P U B L I S H E D B Y T H E P R E S S S Y N D I C A T E O F T H E U N I V E R S I T Y O F C A M B R I D G E
The Pitt Building, Trumpington Street, Cambridge, United Kingdom
C A M B R I D G E L J N l V t R S l T Y P R E S S
The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB2 2RU, UK www.cup.cam.ac.uk 4 0 West 20th Street, New York, NY 1001 1-421 1, USA www.cup.org 1 0 Stamford Road, Oakleigh, Melbourne 3166, Australia
Ruiz de Alarc6n 13, 28014 Madrid, Spain 0 Cambridge University Press 1994
This book is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements, n o reproduction of any part may take place without
the written permission of Cambridge University Press.
First published 1994 Ninth printing 1999
Printed in the United Kingdom a t the University Press, Cambridge A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library ISBN 0 521 423961
Acknowledgements Using this book Introduction
1 Learning vocabulary - general advice 2 Learning vocabulary - aids to learning 3 Organising a vocabulary notebook 4 The names of English language words 5 Using your dictionary
6 Revising vocabulary
7 Formal and informal words Word formation
8 Suffixes (e.g. actor, permission, modernise) 9 Prefixes (e.g. over-worked, exhale)
1 0 Roots (e.g. impress, pressure, expression) 11 Abstract nouns (e.g. faith, hope and love)
1 2 Compound adjectives (e.g. well-dressed, time-consuming)
1 3 Compound nouns - combinations of two nouns (e.g. baby-sitter, youth hostel) 1 4 Compound nouns - combinations of verb
+preposition (e.g. drawback, input) 1 5 Words with interesting origins - people and places (e.g. hooligan, denim) 1 6 Words with interesting origins - from other languages (e.g. bistro, rucksack) 1 7 Onomatopoeic words - words that sound like their meaning (e.g. grumble, smash) 1 8 Words commonly mispronounced (e.g. worry, cough)
1 9 Homonyms - words pronounced and/or spelt the same (e.g. row, row; bow, bough) Connecting and linking
20 Time (e.g. as soon as, while, afterwards) 2 1 Condition (e.g. unless, provided that)
2 2 Cause, reason, purpose and result (e.g. owing to, with the aim of, as a result) 23 Concession and contrast (e.g. although, on the other hand)
24 Addition (e.g. in addition, furthermore, besides) 2 5 Text-referring words (e.g. issue, problem) Countables and uncountables
26 Uncountable words (e.g. information, advice) 2 7 Words that only occur in the plural (e.g. scissors)
28 Countable and uncountable with different meanings (e.g. paper and a paper) 2 9 Collective nouns (e.g. a flock of sheep)
30 Making uncountable words countable (e.g. a loaf of bread)
3 31 Countries, nationalities and languages 32 The weather
33 Describing people - appearance 34 Describing people - character 35 Relationships
36 At home
37 Everyday problems 38 Global problems 39 Education 40 Work 41 Sport 42 The arts 43 Food
44 The environment 45 Towns
46 The natural world 47 Clothes
48 Health and medicine 49 Travel
51 Numbers and shapes 52 Science and technology 53 The press and media
54 Politics and public institutions 55 Crime
56 Money - buying, selling and paying Notional concepts
57 Number, quantity, degree and intensity 58 Time
59 Distances and dimensions
60 Obligation, need, possibility and probability 61 Sound and light
6 2 Possession, giving and lending 63 Movement and speed
64 Texture, brightness, weight and density 65 Success, failure and difficulty
66 Containers and contents (e.g. box of matches, jar of jam) Feelings and actions
67 Belief and opinion
68 Pleasant and unpleasant feelings 69 Like, dislike and desire
70 Speaking 71 The six senses
72 What your body does 73 What animals do
75 Everyday expressions (e.g. as I was saying, that reminds me) 76 Similes - as...as... / like
...(e.g as white as a sheet)
7 7 Binomials (e.g. odds and ends, spick and span) 78 Idioms describing people (e.g. to have a heart of gold)
79 Idioms describing feelings or mood (e.g. to be in a black mood, to shake in your shoes)
80 Idioms connected with problematic situations (e.g. to take the bull by the horns) 81 Idioms connected with praise and criticism (e.g. she's streets ahead of the other
girls, the world's worst)
82 Idioms connected with using language (e.g. to talk behind somebody's back, to put in a nutshell)
83 Idioms - miscellaneous
84 Proverbs (e.g. Many hands make light work.) Phrasal verbs and verb-based expressions
85 Expressions with do and make 86 Expressions with bring and take 8 7 Expressions with get
88 Expressions with set and put 89 Expressions with come and go 90 Expressions with look
91 Miscellaneous expressions (with break, run, turn, let, etc.) Varieties of English
92 Headline English (e.g. boost, axe) 9 3 US English (e.g. elevator, downtown) 9 4 Other Englishes
95 Slang (e.g. copper, bread)
96 The language of notices (e.g. refrain, trespassers)
9 7 Words and gender (e.g. waiter/waitress, chairperson, headteacher) 98 Abbreviations (e.g. UN, OPEC, lab)
99 New words in English
100 Discourse markers (e.g. Right! Mind you!) Key 202
List of phonetic symbols 270 Index 271
We are particularly grateful to Jeanne McCarten and Geraldine Mark at Cambridge University Press who provided us with so much clear-sighted help and creative guidance at all stages during the writing of this book. We should also like to thank Stuart Redman for his thorough and invaluable report on the initial manuscript. We are grateful to students and staff at various institutions who assisted in piloting the materials: Jon Butt and Elaine Smith, International House, London; Nick Kenny, International Language Academy, Cambridge;
Brigitte Marrec, UniversitP Paris X, France; Suzanne Pilot, LycPe Blaise Pascal, Longuenesse, France; Tony Robinson, Eurocentre, Cambridge; Ian Scott, Centre for English Language Education, University of Nottingham; Karen Thompson, International House, Toulouse, France; Clare West, English Language Centre, Hove. Lastly, we thank N6irin Burke at CUP who took over the management of the manuscript in its final stages.
T h e authors and publishers would like t o thank the following for permission t o reproduce copyright material in English Vocabulaty in Use. While every effort has been made, it has not been possible t o identify the sources of all the material used and in such cases the publishers would welcome information from the copyright holders.
p.2: extract from 7'he English Language by David Crystal (Penguin Books, 1988), copyright 0 David Crystal, reproduced by permission of Penguin Books Ltd.; p.10: definition of 'malignant' from the Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary of Currefit English, edited by A. S. Hornby (fourth edition l 9 8 9 ) , reproduced by permission of Oxford University Press; . p.10: definition of 'hairy' and p.11: definition of 'casual' both from Collins C O B U I L D
English Language Dictionary (1987), reproduced by permission of HarperCollins Publishers;
p.90: extract from Fodor's Ireland, Fodor's Travel Publication (1989); p.92: extract from T h e Cambridge Encyclopedia by David Crystal (1991), Cambridge University Press.
Illustrations by Amanda MacPhail, Kathy Baxendale and Ken Brooks.
Why was this book written?
It was written to help you to improve your English vocabulary. It will help you to learn not only the meanings of words but also how they are used. You can use this book either with a teacher or for self-study.
How is the book organised?
The book has 100 two-page units. In most units, the left-hand page explains the words and expressions to be studied in that unit. Where appropriate, it gives information about how the words are used as well as their meaning. The right-hand page checks that you have understood the information on the left-hand page by giving you a series of
exercises practising what you have just learnt. Occasionally the right-hand page will also teach you some more new words.
There is a key at the back of the book. The key does not always simply give you one right answer. It sometimes also comments on the answers and will help you learn more about the words studied in the unit.
There is an index at the back of the book. This lists all the words and phrases covered in the book and refers you to the units where these words or phrases are discussed. The index also tells you how difficult and unusual words are pronounced. It uses the International Phonetic Alphabet to do this and the symbols you need to know are listed at the beginning of the index.
How should I use this book?
The book is divided into a number of sections. Complete the seven introductory units first. These units not only teach you some useful new vocabulary but they also help you with useful techniques for vocabulary learning in general. After completing those units, you might want t o work straight through the book or you might prefer t o d o the units in any order that suits you.
W h a t else do I need in order to work with this book?
You need some kind of vocabulary notebook or file where you can write down the new words you are learning. (See Unit 3 for advice on how to d o this.)
You also need to have access to a couple of good dictionaries. This book selects the words that are most important for you to learn at your level and it gives you the most important information about those words but you will sometimes need to refer to a dictionary as well for extra information about meaning and usage. Firstly, you need an English-English dictionary for foreign learners. Good ones are The Cambridge
International Dictionary of English, the Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English, the Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary and the Collins Cobuild English Language Dictionary, for example. Secondly, you will also find a good bilingual dictionary useful.
Ask a teacher to recommend a good bilingual dictionary for you. (See Unit 5 for advice on using your dictionaries.)
1 Learning vocabulary - general advice
What do you need to learn?
1 How many words are there in English? At least:
a ) 10,000 b) 100,000 c) 250,000 d ) 500,000
2 Winston Churchill was famous for his particularly large vocabulary. H o w many words did he use in his writing?
a ) 10,000 b) 60,000 c) 100,000 d ) 120,000
3 H o w many words does the average native English speaker use in hislher everyday speech?
a ) 2,500 b) 5,000 c) 7,500 d ) 10,000
4 H o w many words make up 4 5 % of everything written in English?
a ) 5 0 b) 250 c) 1,000 d ) 2,500
T o sum up, there are many words you don't need at all and there are other words that you simply need to understand when you read or hear them. Finally, there are words which you need to be able to use yourself. Clearly you need to spend most time learning this last group.
In the text below mark the words you'd like to be able to use.
English vocabulary has a remarkable range, flexibility and adaptability. Thanks to the periods of contact with foreign languages and its readiness to coin new words out of old elements, English seems to have far more words in its core vocabulary than other languages. For example, alongside kingly (from Anglo-Saxon) we find royal (from French) and regal (from Latin). There are many such sets of words which add greatly to our opportunities to express subtle shades of meaning at various levels of style.
You probably marked many words that you would like to be able to use. Unless you are studying linguistics, however, you probably need only to understand, rather than to use, the verb 'coin' as used in the context above.
What does knowing a new word mean?
It is not enough lust to know the meaning of a word. You also need to know: - ,
a ) what words it is usually associated with
b) whether it has any particular grammatical characteristics c) how it is pronounced
Try to learn new words not in isolation but in phrases.
Write down adjectives together with nouns they are often associated with and vice versa, e.g. royal family; rich vocabulary.
Write down verbs with the structure and nouns associated with them, e.g. to add to our knowledge of the subject; to express an opinion.
Write down nouns in phrases, e.g. in contact with; a train set; shades of opinion.
Write down words with their prepositions, e.g. at a high level; thanks to your help.
Note any grammatical characteristics of the words you are studying. For example, note when a verb is irregular and when a noun is uncountable or is only used in the plural.
Make a note of any special pronunciation problems with the words you're learning.
2 What would you record beside the following words?
a ) scissors b) weather c) teach d ) advice e) lose f) trousers 3 What might you note beside the following words?
a ) comb b) catastrophe c) photograph/photographer Can you learn just by reading or listening to English?
You will certainly help yourself to learn English vocabulary not only by studying with this book but also by reading and listening to English. Give each of the items on the lists below a mark from 0 to 4 describing how important this way of learning vocabulary could be for you personally. Example: newspapers 3
newspapers TV (cable 1 subtitled) cinema magazines video radio (e.g. BBC World Service) academic or professional literature fiction simplified readers (with or without cassettes)
music or other cassettes talking to native speakers
W h a t should you do when you come across new words?
When you are reading something in English, don't look up every new word or expression or you will soon get fedVup. Only look upsomething that is ;eally important for understanding the text. When you have finished reading, look back at what you have read and then perhaps look up some extra words and write down new expressions that interest you.
Similarly when you listen to English don't panic when you hear some words or expressions that you don't know. Keep listening and the overall meaning will often become clear.
When you read or listen to English it is sometimes possible to guess the meaning of a word you don't know before you look up or ask its meaning. Decide first what part of speech the word is and then look for clues in its context or form.
Before you read the text below, check whether you know what the underlined words mean.
A tortoise is a shelled reptile f a m e d f o r its slowness a n d lonaevitv.
The Giant Tortoise o f the Galapagos m a y attain over 1.5 metres i n length a n d have a lifespan o f m o r e than 150 years. Smaller tortoises f r o m Southern Europe a n d N o r t h Africa make popular pets. They need t o be tended carefully i n cool climates a n d m u s t have a w a r m place i n w h i c h they can hibernate.
Which of the marked words can you perhaps guess from the context or from the way the word is formed? Guess and then check whether you were correct by using a dictionary. Some words are impossible to guess from context or the structure of the word. In such cases, ask someone or go to a dictionary for help.
How are you going to plan your vocabulary learning?
1 H o w many words and expressions d o you intend to learn each week?
a ) 5 b) 10 C ) 1 5 d ) more Chan 1 5 2 Where and when are you going to learn them?
a ) on your way to school or work b) before dinner c) in bed d ) other 3 H o w often are you going to revise your work?
2 Learning vocabulary - aids to learning
Help yourself to learn by learning associated words together Learn words with associated meanings together.
Learning words together that are associated in meaning is a popular and useful way of organising your vocabulary study.
1 Complete this network for the word CAT. Add as many other bubbles as you like.
If possible, compare your network with those done by other students. Add any of their ideas that you like to your network.
Learn words with a grammatical association together.
2 Here are some groups of words, each of which has a grammatical connection. Can you see what the connection is? What other words could you add to these groups?
a ) child tooth ox b) cut split burst c) information furniture food Learn together words based on the same root.
3 Can you add any words or expressions to these two groups?
a ) price priceless overpriced
b) handy single-handed give me a hand
Pictures and diagrams can help you learn
Here are some ways in which pictures might help you to remember vocabulary.
Can you draw any pictures that would help you remember the following vocabulary?
a circle to look a gift horse in the mouth screwdriver
Word forks are good ways of learning adjectives and verbs.
2 Look at the complete word forks below. Finish the others.
o r i g a l
4S~_O_OL.~: ---- kick
... ... ... ... .. ... ...
direct i a film view bounce
'a ball .-
star in I
Matrices can also clarify collocations.
This book will sometimes use matrices to help t o clarify word associations. Look at the following example of a matrix:
3 Now complete the following sentences.
a ) She has always wanted t o have the chance t o . . . a train.
b) Russian women are not allowed t o . . . passenger aircraft.
C ) . . . a motorbike can be very dangerous.
You will do moie practice with these and other ways of writing down vocabulary in Unit 3.
to fly t o drive t o ride
Organising a vocabulary notebook
There is no one correct way to organise a vocabulary notebook, but it is a good idea to think about possible ways of doing so. Here are some possibilities and examples.
Organising words by meaning
This book divides vocabulary into a large number of different topics, probably far too many for a notebook, but you could try dividing your book into different broad sections, with sections for words for feelings, words to describe places, words for movement, words for thinking, etc. In this way you can build families of words related in meaning.
Using various types of diagrams
Words thar can be grouped under a heading or a more general word can be drawn as a tree- diagram. (See also Unit 2.)
/ FURN/TURE 1
sofa bookcase ... lamp
bedY'Om\. . . /kitchen\
stool dresser The dotted lines mean that you can add more words to the tree as you meet them.
A bubble-network is also useful, since you can make it grow in whatever direction you want it to. (See Unit 2.)
Organising by word-class
A Spanish learner of English, Angeles, gave us an interview on how she marks word-class in her personal notebook. This is what she said:
'What I have j u s t s t a r t e d doing is t o write t h e m depending on if t h e y are verbs o r nouns o r adjectives o r phrases. If t h e y are phrases I write t h e m in red and also t h e definition. If t h e y are verbs, in black, and blue i f t h e y are nouns.. .And i f I write t h e Spanish translation I write i t in another colour, so i t ' s easy t o see.. .I draw some pictures too.'
When you meet a synonym or an antonym of a word you already have in your book, enter it next to that word with a few notes:
Here is a list of words a Spanish learner of English has made in her vocabulary notebook.
How could she improve them and organise them better?
Here is a word-map, a variation on the bubble-netwo~
in the middle of the diagram?
-k. What word do you think should go
One learner we interviewed said he tested himself regularly with his notebook, covering up the word and trying to guess it from the translation he had written or from any other notes he had made. This was his system:
1 If the notes and/or translation were clear but he could not get the word, he made a small red mark in the margin. If any word got three red marks, then it needed extra attention and a special effort to learn it.
2 If the notes and/or translation could not help him guess what the word might be, then the word got a blue mark. A blue mark meant 'Write more information about this word!'
What is your testing system? Try to make one if you have not got one, or ask other people what they do. Try your system out and decide whether it needs improving.
Making tables for word-classes is a good idea, since you can fill in the gaps over time. What do you think this learner will put in the remaining gaps in the table?
production produce . . . producer
industry ... industrial ...
export . . . . . . ...
The names of English language words
The names of basic parts of speech in English
article adjective noun verb adverb preposition conjunction pronoun gerund
i J u . ' 4 i J J 1(
A good student works hard at her books and she enjoys learning.
Words relating to nouns
Look at the sentence An artist loves beauty; artist is countable, i.e. it has a plural form (artists), but beauty is uncountable; artist is the subject of the verb as it describes who does the verb; beauty is the object, i.e. what is affected by the verb.
Words relating to verbs
infinitive (to go) -ing form (going) past participle (gone)
Go (go, gone, went) is an irregular verb whereas live (live, lived, lived) is regular. Go is also intransitive because it does not need an object, e.g. Has Luis gone? Make is transitive because it is followed by an object - you make something.
Words relating to the construction of words
In the word, irregularity, ir- is a prefix, regular is a root and -ity is a suffix. Fat is the opposite or antonym of thin and plump is a synonym of fat. A word family is a set of words based on one root, e.g. word, wordy, to reword. A phrase does not include a main verb - 'in a word' is an example of a phrase. A sentence has a main verb; it begins with a capital letter and ends with a full stop.
Words relating to pronunciation
A syllable is the minimum sound unit of a language consisting of one vowel and any consonants on either side. There are three syllables in the word 'minimum' (the first is mi, the second is ni and the third is mum) and the stress is on the first syllable. Onomatopoeia means forming words that sound like their meaning, e.g. moo, buzz.
Words and their associations
Register means a style of speaking or writing appropriate to a particular social situation.
Thus, slang is an extremely informal register and is only used by people who know each other very well. Colloquial is an adjective referring to language that is suitable mainly for conversation, e.g. He's a nice guy. Pejorative describes words which have a negative association. Pig-headed is pejorative whereas determined, which is very close in meaning, is not. Collocation refers to words which frequently occur together, e.g. torrential rain, auburn hair.
Words describing punctuation
- hyphen - dash !
( ) brackets " " inverted commas ANNE
semi-colon ' apostrophe exclamation mark ? question mark block capitals
4.1 Look at the paragraph about register in F opposite. Find at least three examples of each of the following:
. . .
1 nouns ...
2 verbs . . .
3 adjectives ...
. . .. . .
4 adverbs . . .
. .. . .
5 prepositions . . .
. . .. . .
Considering the words in their context in F opposite, mark the nouns you've written in 4.1 with a C (countable) or UC (uncountable). Mark the verbs R (regular) or IR (irregular) and T (transitive) or IT intransitive.
3Complete the following table.
verb infinitive -ing form past participle
define . . .
mean . . . ... . .
.... . . .... . .
write . . . . . .
.4 Think about the word informal.
1 What is its root, its prefix and its suffix?
2 What is its opposite or antonym?
3 Has it got any synonyms?
4 What words are included in its word family?
5 Use it in ( a ) a phrase and ( b ) a sentence.
Look at all the words in bold in sections E, F and G opposite. In each case mark which syllable is stressed.
Match the following colloquial words with their more formal equivalents below.
1 chat (verb) 2 loo 3 chap 4 put up with 5 fiddle (noun) man violin lavatory converse tolerate
The following pairs of words are close in meaning but one word in each case is pejorative.
1 terrorist / freedom-fighter 3 fluent /wordy 5 cunning / shrewd 2 slim / skinny 4 mean /thrifty 6 generous / extravagant 4.8 Give examples of collocations based on the words noun, word and colloquial.
Example: uncountable noun
4.9 Cover the left-hand page and write the names of the following punctuation marks.
5 Using your dictionary
Good dictionaries can tell you a lot more about a word than just its meaning, including (among other things):
Synonyms and their differences, e.g. mislay and lose Antonyms (opposites), e.g. friend z enemytfoe
Collocations (how words go together), e.g. auburn combines only with hair (or connected words, e.g. curls)
Pronunciation: this will mean learning some symbols which are different from the letters of the English alphabet.
0 th in thick 6 th in then tJ ch in church J sh in she dg j in jam 3 s in pleasure
IJ ng in ring a: a in bad D o in top
3: o in form u u in put a a in about
A u in up 3: i in bird
Most other symbols look just like ordinary letters of the English alphabet and their pronunciation is not so hard to guess. But check the table given in the index.
Word stress: often shown by a mark before the syllable to be stressed or by underlining, e.g. adlventJa/, /=tan/. Make sure you know how your dictionary marks stress.
Usage: how a word is used and any special grammatical pattern that goes with it, e.g. suggest
+clause (not an infinitive) - I suggest you ring her right away.
Whether a word is used for people and/or things. For example, look at this entry for malignant:
ma..fig-nant /malhgnant/ adj 1 (of people or their achons) feeling or showing great desire to harm others; malevolent: a malignant slander, attack, thrmt. 2 ( a ) (of a tumour) growing uncontrol- lably, and likely to prove fatal: The growth is not malignant. (b) (of diseases) harmful to life.
I> ma.lig.nancy 1-nansri n 1 [U] state of being
malignant. 2 [C] mahgnant tumour.
Word-class (usually abbreviations n: noun, adj: adjective, etc.), whether a noun is countable or uncountable, and whether a verb is normally transitive (needs an object) or intransitive (doesn't need a n object).
Don't forget that most words have more than one meaning. In this example, only the second meaning corresponds to the way hairy is used in this sentence:
It was a really hairy journey on the mountain road.
hairy /he&/, hairier, hairiest. 1 Someone or A D J Q U * ~ ~ ~
somelhmg that 1s hairy 1s covered wlth h a ~ r . EG ... a plump child wffh hafry legs ... ... a brg, hairy man..
The funcllon of a mammal's harry coal IS to m u l a r e the body.
2 If vou describe a situation a s halry, you meal, that ADJQUNIJ
11 IS excltlng, worryrng, and ralher frrghtening, a = new' very rnformal use. EG It go1 a lillle h a i w when we "cklng'rary drove hrm to Ihe slalron with less lhan lwo minules to spare.
With a bilingual dictionary, try a double search: look up a word in your language; the dictionary may give several possibilities in English. Look up each of those possibilities in the English section of the dictionary to see how they translate back into your language. This may help you to separate synonyms.
If you own a dictionary, make a little mark in the margin each time you look a word up. If a word gets three or more marks, it is worth an extra effort t o learn it. What other learning techniques are there for dictionaries?
Small, bilingual dictionaries often just give three or four translations for a word you look up, without any explanation. Here are some pictures with translations you might find in such a dictionary. Which ones fit in the sentences? You may need to use a monolingual dictionary.
sofa divan couch settee
boots bootees sailing boat ketch
wellingtons dinghy yacht
1 Come and sit on the . . . and relax a while.
. . .
2 She bought a huge, luxury and went off round the world.
3 If you're going to stand in the water you should take your . . .
4 It's not a proper yacht; it's just a tiny little . . .
5.3 Which definition of casual fits which sentence?
casual / k d u " a l / , casuals. I Something that 1s casual 1.1 happens or IS done by chance or wlthout *or-
plannmg. ffi Her casual remark caused a polit~cal 8 acc'*enLal stoi m... ... a casual meetrng. o casually. ffi ... a casual- o mv m vn ly acqulred object. I f is rather careless and done *or-
wlthout much interest ffi I bad a casual glance al Ihe = SuPemc'a' pape rs... ... a casual Inendship. o casually. o m v m w 2 If you are casual. you are, or you pretend to be. * o r ~ u u r r calm and not very interested In what is happenmg or = nonchalant what you are domg. ffi He Vied lo appear casual as
he asked her lo dance ... a casual wave. o casually o m v m w
ffi I walked casually rnto his room. o casualness. ffi o ~ u r n n r m With studied casualness he mentioned 11 to Hilary
J Casual clothes are clothes that are suitable lor *or-
when you are at home or dolng lhlngs other than '-
working, but are not sultable lor work or formal
. .n'nformal occasions. ffi ... a casual sh~rl. used as a plural noun. n m u w
ffi smart casuals. o casually. ffi He was dressed o m m v n casually
4 Casual work IS done for only a short time. and not *or-
on a permanent or regular basis. ffi They employ casual workers lo prck u e fruf I... ... a casual job.
1 It was quite a casual outfit, just right for such an informal occasion.
(definition no. ... ..)
2 I only said it casually, but it shocked her. (... ... . ) 3 I don't get a salary; I'm just a casual. (. . . . . )
4 It was just a casual encounter, but it changed my life. (. . . . . . ) Pronunciation. What English words are these?
5 In the dictionary entry for hairy opposite how many synonyms can you see for the different
6 Revising vocabulary
Here is an extract from a psychology book on the importance of revising in an active way.
Probably the commonest fault among students is failure to realise that learning is essentially an active process. Too many students sit for hours passively reading and re- reading notes and textbooks, without ever attempting actively to recall what they have read. The fallacy of this method has been amply shown by experiments.
The same principles apply to more advanced forms of learning: for effective memory, some form of active expression is essential. The student, therefore, should read through the material he wants to master with close attention and should then r e p r o d u c e t h e m a i n points aloud or p r o d u c e a written summary
...An h o u r ' s concentrated work of this kind is more effective than three hours' passive reading.
(From A Modern Introduction to Psychology. Rex and Margaret Knight)
Revising with this book
When you revise a unit, first read it through. Then look a t anything you wrote in your vocabulary notebook connected with the unit.
Then, and most importantly, try t o d o something different with the new words and expressions in that unit in order to help fix them in your memory.
Here are some suggestions:
Highlight (or underline) any words and expressions that you had forgotten or were not , sure about.
Look a t the unit and choose ten words and expressions that you particularly want or need to learn. Write them down.
Look u p any words that you selected in an English-English dictionary. D o these words have any other uses or associations that might help you learn them? Looking u p the verb, wish, for example, might lead you to wishbone or wishful thinking. Write anything that appeals t o you in an appropriate phrase or sentence.
Perhaps the dictionary can also help you find some other words based o n the same root.
Looking u p the noun, employment, will lead you t o the verb, employ, t o the nouns, employer and employee, and, perhaps, to the adjectives employable, unemployed and self- employed.
Write down the words and expressions you wish t o learn in phonetic script. Use a dictionary to help you.
Write down the words and phrases from a unit in your notebook in a different way - put them into a network or a table, perhaps.
The next day, ask yourself again: H o w much can I remember?
Test yourself. Cover part of a word or phrase. Can you remember the complete word or phrase?
When you have done all the steps above that you feel will be useful to you, close your book and notebook and remind yourself of what you have been studying. H o w much can you remember?
step from having something in your passive vocabulary t o having it in your active vocabulary.
Encourage this process by:
writing the words and expressions you are trying t o learn in a sentence relating t o your life and interests at the moment.
making a point of using the new words and expressions in your next class or homework.
keeping a learning diary in which you note down things that particularly interest you about the words you have learnt.
watching out for the words and expressions you are trying t o learn in your general reading of English. If you come across any of them in use, write them down in their context in your diary or notebook.
writing a paragraph or story linking the words and expressions you want to learn.
W h a t can you remember?
1 What d o you remember now from the first six units in this book? Answer without looking back at the units.
2 N o w read through the units again.
3 H o w much d o you remember about the units now?
4 Choose at least one word and expression from each unit and work through all the
suggestions made in B and C above. It may not always be appropriate in your future study t o d o all the steps in B but try them now for practice.
Some plans for your work with this book
1 H o w often are you going to revise what you have done? (Every week? Every five units?) 2 Which techniques are you going to use for revising?
3 N o w write yourself some notes to remind yourself of when you are going to revise. You might like, for instance, to write revise vocabulary in your diary for the next eight Fridays, if you decided to revise every week. Alternatively you could write REVISE in capital letters after, say, every five units in the book.
7 Formal and informal words
Formality is all about your relationship with the person you're speaking or writing to. If you use formal language, it may be because you wish to show respect, politeness, or to put yourself at a distance (for example, 'official' language). Informal language can show
friendliness, equality or a feeling of closeness and solidarity with someone. You should never use informal language just to sound fluent or clever.
Scales of formality
Some groups of words can be put on a scale from (very) formal to (very) informal.
Ivery formal neutral very informal
offspring children kids
abodelresidence houselflat place alcoholic beverages drink booze
Short, monosyllabic informal words
Informal versions of words are often short and monosyllabic, as we can see in the right-hand column in the table in A. They include slang words. (Unit 95 has more examples.)
It cost me ten quid. [pounds]
I'll help you peel the spuds. [potatoes]
My bike's been stolen. [bicycle]
I always go by tube. [word used for the London Underground]
Come and meet my Mum and Dad. [mother and father]
Hi! Can't stop; see you, bye! [hello; goodbye]
The milk's in the fridge. [refrigerator]
Shortening a word tends to make it less formal, as in fridge and bye in B.
1'11 meet you in the lab(oratory). What's on telly tonight? [television]
We should put an ad(vertisement) 1 an advert(isement) in the (news)paper. I Shall I (te1e)phone them?
Her sister's a vet(erinary surgeon).
Formality in notices, instructions, etc.
You will often see rather formal words in notices and suchlike. Make sure you know the meaning of the words used so that you could tell someone what the notice says using less formal words.
DO NOT ALIGHT WHILE DO NOT ADDRESS TH
DRIVER UNLESS THE B
THE BUS IS IN MOTION IS STATIONARY
BE PAID FOR IN ADVANCE before boarding the train
If you look up an informal word in a monolingual dictionary, you will often find a neutral equivalent as part of the definition or explanation. For example, the Collins COBUILD dictionary entry for kid says: A kid is a child; an informal use.
Use a monolingual dictionary t o find neutral or more formal words for these:
1 kip 2 a pal 3 a chap 4 cheerio 5 swot 6 ta! 7 brainy
Make this conversation more informal by changing some of the words. Refer to the left- hand page if necessary.
~ I M : Annie, can you lend me five pounds?
ANNIE: What for?
JIM: Well, I have to go and visit my mother and father, and my bicycle's not working, so 1'11 have to take a taxi.
ANNIE: Can't you telephone them and say you can't come?
JIM: Well, I could, except I want t o go because they always have lots of food, and the refrigerator at our flat is empty, as usual.
ANNIE: Can't you go by Underground?
ANNIE: Anyway, the answer's no.
Say whether you feel the following remarkdsentences are okay, too formal or too informal for each situation described. If the remarklsentence is unsuitable, suggest what the person might say instead.
1 (Teenage boy to teenage girl a t disco): D'you fancy an appointment one night next week?
2 (Parent to another parent a t a school parents meeting): H o w many offspring d o you have at the school?
3 (Dinner-guest to host/hostess): N o thanks, I never consume alcoholic beverages when I'm
4 (Student to University Professor): Will there be lab demonstrations next week?
5 (Business letter to a newspaper office): Dear SirIMadam,
I should like t o enquire about the current charges for ads in your paper. My company is considering..
Mini-quiz: Find words on the left-hand page for the following.
1 The opposite of stationary.
2 The opposite of to board.
3 a ) t o be sorry b) to buy c ) to speak t o 4 Informal versions of Greetings! and Farewell!
Express these notices in neutral or informal language.
Children are reque xpenses can only be reimbursed deposit litter in the play-area upon production of dated receipts
(See also Units 95 and 96 for other informal and formal words and expressions.)
Suffixes can change the word-class and the meaning of the word.
Common noun suffixes
-er /a/ is used for the person who does an activity, e.g. writer, worker, shopper, teacher.
You can use -er with a wide range of verbs to make them into nouns.
Sometimes, the /a/ suffix is written a s s i n s t e a d of -er. It is worth making a special list of these as you meet them, e.g. actor, operator, sailor, supervisor.
-er/-or are also used for things which do a particular job, e.g. pencil-sharpener, bottle- opener, grater, projector.
-er a n d ~ a n contrast with each other meaning 'person who does something.' (-er) and
-'person who receives or experiences the action' (-ee), e.g. employer/employee, sender/addressee,$ayee (e.g. of a cheque).
-(t)ion /J(a)n/ is used to make nouns from verbs.
-complication pollution reduction alteration donation admission -ist [person] and -ism [activity or ideology]: used for people's politics, beliefs and ideologies, and sometimes t E r o f e s s i o n (compare with -er/-or professions above),
e.g. Marxism, Buddhism, journalism, anarchist, physicist, terrorist.
-ist is also often used for people who play musical instruments, e.g. pianist, violinist, cellist.
- --ness is used to make nouns from adjectives. Note what happens to adjectives that end in -y:
goodness, readiness, forgetfulness, happiness, sadness, weakness.
, Adjective suffix
-able/-ible lab11 with verbs, means 'can be done'.
drinkable washable readable recognizable countable forgivable Exampled with&edible (can be eaten) flexible (can be bent)
-ise (or -ize_) makes verbs from adjectives, e.g. modernise, commercialise, industrialise.
Other suffixes that can help you recognise the word class -ment: (nouns) excitement enjoyment replacement
-ity: (nouns) flexibility . A productivity scarcity
-hood: (abstract nouns esvecially family terms) childhood motherhood
-ship: (abstract nouns especially status) friendship partnership membership -ive: (adjectives) passive productive active
-adjectives) brutal legal (nouns) refusal arrival
-011s: (adjectives) delicious outrageous furious -ful: (adjectives) forgetful hopeful useful -(adjectives) useless harmless
-ify: (verbs) beautify purify terrify
Note: the informal suffix -ish, which can be added to most common adjectives, ages and times to make them less precise, e.g. She's thirtyish. He has reddish hair. Come about eightish.
The -er/-or, -ee and -ist suffixes. Use the suffixes to give the names of the following.
Example: A person who plays jazz on the piano. a jazz pianist 1 The thing that wipes rain off your car windscreen.
2 A person who plays classical violin.
3 A person who takes professional photographs. (N.B. pronunciation)
I 4 A person who acts in amateur theatre.
5 The person to whom a cheque is made out.
6 A machine for washing dishes.
7 A person who donates their kidneys upon their death.
8 The person to whom a letter is addressed.
8.2 Each picture is of an object ending in -er, Can you name them?
List six jobs you would like to have in order of preference. How many different suffixes are there in your list? Do any of the job names not have a suffix? (e.g. pilot, film star)
Do these words mean a thing, a person, or both?
1 a cooker 3 a ticket-holder 5 a cleaner
h7 a drinker, 2 a typewriter 4 a record player 6 a smoker I
Spelling changes. Rewrite each sentence by changing the underlined words, using a suffix from the left-hand page. Make any spelling changes needed.
1 Most of his crimes can be forgiven.
Most of his crimes are . . .
2 The Club refuses to admit anyone not wearing a tie.
The Club refuses . . . to anyone not wearing a tie.
3 Her only fault is that she is
Her only fault is . . .
4 This firm has produced a lot in recent years.
This firm has been very . . . in recent years.
5 I found the book very easy and pleasant to read.
I found the book very . . .
Can you think of anything in your country which should be nationalised (e.g. banks, steel works), standardised, modemised, conzputerised or centralised?
Which word is the odd one out in each group and why?
1 brotherhood neighbourhood manhood priesthood 2 hair-restorer plant-holder step-ladder oven-cleaner 3 appointment involvement compliment arrangement
4 tearful spiteful dreadful L n d M
Prefixes are often used to give adjectives a negative meaning. The opposite of 'comfortable' is 'uncomfortable', the opposite of 'convenient' is 'inconvenient' and the opposite of 'similar' is 'dissimilar'. Other examples are 'unjust', 'inedible', 'disloyal'. Unfortunately, there is no easy way of knowing which prefix any adjective will use to form its opposite. When you learn a new adjective note down whether it has an opposite formed with a prefix and, if so, what it is.
in- becomes im- before a root beginning with 'm' or 'p', e.g. immature, impatient, impartial, improbable. Similarly in- becomes ir- before a word beginning with 'r', and il- before a word beginning with 'l', e.g. irreplaceable, irreversible, illegal, illegible, illiterate.
The prefix in- does not always have a negative meaning - often it gives the idea of inside or into, e.g. internal, import, insert, income.
Although it is mainly adjectives which are made negative by prefixes, un- and dis- car1 also form the opposites of verbs too, e.g. appear disappear. The prefix is used here to reverse the action of the verb. Here are some more examples: disagree, disapprove, disbelieve,
disconnect, discredit, dislike, dismount, disprove, disqualify, unbend, undo, undress, unfold, unload, unlock, unveil, unwrap, unzip.
Many other prefixes are used in English. Here is a list of prefixes which are useful in helping you to understand unfamiliar words. Some of these words are used with a hyphen. Check in . . a dictionary if you're not sure.
prefix meaning examples
anti auto bi ex ex micro mis mono multi over post Pro pseudo re semi sub under
of or by oneself two, twice former out of small
badlylwrongly onelsingle many too much after in favour of false
again or back half
under not enough
anti-war antisocial antibiotic autograph auto-pilot autobiography bicycle bi-monthly biannual bilingual ex-wife ex-student ex-president
extract exhale excommunicate
micro-computer microwave microscopic misunderstand mistranslate misinform monotonous monologue monogamous multi-national multi-purpose multi-racial overdo overtired oversleep overeat postwar postgraduate post-revolutionary pro-government pro-revolutionary
pseudo-scientific pseudo-intellectual retype reread replace rewind semicircular semi-final semi-detached subway submarine subdivision underworked underused undercooked
Practise using words with negative prefixes. Contradict the following statements in the same way as the example. Not all the words you need are on the left-hand page.
Example: He's a very honest man. I don't agree. I think he's dishonest.
1 I'm sure she's discreet. 6 He's very efficient.
2 I always find him very sensitive. 7 I always find her responsible.
3 It's a convincing argument. 8 H e seems grateful for our help.
4 That's a very relevant point. 9 I'm sure she's loyal to the firm.
5 She's always obedient. 10 He's a tolerant person.
Which negative adjective fits each of the following definitions?
1 ... means not having a husband or wife.
2 ... means impossible to eat.
3 ... means unable to read or write.
4 ... means not having a job.
5 ... means fair in giving judgement, not favouring one side.
6 ... means unable to be replaced.
Choose a negative verb from B to fit each of the sentences below. Put it in the correct form.
Example: The runner was disqualified after a blood test.
1 Children (and adults) love ... .... parcels at Christmas time.
2 I almost always find that I . . . with his opinion.
3 I'm sure he's lying but it's going to be hard to . . . his story.
4 After a brief speech the Queen . . . the new statue.
5 It took the removal men an hour . . . our things from the van.
6 His phone was . . . because he didn't pay his last bill.
Answer the following questions. The answers are all in the table opposite.
1 What kind of oven cooks things particularly fast?
2 What kind of drug can help somebody with an infection?
3 What kind of company has branches in many countries?
4 How does a passenger aeroplane normally fly?
5 What is a student who is studying for a second degree?
6 What means 'underground railway' in the US and 'underground passage' in the UK?
9.5 Using the table opposite construct words or phrases to replace the underlined words.
Example: He's in favour of the American approach. He's pro-American.
1 The BBC tries to avoid pronouncing foreign words incorrectly.
2 Most people say they have to work too hard but are paid too little.
3 He dated his cheque with a date that was later than the real date.
4 She's still on good terms with the man who used to be her husband.
5 He made so many mistakes in the letter that he had to write it again.
I Think of two more examples for each prefix in C opposite.
Many words in English are formed from a set of Latin roots with different prefixes and suffixes. Knowing the roots of such words may help you to remember or guess their meaning when you see them in context. These words are usually fairly formal. In their formation, they can perhaps be seen as the Latinate, formal, equivalent of phrasal verbs.
Here are some examples of the more common Latm roots, with some of the verbs derived from them. In each case an example sentence is given with the meaning of the verb in brackets at the end. You'll find some easier to understand than others.
spect: see, look
You should respect your parents 1 the laws of a country. [look up to]
The police suspected he was guilty but they had no proof. [had a feeling]
Many pioneers travelled west in America to prospect for gold. [search]
I tried a word-processor but I soon reverted to my old typewriter. [went back]
Missionaries went to Africa to convert people to Christianity. [change beliefs]
The royal scandal diverted attention from the political crisis. [took attention away]
port: carry, take
H o w are you going to transport your things to the States? [send across]
Britain imports cotton and exports wool. [buys in, sells out]
The roof is supported by the old beams. [held up]
duc, duct: lead
She was educated abroad. [went to school]
He conducted the orchestra with great vigour. [led]
Japan produces a lot of electronic equipment. [makes]
press: press, push
She was impressed by his presentation. [full of admiration and respect]
This weather depresses me. [makes me feel miserable]
She always expresses herself very articulately. [puts her thoughts into words]
pose, pone: place, put
The meeting has been postponed until next week. [changed t o a later date]
The king was deposed by his own son. [put off the throne]
I don't want to impose my views on you. [force]
Above you only have examples of verbs. Note that for all the verbs listed, there is usually at least one noun and at least one adjective as well. Here are some examples.
verb person noun adjective abstract noun
inspect inspector inspecting inspection advertise advertiser advertising advertisement
deport deportee deported deportation
introduce introducer introductory introduction oppress oppressor oppressive oppression
compose composer composite composition
Complete as much as possible of the table with other forms of some of the words presented in B. Use a dictionary to help you if necessary.
verb person noun adjectiue abstract n o m
. . .
convert . . . ... . .
. . .
produce .,. .-- . . .
conduct . . .
impress . . . . . .
. . .
10.2 Fill in the gaps in the sentences below using words from the table in C.
1 We stayed in a town surrounded by high mountains. I found it very . . . . . .
2 He from the USA for having a forged passport.
. . .
3 The magazine seems t o have nothing in it but for cosmetics.
4 May I . . . you t o my boss?
5 The tax . . . decided I owed a lot of money.
. . .
6 The new take-away pizza service has a very good offer.
7 Business people always say that it pays . . .
8 Tchaikovsky . . . some wonderful ballet music.
Can you work out the meanings of the underlined words in the sentences below?
T o help you, here are the meanings of the main Latin prefixes:
intro: within, inward o, ob: against in, im: in, into re: again, back de: down, from ex: out sub: under trans: across
1 She's a very introspective person and he's also very introverted.
2 He always seems t o oppose everything I suggest.
3 They have a very good induction programme for new staff in that company.
4 I don't think it is healthy to repress one's emotions too much.
5 Perhaps you can deduce what the word means from the way it is formed.
6 The documentary exposed corruption in high places.
7 She tried hard to suppress a laugh.
8 She transposed the music for the flute.
Think of three other words based on each of the roots listed in B opposite. Put each into an appropriate phrase.
Pair the formal verbs below with their phrasal verb equivalents.
support put off oppose look at cut down deposit hold up postpone turn away inspect go against divert reduce put down
An abstract noun is one which is used to mean an idea, experience or quality rather than an object. Thus happiness, intention and shock are abstract nouns whereas, for example, pen, bed and trousers are not.
There are a number of suffixes which are used particularly frequently in the formation of abstract nouns. Some of the most common are -ment, -ion, -ness and -ity.
Note: -ment and -ion are usually used to make verbs into abstract nouns whereas -ness and -ity are added to adjectives; -ion sometimes becomes -tion, +ion, -ation or -ition.
Here are some examples of abstract nouns using those suffixes.
achievement action aggressiveness absurdity adjustment collection attractiveness anonymity
amazement combination bitterness complexity
discouragement illusion carelessness curiosity improvement imagination consciousnes~ generosity investment production permissiveness hostility replacement recognition tenderness prosperity
retirement reduction ugliness sensitivity
Less common suffixes associated with abstract nouns are -ship, -dom, -th and -hood.
Note: -ship and -hood are usually used in combination with other nouns whereas -th combines with an adjective to form an abstract noun and -dom can combine with either a noun or an adjective.
Here are some examples of abstract nouns using those suffixes.
apprenticeship boredom breadth adulthood
companionship freedom depth brotherhood
membership kingdom length childhood
ownership martyrdom strength motherhood
partnership stardom warmth neighbowhood
relationship wisdom width (wo)manhood
There are also a large number of abstract nouns which do not use any suffix at all. Here are some examples of these.
anger belief calm chance
faith fear humour idea
luck principle rage reason
sense sight speed thought
You will find more examples of the use of suffixes in Units 8 and 10 and of abstract nouns in Units 68 and 69.
.I What is the abstract noun related to each of the following adjectives? All the nouns are formed in ways described on the opposite page although not all are listed opposite.
Example: affectionate affection
1 affectionate 5 amused 9 attentive 13 equal 2 excited 6 graceful 10 happy 14 hopeful 3 kind 7 original 11 popular 15 resentful
4 secure 8 stupid 12 weak 16 wise
Find at least one more noun using each of the suffixes in B and C.
11.3 Which abstract noun on the opposite page is a synonym of each of the following?
Example: animosity hostility or aggressiveness
1 animosity 5 substitution 9 vision 2 astonishment 6 fame 10 liberty 3 inquisitiveness 7 decrease 11 fury
4 fraternity 8 area 12 wealth
I I -4Complete the following table.
Iabstract noun adjective verb adverb
contentment content(ed) to content contenedly
argument . . .
emptiness ... ... ...
intensity ... ... ...
satisfaction ... ...
sentiment ... ... ...
strength ... ... ...
Which of the words in the list below is being described in the following quotations?
love permanence hope jealousy happiness beauty 1 ' ... is no more than feeling alone among smiling enemies.'
2 '.. ... is like coke; something you get as the by-product of making
something else.' -
3 ' ... is the power of being cheerful in circumstances which we know to
4 ' ... is a universal migraine.'
5 'The British love ... more than they love ...
I1.6 Write your own quotations to describe the following abstract nouns.
1 freedom 2 friendship 3 life 4 curiosity 5 imagination
A compound adjective is an adjective which is made up of two parts and is usually written with a hyphen, e.g. well-dressed, never-ending and shocking-pink. Its meaning is usually clear from the words it combines. The second part of the compound adjective is frequently a present or past participle.
A large number of compound adjectives describe personal appearance.
Here is a rather far-fetched description of a person starting from the head down.
Tom was a curly-haired, sun-tanned, blue-eyed, rosy-cheeked, thin lipped,
broad-shouldered, left-handed, slim- hipped, long-legged, flat-footed young man,
wearing an open-necked shirt, brand-new, tight-fitting jeans and open-toed sandals.
Another set of compound adjectives describes a person's character. Here is a rather light- hearted description of a girl. The meanings are explained in brackets.
Melissa was absent-minded [forgetful], easy-going [relaxed], good-tempered [cheerful], warm-hearted [kind] and quick-witted [intelligent] if perhaps a little big-headed [proud of herself], two-faced [hypocritical], self-centred [egotistical] and stuck-up [snobbish
(colloquial)] at times.
Another special group of compound adjectives are those where the second part is a preposition. Some of these adjectives are listed below with a typical noun.
a n all-out strike [total] a burnt-out car [nothing left in it after a fire]
a broken-down bus [it won't work] a built-up area [lots of buildings in it]
a hard-up student [poor] cast-off clothes [no longer wanted by the owner]
worn-out shoes [can't be worn any more; of people - exhausted]
a drive-in movie [you watch from your car] well-off bankers [wealthy]
a run-down area [in poor condition]
Here are some other useful compound adjectives.
air-conditioned bullet-proof cut-price drip-dry
duty-free hand-made interest-free last-minute
long-distance long-standing off-peak part-time record-breaking remote-controlled second-class so-called sugar-free time-consuming top-secret world-famous You can vary the compound adjectives listed by changing one part of the adjective. For example, curly-haired, long-haired, red-haired and straight-haired; first-hand (knowledge), first-class (ticket) and first-born (child).