

3. identify the main concerns and needs of tourists during travel;

4. develop an awareness of the tourist’s codes of behaviour;

5. identify different types of tourist attractions and examine the factors affecting the development of tourism in these places;


6. recognize factors affecting tourist flows and the skills for measuring them;

7. develop a positive attitude towards the studies of Travel and Tourism.

Syllabus Content Explanatory Notes Learning Objectives / Instructional Guidelines Suggested Learning Activities After completing the unit, students should be able to

1.1 Introduction to Tourism (i) Travel and Tourism as an integrated discipline

1. name the academic subjects related to Tourism studies.

Suggest some school subjects that may be related to Tourism studies, and tell how they are related to each other.

(ii) History of tourism 2. trace the historical development of tourism. Use pictures of different modes of travel and arrange them in chronological order. Class discussion about the travelling conditions with the old and the new modes.

(iii) Trend of tourism development

3. describe briefly the trend of tourism development. Collect newspaper cuttings and articles from magazines on tourism development. Try to summarize the general trend of tourism development.


1.2 The meaning of travel,

tourism and tourist

(i) The concepts of travel, tourism and


4. define what is meant by

a. travel, tourism and tourist; b. tourist destinations, e.g. resort etc.;

c. outbound and inbound tourism.

Brainstorm the meaning of tourist and tourism and draw conclusions.

(ii) Forms of tourism 5. distinguish between the different forms of tourism, including leisure tourism, business tourism, cultural tourism, eco-tourism and others (such as study, religious pilgrimage, health, visiting friends and relatives).

Collect advertisements from newspapers, magazine, television programmes, the Internet or

brochures / itineraries from different travel agents. Try to identify the different forms of tourism.

6. describe the elements / characteristics of each form of tourism.

Interview 2 teachers or other adults about their last trips. Try to identify the characteristics of their journey to find out the types of tourists they were and the forms of tourism they have chosen. Discuss how their needs have been satisfied by adopting this form of tourism.


1.3 Classification of tourists (i) Cohens classification 7. describe the four main types of tourists

according to individual choices of experience and the institutional setting of the trip, i.e.,

a. the organised mass tourist;

b. the individual mass tourist;

c. the explorer;

d. the drifter.

Using various types of tourist information leaflets / brochures / itineraries, discuss the need and reasons behind various preferences of travelling style by different types of tourists.

Collect pictures / videos / photos of

previous trips and share with classmates to illustrate the form of tourism.

(ii) Plog’s classification 8. describe the three main types of tourists according to their personalities, i.e.,

a. allocentric;

b. mid-centric;

c. psychocentric.

Class discussion – share experience of being a tourist and use different cases to discuss the motivations behind the travel, forms of tourism and institutional setting of the trip.

1.4 Needs / concerns of tourists during travel

(i) Main concerns of tourists 9. identify the needs / concerns of travellers, e.g.

safety, security etc.

Research work: Choose a country and select a group of people with special needs. Prepare a leaflet entitled Hints for travelling in ... , highlighting the main areas of concern for this group.


Collect information about Hong Kong’s

outbound traveller protection schemes, e.g. the Travel Industry Compensation Fund and the Package Tour Accident Contingency Fund Scheme.

(ii) Tourists with special needs

10. identify the special needs of VIPs, senior travelers, children, disabled, etc.

Design a tour of cultural heritage in Hong Kong for a. a group of children from the mainland of China; b. a group of Japanese retired workers; and

c. a group of young Europeans.

1.5 Behaviour of a responsible tourist

(i) Tourist’s codes of behaviour

11. demonstrate an understanding of the tourists code of behaviour.

Brainstorm in the class how a tourist should behave when he / she is in the host country / community and draw up a list of responsible behaviour.


1.6 Tourist attractions / places of interest / points of interest

(i) Types of tourist attractions:

physical attractions; historic attractions; cultural

attractions; religious attractions; built attractions;

special events & festivals;

leisure, amusement &


12. identify and categorise different types of tourist attractions / places of interests / points of interests.

Collect information on the characteristics of countries which are frequently visited by tourists (such as China, Egypt, Switzerland, Australia).

Discuss how these characteristics attract tourists.

Based on tourist information leaflets, tourist maps and travelling magazines, recognise and classify various types of tourist attractions.


13. provide examples of different types of tourist attractions:

a. Physical attractions: climatic elements, natural features (landforms, vegetation), etc.;

b. Historic attractions: historic relics, sites, history museums, buildings, etc.;

c. Cultural attractions: the way of life of other peoples / cultures;

d. Religious attractions: places of pilgrimage, other religious sites, etc.;

e. Built attractions: architecture, theme and amusement parks, zoos, aquariums, science museums, etc.;

f. Special events and festivals: annual festivals, mega-events such as Olympics, World Expos, etc.;

g. Leisure, amusement and sports: sunbathing, nightlife, gambling, skiing, hunting, fishing, diving, etc.

Group work: each group takes one of the factors accounting for the development of tourist destinations. Try to suggest for each factor some specific features which help some places to develop into popular tourist

destinations. Find examples for illustration if possible.

Select a popular tourist destination of HK people. Find brochures and itineraries on tours to this place. Analyse the major aspects of their attractions.

Group work: plot a specified type of tourist attraction on a Hong Kong map with the physical and scenic features that help to attract tourists to this place.


1.7 Tourist flows (i) The concept of tourist flows 14. demonstrate an understanding of the concept of tourist flows.

With reference to a map showing tourist flows between Hong Kong and a selected country / community (e.g. USA, Japan, Australia, Taiwan), discuss the pattern revealed and suggest some push and pull factors existing in both areas and the influence of the factor of distance.

(ii) Factors influencing patterns of tourist flows

15. analyse the factors affecting tourist flows:

a. the general attractiveness of the destination for the tourists, such as political, business and cultural ties, climate, new cultural experience, and the attitude of the host community etc.;

Find statistics of tourist flows of a more developed and a less developed country respectively. Compare and find out factors that bring about their


Using travel books or magazines on countries famous for their cultural heritage (such as Italy, Egypt and China), locate pictures and names of prominent tourist attractions. Discuss why people are attracted to these places.

b. macro factors, including political factors such as stability, economic factors such as level of economic development;


c. personal factors, such as income and employment, paid-holiday entitlement, time available, personal attitudes and perceptions, fashion in tourism etc.;

Design questionnaires and arrange interviews with tourists of different age and occupation to find out how personal factors affect their choice of tourist destinations.

d. other factors, such as time distance and cost of travel between the origins and the destinations of the flows, transport routes and locations etc.

Select an organized tour according to specified criteria such as the distance of travel, the cost of travelling, the time required for the journey, etc.

State the reasons for the choice and share views with each other in a group.

(iii) Ways of measuring tourist flows

16. demonstrate an understanding of the methods of data collection, e.g.

a. international flows - the frontier survey method;

b. domestic flows - national travel survey, destination survey, hotel registration card, etc.

Brainstorm the meaning of international flows and domestic flow and draw conclusions.

Study arrival cards / hotel registration cards and analyse the types of data they produced.

17. use simple calculations to analyse tourism data.


18. understand 3 types of data about tourist flows:

a. statistics of volume;

b. tourist characteristics;

c. statistics of tourist expenditure.

Using the annual reports of the HKTA, find out the 3 types of data collected.

19. explain why it is important to measure tourist flows. With reference to statistics of tourist flows to Hong Kong in the past 5 years, discuss the changes that have occurred and the influences that may have on Hong Kongs economy.


Unit Two The Travel and Tourism Industry


To enable students to:

1. identify the different sectors of the travel and tourism industry and the types and features of each sector;

2. identify the role of local and international organizations in the development of tourism;

3. recognize and assess the influence of technological development on the travel and tourism industry and tourists;

4. develop a balanced and objective outlook on the development of tourism in Hong Kong.

Syllabus Content Explanatory Notes Learning Objectives / Instructional Guidelines Suggested Learning Activities


After completing the unit, students should be able to

2.1 Different sectors of the travel and tourism industry

Types and features of the following sectors:

Suppose you are asked to organize a study tour for your school, work out the sectors you have to come across in organizing the tour.

(i) Accommodation 1. identify different types of

accommodation and their characteristics a. types, such as hotel, motel, guest

house, etc.;

b. rating systems / methods.

Browse through the advertisement and information contained in a tourist guide book. Try to identify and classify the different types of services according to the four major sectors in the tourism industry.

(ii) Transportation 2. identify different types of

transportation and their characteristics, such as air, rail, water, road, etc.

Group discussion: How to make preparation before taking a trip.

(iii) Intermediaries 3. identify different types of

intermediaries, such as inbound tour agents, ticketing agents (consolidators and retailers), outbound tour agents (wholesalers and tour operators), outbound tour agents (retailers), general sales agents, etc.

Class discussion: The interrelationship among different sectors of the travel and tourism industry.


(iv) Travel-related services 4. identify different types of travel- related services:

a. financial services, e.g. travellers’

cheque, credit cards, travel insurance, foreign exchange, etc.;

b. travel publications, e.g. guide books;

c. retail shops and restaurants.

Group discussion: The importance of travel-related services to the development of tourism industry.

2.2 The part played by government, private and international travel / tourism organizations in the development of tourism

(i) The role of a government 5. show awareness of the major roles of a government in the development of tourism, namely

a. in planning and facilitating tourism;

b. in control and supervision of tourism;

c. in direct ownership of some components of the tourism


d. in promoting tourism to home and overseas markets.

Collect newspaper cuttings in relation to the major roles of governments in the development of travel and tourism.


6. identify different public departments relating to the travel and tourism industry, e.g.

a. national tourist organisations;

b. government departments in charge of immigration control, customs and excise, aviation, health control, etc.

Prepare a role play / conversation between a hotel developer, a village representative, a government official and an environmentalist showing the major issues involved in developing a tourist resort.

Watch for TV advertisements on tourism promotion by some overseas countries, e.g. Singapore, Australia. Discuss the possible effects of such advertisements on the viewers, and whether it is worthwhile for the respective governments to make such efforts in promoting the image of a country overseas.

7. understand information relating to travel formalities, e.g. passports, visas, health requirement, taxes, customs, etc.

Class discussion: Using a country or a place as an example, list the documents one may need before taking a trip.


(ii) The role of the government of Hong Kong

8. illustrate with examples the role and work of the government of Hong Kong in the development of travel and tourism, e.g. preservation of cultural heritage, setting up of museums, building the Hong Kong International Airport at Chek Lap Kok and related projects etc.

Pay visits to some tourist spots, e.g. the Peak, Repulse Bay, etc. Find out what different government departments have done to help the development and promotion of tourism.

(iii) The role of the following local organizations and statutory bodies:

- Travel Industry Council of Hong Kong (TIC)

- Hong Kong Tourist Association (HKTA)

- Hong Kong Hotels Association (HKHA) - Board of Airline

Representatives (BAR)

9. identify the function and work of these non-government tourist organizations in promoting tourism in Hong Kong.

Based on the annual reports of HKTA and TIC, find out their work and functions. Discuss why it is necessary to have such organizations in Hong Kong.

Find also the changes in emphasis in promoting Hong Kong’s image overseas by the HKTA.

(iv) The role of the following international organizations:

- World Tourism Organization

10. show awareness of the work of these international tourism-related

organizations in promoting tourism

Simulate a tourist taking a short trip of 3 to 5 days overseas through a travel agent in Hong Kong.

Work out how many types of services he / she may


- Pacific Asia Travel Association (PATA)

- International Air Transport Association (IATA)

- Universal Federation of Travel Agents Association (UFTAA)

the trip. Discuss the importance of coordination and cooperation by different organizations, so as to bring about prosperity in tourism.

2.3 The development of technology and the travel and tourism industry

(a) in regard to office / information technology

(i) The importance of installing modern office facilities and employing up-to-date information technology in the following sectors:

- accommodation - transportation - intermediaries - travel-related services

11. develop an awareness of modern office layout as well as facilities (such as the use of computers, credit card system, satellite communications and other information technology) used in the travel agencies, hotels, airlines, retail shops, restaurants, etc.

Visit a travel agency / hotel. Report on the various uses of technology in its office. If possible, acquire hands-on experience of the use of the facilities.

Examine a print out of major Computerized Reservation Systems operating in Hong Kong.

Comment on the functions and limitations of the systems.

Discuss the significance of technological change in relation to tourism development.


(b) in regard to operational management

(i) The ways technological changes improve operational efficiency

12. illustrate how modern technology facilitates travel agent / tour operator staff to answer customer enquiries.

Visit the MTR / KCR traffic control centre, HAECO etc. Study how technological change facilitates passenger flow, travel speed and safety.

13. Demonstrate an understanding of how an automated baggage handling system speeds up baggage handling and helps to save labour.

Study the design of the baggage handling system of the Hong Kong International Airport at Chek Lap Kok and see how technological changes improve

operational efficiency.

14. illustrate with examples how modern technology facilitates passenger flows.

Simulate a tourist taking a trip overseas. Work out the steps he / she has to go through in the airport/ ocean terminal before he / she is finally on board. Find out the types of machine he / she may have to come across. Discuss the importance of new technology in tourism industry.

(c) in regard to the consumer

(i) The ways technological changes influence factors such as safety, security, comfort, entertainment, speed, convenience,

dissemination of information, etc.

15. identify how technological

development improves travelling and accommodation conditions.

Video Show: one of the airlines and its aircraft. Find out its pilot and cabin crew recruitment criteria, training programmes and flight equipment.


Collect information of different types of aeroplane / high speed train / hovercraft. Study their maximum speed and carrying capacity. Relate all your findings to passenger safety, comfort, speed and security etc.

Visit the Hong Kong International Airport at Chek Lap Kok and collect data to show how safety, security and passenger convenience has been put into


Visit a hotel and find out how technological

development improves accommodation conditions.

16. identify the types of design and technology employed in providing tourist facilities in various tourism sectors in relation to different behavioural / spending patterns (deluxe / first class; budget).

Using the Hong Kong Hotel Guide or hotel brochures, compare various hotel room rates and facilities.

Guess what the guests would expect from the hotels with different grades.

Plan a 4-day itinerary (not including passage time) for a middle-aged high income American couple who wish to have a deluxe holiday in Hong Kong.

Design another 4-day itinerary for two university


students who expect to keep their expenses as little as possible. Both parties would travel from New York. Expenses breakdown of accommodation, catering, air and land transport should be included in both itineraries. Design a folder for each party to put the itinerary and related vouchers / tickets / documents in. Compare the flight and

accommodation facilities different parties could enjoy.

2.4 The development of tourism in Hong Kong

(i) A brief account of tourism development in Hong Kong

17. describe briefly the history of development of travel and tourism in Hong Kong, in terms of the changes in tourist arrivals, the expansion of tourist trade and the improvements in tourist facilities especially after the

establishment of the HKTA.

Draw graphs to show the changes of tourist arrivals in the past 5-10 years. Discuss the implications of such changes and the importance of planning in tourism development.

18. describe briefly the development of out-bound tourism in Hong Kong.

Study statistics and graphs of Hong Kong’s out- bound tourism in the past few years. Describe the changes that have taken place.

(ii) Characteristics, problems and 19. describe the characteristics of Hong Study the changes in tourist expenditure patterns and


communities of origin. Write briefly on the characteristics revealed by such findings.

20. identify the problems encountered by the in-bound tourism industry (e.g.

economic, political, social, environmental). Suggest possible solutions to such problems.

Interview several tourists who have come from different places (e.g. Europe, America, S.E. Asia, mainland of China, Taiwan). Find out what they think about Hong Kong, in particular the

improvements they look for if they have the chance to visit Hong Kong again. Make a summary of the findings.

21. identify the problems encountered by the out-bound tourism industry (e.g.

economic, political).

Newspaper cutting on the problems encountered by the out-bound tourism industry.

22. describe the problems brought by unscrupulous behaviour of travel intermediaries to the inbound and outbound tourism industry.

Interview several teachers / family friends and find out if they have any unpleasant travelling experience brought by unscrupulous travel intermediaries. Write down their major grievances. Discuss how the TIC of Hong Kong, the HKTA and the Consumer Council can help to resolve them.


(iii) Outlook for tourism development in Hong Kong

23. show an understanding of short-term and long-term tourism development in Hong Kong.

Discuss whether the government should play a more active role in promoting in-bound and out- bound tourism of Hong Kong .


Unit Three The Impact of Tourism


To enable students to:

1. examine and make reasoned judgement about the impact of travel and tourism on the environment, the socio-cultural aspect and the economy of the community;

2. develop an awareness of the close relation between cultural heritage and a country’s tourism development;

3. appreciate the need for maintaining and conserving the cultural heritage of a country for the benefit of the people and the visitors;

4. develop awareness and respect for different cultures, and a positive attitude towards the conservation of cultural heritage throughout the world;

5. identify the link between tourism industry and other social and economic activities;

6. acquire a basic awareness on the concept of sustainable tourism development, and develop a positive attitude towards it.


Syllabus Content Explanatory Notes Learning Objectives / Instructional Guidelines Suggested Learning Activities

After completing the unit, students should be able to

3.1 The impact of tourism on

(a) the socio-cultural aspects of communities

(i) Changes in the social structure, behaviour, and roles

- cross-cultural understanding 1. show awareness of the cross-cultural barriers that may exist among different nationalities.

Using TV programmes on travel and tourism or quoting personal experience as tourists, discuss how travel and tourism promotes the exchange of knowledge and ideas.

2. show awareness of the impact of

tourism on the promotion of communication among people of different cultures, and the ways it

Case study of a popular tourist destination. Find out the beneficial and harmful impact of tourism on the lifestyle of people in the host community.


knowledge, ideas and views.

- negative demonstration effects 3. examine the possible effects of stereo-typing of different nationalities.

Interview 3 or 4 friends or relatives to find out their impression on certain nationalities. Discuss in the class the information collected & analyze the possible effects of stereo-typing certain nationalities.

4. recognize the harmful impact of tourism on the culture of a host community, e.g. culture drift caused by imitation of the culture of tourists.

Case study of Hong Kong-Macau-Shenzhen- Guangzhou-Zhongshan-Zhuhai. Find out the negative demonstration effects on the host community by the visitors.

(ii) Impact on cultural heritage - renaissance / conservation of

cultural heritage

5. recognise the importance of tourism management in preserving,

conserving and restoring the cultural heritage of a country.

Based on a planned heritage trip for tourists, discuss the need of and cost in conserving cultural heritage.

6. identify the ways in which tourism may encourage the preservation and development of cultural attractions.

Visit a local historical building in the list of Declared Monuments and report on how such buildings have been conserved and developed


into tourist attractions.

- renewal of cultural pride 7. identify the beneficial impact of tourism on the lifestyle in the host community, e.g. enhancing a sense of belonging and helping to preserve traditional arts & crafts.

Library work: Collect information on a specific place, identify the cultural factors leading to its development into a tourist destination and discuss how cultural pride could be renewed.

- loss or deterioration of traditional arts and culture

8. identify the ways in which cultural heritage may be damaged and the possible ways of their protection.

Look at a tourist-oriented shopping centre concentrating on clothes shops, food shops, restaurants and craft shops. What evidence can you find about the influence of other cultures on the goods on sale?

(iii) Community problems 9. identify the community problems that may be resulted from the

development of tourism, e.g.

prostitution, drug abuse, alcoholism, crime, etc.

Debate: Hong Kong should set up casinos to attract tourists.

(b) the economy of the host community

(i) Employment and income

- creating jobs 10. identify and assess the impact of Using the annual reports of the Hong Kong


- improving the balance of payments

- generating income and the linkage effect

community, making reference to the range of jobs created by tourism, the direct and indirect taxes related to tourism and how these affect a country’s / place’s balance of payments.

Report, find information on the income raised by tourism in Hong Kong. Discuss the impact of tourism on Hong Kong’s economy.

11. demonstrate an understanding of the linkage effect and its application to tourism.

Discuss the following statement:

“One person takes a trip and numerous benefit.”

(ii) Economic growth (iii) Living standard

(iv) Opportunity costs - leakage

- high consumer and land prices - over-dependence

- others

12. explain how travel and tourism lead to the rise of living standard in the tourist destinations and how domestic tourism is stimulated.

Based on statistical information on tourism- related jobs, tax revenue and visitor spending, discuss why so many countries spend money trying to further develop tourism.

(c) the physical environment

(i) Positive impact


- preservation / restoration of the environment

13. recognize the ways in which tourism and the environment can benefit from each other.

- conservation of the environment

- enhancement of the environment

- increasing environmental awareness

14. identify the significance of attraction development, creation of national parks, etc. on the enhancement of the environment.

(ii) Negative impact

- carrying capacity problems - physical deterioration of both

natural and man-made environments

15. identify the ways in which tourism can harm the environment.

Case study of (1) a national park or game reserve in Africa / South East Asia and (2) a seaside resort. Find out the ways in which tourism can benefit or harm the environment.

3.2 Sustainable tourism development

(i) The concept of sustainable tourism


16. recognize the concern for sustainable tourism development, particularly the HKTA report on “Environmentally Sustainable Development Strategy for the Travel and Tourism Industry in Hong Kong” (1999) and its impact.

Draft a press release for the HKTA report on

“Environmentally Sustainable Development Strategy for the Travel and Tourism Industry in Hong Kong” (1999), highlighting the main ideas formulated at the report.


17. demonstrate an understanding of the concept of sustainable tourism development.

Slogan design: sustainable tourism development.

(ii) The importance of the participation of all parties concerned

18. tell the importance of different participating bodies in sustainable tourism development.

Role play: Students representing a local farmer, an agriculturalist, a logger, a nature tourism operator and a conservationist at a meeting to consider the opening up of a tropical rain forest in South America.

(iii) Successful and less successful cases

19. analyse the successful and less successful cases of sustainable tourism development.

Video show on a tourist destination. Discuss how the government could make tourism development more sustainable.

3.3 Case study of tourist destinations

(a) the Pearl River Delta in China (Hong Kong- Macau- Shenzhen- Guangzhou-


(i) The development of tourism in the Pearl River Delta

(ii) The impact of tourism on the Pearl River Delta’s economy,

environment and socio-cultural aspects and how this changes with time

20. identify and assess the impact of tourism, both beneficial and harmful on the economy, environment and culture during recent decades in the Pearl River Delta in China (Hong Kong-Macau-Shenzhen-Guangzhou- Zhongshan-Zhuhai).

Project – Recent development of tourist resorts/

facilities of the region in the last decade.


21. apply knowledge acquired in 3.1 to the study of the Pearl River Delta and tourist destinations outside the region.

Field Study: Visit a tourist resort in the Pearl River Delta. Find out the efforts made to promote tourism and the impact it has on the environment.

(b) a destination outside the Pearl River Delta

(i) A case study of one of the following tourist destinations:

a. urban tourism: Tokyo, Singapore, New York;

b. leisure tourism: Cebu, Phuket, Maldives

c. cultural-based tourism:

Beijing, Luxor, Rome

22. describe a specific destination and show what makes it special.

(ii) The study should include the following details concerning the destination:

a. why it is classified as a / an urban / leisure / cultural-based tourist destination

b. its geographical background c. its tourism development d. the impact of tourism on its


socio-cultural aspects and how this changes with time


Unit Four Working in the Travel and Tourism Industry


To enable students to:

1. acquire knowledge about the range of jobs and services, the employment opportunities and job specifications within the tourism industry;

2. acquire a basic understanding of the process of communication and factors affecting the interpretation of messages within the travel and tourism context;

3. develop basic social and communication skills to facilitate effective communication in the tourism industry and interaction in common tourist situations;

4. inculcate confidence and positive attitude when communicating with tourists;

5. develop an awareness of the attributes, personal qualities, types of technical skills required in various sectors in the tourism industry, and the types of training available to prepare people for related jobs;

6. develop a positive attitude towards working in the tourism industry.


Syllabus Content Explanatory Notes Learning Objectives / Instructional Guidelines Suggested Learning Activities

After completing the unit, students should be able to

4.1 The range of jobs / services in the travel and tourism industry

(i) Core services and related services

1. identify the structure and range of jobs and services within the tourism industry.

Group discussion - list as many different jobs as possible and discuss which of these are related to the tourism industry.

2. distinguish between the two different categories of services listed below:

a. core services such as accommodation, transportation, travel agencies, tourist attractions etc.;

b. related services such as hotel and restaurant suppliers, taxi services,

telecommunications, credit cards, banking service and money exchange, retailers, and shopping malls, museums, cultural activities and entertainment etc.

Make a list of jobs related to tourism, and divide them into core services and related services.

(ii) Job specifications (including job descriptions, working

3. have a clear understanding of the job descriptions, working conditions and service

Discussion - discuss the particular characteristics of tourism employment and name other industries


conditions and environment) and the nature of the service

nature which are unique to tourism industry:

a. work around the clock;

b. seasonal work;

c. interact with people from different areas, countries & cultures;

d. work in an atmosphere of enjoyment;

e. fringe benefits such as concessionary air- tickets, free meals provided in hotel sector, etc.

which share the same characteristics. Make comparison with the working conditions of other professions, e.g. teaching, and discuss which characteristics and working conditions sound more attractive.

Visits to hotels, airlines, travel agencies etc. can be arranged.

A talk on the work environments of the tourism industry may be given by any person who has work experience in the industry.

4.2 Communication and the travel and tourism industry

(i) A basic understanding of the process of


4. describe the basic concepts and the process of communication.

Make dialogues between parents and children, teachers and students, salesperson and customer.

Analyse the dialogue and make a short description of the attitudes of the sender and receiver and the content of the message.

Talk with each other on a topic for 2-3 minutes and discuss how you feel about your partner’s

communication skills.


5. distinguish between one-way and two-way communications.

List various types of one-way and two-way communications and discuss their differences in effectiveness.

(ii) Factors affecting the interpretation of messages

6. identify and analyse factors influencing the interpretation of messages, e.g. selection and organisation of content, style of presentation, the use of jargons, choice of channels, difference in opinion or attitude between sender and receiver, preconceived ideas, and physical environment etc.

Prepare a short speech to the class and invite comments from classmates.

Describe to the class your personal experience of the serious consequences of message being misinterpreted.

Extract part of a drama from a TV programme.

Analyse the factors affecting the interpretation of messages and discuss the ways to improve delivery of such messages. Role play the situation again and find out the difference.

(iii) Verbal and non-verbal strategies used to communicate effectively

7. identify the verbal and non-verbal strategies used to communicate effectively.

Play a game on the delivery of messages.

Different kinds of restrictions are imposed each time to illustrate the factors which affect effective


8. describe some elements of active listening Discuss the importance of the following components


skills such as showing interest, concentrating, use of gestures, asking questions etc.

of good listening:

- paying attention - maintaining eye contact

- not interrupting or taking over the conversation - giving cues for the person to continue

- listening for feelings as well as content

Role play a poor listener and then a good listener to show the importance of good listening.

Discuss : “A good communicator is a good listener”.

9. use non-verbal skills (including the use of signs, gestures and body language) to convey one’s ideas, messages and meaning, taking into consideration cultural differences.

Mime games :

guess the meaning through gestures, postures, signs, facial expressions and body language.

(iv) interpretative facilities available at sites

10. explain why it is important to provide interpretative facilities at sites such as museums, buildings of historical interest, architectural heritage etc.

Using travel books or magazines about countries famous for their cultural heritage such as Britain, China and Egypt, list the facilities available at sites.


be available at these sites. visits the Space Museum of Hong Kong. Group Two visits the Science Museum of Hong Kong. Make a list to show the facilities they have. Compare the two sites and discuss findings in class.

12. categorise different types of interpretative facilities available in tourist attractions / places of interest / points of interest, such as publications, static displays, interactive displays and real life experience.

Select a local cultural site. Make a visit to it and suggest methods to upgrade the interpretative facilities.

(v) The use of communication skills to deal with common tourist situations

13. find appropriate ways to deal with common tourist situations, e.g. going through

immigration and customs, in a restaurant, getting lost, seeking medical help, booking a hotel room, buying a souvenir, changing currencies.

Role-play: Booking a hotel room - phone the hotel to reserve a room suited to his needs, wishes and pocket.

Develop dialogues about different tourist situations.

Comment on the appropriateness of how problems are solved in each of these situations.

4.3 Education, training and career in travel and tourism

(i) Travel and tourism education and training institutes in Hong Kong

14. acquire information about the education and training courses offered by different

organisations such as technical institutes, colleges and universities for the tourism

Collect prospectuses of technical institutes, colleges and universities and identify the tourism related courses for Secondary 5 and 7 graduates and in- service personnel.


profession in Hong Kong.

15. show awareness of the in-service training opportunities available and the organisations providing such training , e.g. HKTA, TIC, etc.

With reference to ‘Hotel, Catering and Tourism Courses Directory’ published by the HKTA, discuss whether adequate training is provided for the tourism profession and suggest or design some new courses.

Research - check some major establishments to see if any company training centre is set up for their staff.

(ii) The attributes and personal qualities employers look for

16. identify the special attributes and attitudes of, and develop personal qualities required for, people who work in tourism, e.g. a mature and pleasant personality, sense of humour, being helpful and courteous, etc.

Find the advertisements on tourism employment.

Note down the qualities the employers look for.

Discuss how personal qualities affect the

performance of an employee in the tourism industry.

(iii) Types of technical and social skills required in various sectors in the travel and tourism industry

17. identify the different types of technical and social skills which are essential in the travel and tourism industry :

a. technical skills: occupational skills,

Give examples of types of skills required for certain jobs in tourism, e.g. tourist information centre assistant, in-flight attendants, travel agency counter clerk, hotel receptionist, etc.


b. social skills: proper postures, proper gestures, frequent smiles, lots of eye- contact, use of appropriate phrases or words, good self-presentation.

Role play - a student playing a complaining visitor and another playing the manager or manageress of the shop being complained about. Compare the different ways of handling complaints and discuss how good customer relation skills are crucial to the tourism industry.




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Outline : Aims