GLOBAL RESULTS OF CENSUS 2001

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GLOBAL RESULTS OF

CENSUS 2001

Further information can be obtained from Documentation and Information Centre of DSEC

17th floor, " Dynasty Plaza" Bldg., 411-417 Alameda Dr. Carlos d´Assumpção,

Macao Telephone: 3995311

Fax: 307825

E-Mail: info@dsec.gov.mo Homepage: http://www.dsec.gov.mo

Official Statistics

Reproduction of these data is allowed provided the source is quoted

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Printed by: DSEC

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_________________________________________________________________________________

It is international practice for most countries and territories to carry out population census once every ten years. From 23 August to 1 September 2001, the Macao Special Administrative Region conducted the fourteenth Population Census and the fourth Housing Census. This was also Macao’s first population census in the new millenium and after its Handover to China.

Census 2001 was successfully concluded with the full support of the citizens, co- operation of public and private institutions, schools and associations. In addition, participation of nearly 3,200 university and secondary school students who helped in the data collection process, and the dedicating staff of the Statistics and Census Service (DSEC).

In December 2001 and April 2002, DSEC published the preliminary results and the socio-demographic characteristics of the population respectively. This publication contains the global results of Census 2001; it includes summary findings on the principal characteristics and evolution of the population, together with detailed statistical tables.

We would like to extend our profound gratitude to the public and private entities, associations and individuals for their supports and co-operations. All comments and suggestions that will improve the quality of our works are highly appreciated.

Acting Director Mok Iun Lei

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Page

Statistical method

... 7

Summary findings

I. Resident population ... 23

II. Household and housing... 24

III. Comparison of principal Census results ... 24

Assessment indicator of quality

... 60

Tables

... 63

Other available information

... 161

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1. Objectives ...9

2. Census moment and data collection period ...9

3. Scope and coverage ...9

4. Data collection method ...10

5. Sampling method ...10

6. Inference ... 11

7. Quality control ...12

8. Definition of terms...13

9. Symbols and abbreviations...19

10. Lists of classifications ...20

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1. Objectives

Census 2001 was the fourteenth Population Census and the fourth Housing Census in Macao. According to international recommendations, most countries or territories conduct population census once every ten years. Through this extensive statistical operation, we are able to obtain comprehensive, accurate and up-to-date information about the population and housing conditions of Macao. Census information is vital to the Government of the Macao SAR in policy formulation, viz.

education, housing, transport, health care, social services and so on. For instance, information on age and sex distribution serves as benchmark data for the compilation of population estimates. On the other hand, Census data provides invaluable reference to industrial and business enterprises, associations and academic institutions.

2. Census moment and data collection period

In Census 2001, the census moment was fixed at 3 a.m. on 23 August 2001; the data collection period ran from 23 August to 1 September 2001. Due to the specific customs and traditions, the marine population Census was conducted before the Chinese New Year of 2001, from 17 to 23 January.

3. Scope and coverage

Census 2001 covered the entire Macao Special Administrative Region, which included all individuals and types of quarters for housing or other purposes. However, it excluded military personnel and facilities of the People’s Liberation Army of the People’s Republic of China stationed in Macao.

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4. Data collection method

Census 2001 involved the participation of nearly 3,200 university and secondary school students, together with more than 100 DSEC staff who were assigned to 18 different enumeration centres in Macao. Two types of questionnaires were used, viz.

short-form and long-form, to ensure a complete enumeration of the population and their basic characteristics whilst other detailed information was obtained by sampling.

Four-fifths of the living quarters in Macao Peninsula and Taipa Island were selected to answer the short-form; the questionnaires were mailed to the households for self-enumeration. During the data collection period, census enumerators would visit these households, to collect or assist them in filling out the forms. The remaining one-fifth received a notification letter and enumerators would interview them with the long-form. In addition, all living quarters in Coloane Island were required to answer the long-form.

The short-form collected basic information such as the number of persons, sex, place of birth, date of birth, place of usual residence, etc.

In addition to the basic questions in the short-form, the long-form collected detailed information on the socio-economic characteristics of the population, i.e.

descent, nationality, place of previous residence, educational attainment, status in employment, earnings from employment and place of work.

5. Sampling method

With systematic sampling method, the sample size consisted of one-fifth of the living quarters in Macao Peninsula and Taipa Island. In order to minimize biases caused by the coincidence between sampling intervals and location of the living quarters, the selection process began with seven random starts; based on the living quarters selected systematically, seven sub-samples were created. This method also simplified the calculation of the standard errors of the sample estimates.

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6 Inference

To avoid inconsistency between the sample estimates collected by the long-form and the data obtained from full enumeration by the short-form, results of the short- form were used as control data for the adjustment of the statistics of the samples.

Formula for sample estimates is given as follows:

=

= k

i

k

i i

i i

i n

y N Y

Yˆ ˆ where,

Ni – represents the total population in i-th cross-tabulation of age / sex / place of birth / parish, (i=1, 2, …k);

ni – represents the sample total in i-th cross-tabulation of age / sex / place of birth / parish;

yi – represents the sample count of the population with a certain characteristics, in i-th cross-tabulation of age / sex / place of birth / parish;

i – represents the estimate of the total population with a certain characteristics, in cross-tabulation of age / sex / place of birth / parish;

– represents the estimate of the total population with a certain characteristics.

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7. Quality control

All of the workers who participated in data collection of Census 2001 were well equipped with proper training; before they were selected, they had to pass a series of selection procedures and tests.

For the quality control process, some of the housing units were re-interviewed by supervisors, to collect basic information from the households and to evaluate the quality of the census enumerators. All complete questionnaires were verified by the checkers in the enumeration centres and immediately sent back to DSEC for data processing by using the “Optical Character Recognition” (OCR) technique. The data would proceed for consistency and logical checks by computers, to ensure there were no omissions and errors in the questionnaires.

Upon completion of the data collection of Census 2001, a 7-day “Post Enumeration Survey” (PES) was conducted from 7 to 13 September 2001. To evaluate the Census coverage and quality of the data collected, 5% of the living quarters were selected for coverage evaluation and 5% of the interviewed households were re-interviewed for quality control. Results from PES indicated that the quality of this Census operation complied with international standards.

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8. Definition of terms

Resident population - Sum of usual residents and mobile residents.

Usual resident - Person who had stayed in Macao for at least 3 months during the 6 months before or after the reference date.

Mobile resident - Person who had stayed in Macao for at least one month but less than 3 months during the 6 months before or after the reference date.

Age - Number of complete years a person has passed since birth on the reference date.

Place of birth - Country or territory where a person was born.

Descent - Blood relationship of a person formed naturally by birth.

Nationality - Citizenship of a country granted to a person.

Place of usual residence

- If a person had stayed in Macao for more than 3 months during the 6 months before or after the reference date, his/her place of usual residence was Macao. Otherwise, it was the place where he/she had stayed for more than 3 months during the 6 months before the reference date.

Place of previous residence

- Country or territory outside Macao where a person had resided for at least 6 months before making Macao his/her place of usual residence.

Total years of residence in Macao

- Total number of complete years for which a person had established his/her usual residence in Macao on the reference date. Any period of continuous absence from Macao for six months or more had to be deducted in reckoning the period.

Always in Macao - Situation in which a person who never leaves Macao continuously for 6 months or more since birth.

Usual language - The language a person frequently used at home.

Educational attainment - The highest level of education successfully completed in formal education on the reference date. Persons who had not completed pre-primary education are grouped under

"No schooling".

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Formal education - Systematic courses organized for children and youths, covering from kindergarten to tertiary education.

School attendance - The process of acquiring formal education, at any levels, in an educational institution by a person aged 3 or above.

Marital status - Status as regarded by an individual, which includes legal marriage, de facto marriage and cohabitation.

Economic activity status

- The relationship between an individual and any economic activity he/she involved. It is divided into two groups, namely, active population and inactive population.

Active population - Total number of people aged 14 and above who were available to participate in the production of goods and services during the reference period. It comprises employed population and unemployed population.

Employed population - Total number of people aged 14 and above who had worked at least 1 hour during the reference period, for pay, profits or family gains, in cash or in kind.

Unemployed population

- Total number of people aged 14 and above during the reference period with all of the following conditions:

- Not having a job or any formal job attachment to an employer;

- Available for work with remuneration or running own business;

- Seeking work during the last 30 days.

Inactive population - Total number of people who were not considered as active population during the reference period; and did not satisfy the conditions to be classified as employed or unemployed.

Inactive population Includes:

Persons aged below 14, students, home-makers, persons permanently incapable to work, retired persons, people lived on rental income and voluntary workers.

Status in employment - Status of a working individual in his/her occupation during the reference period. It is distinguished into: employer, own-account worker, employee and unpaid family worker.

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Occupation - The set of tasks or duties performed by a person during the reference period. It is classified according to the

“Classification of Occupations of Macao” (COPM).

Main employment - The employment that occupied most of the working time of a person during the reference period. If this criterion is not applicable, it refers to the employment that generates the highest earnings

Industry - The economic activity carried out by a person, an enterprise or an establishment during the reference period.

It is classified according to the “Classification of Economic Activities of Macao – Revision 1” (CAM – Rev. 1).

Employment earnings - For employees, it is the gross amount received (before any deduction) in cash during the reference period, on a regular basis, by the hours of work or job done.

For employers and own-account workers, it is the amount of gross production minus expenditure and depreciation.

Total employment earnings

- Total earnings a person received from all employment during the reference period.

Household - Persons who make common provision for food and other essentials for living, they need not all to be related to one another. A person living alone is considered as a household. A household may occupy part or all of a living quarter.

Head of the household - Person aged 16 and above and acknowledged by other member(s) in the same household as the representative.

Relationship with the head of the household

- The relationship of each household member to the household head.

Family nucleus - A family nucleus was a couple without children or with one or more never married child(ren) or a single parent (either father or mother) with one or more never married child(ren).

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Household composition

- It is derived from the number of family nuclei and the relationship between other household members. The categories are as follows:

One-person household - A household with only one person.

Household with one unextended nuclear family - A household comprising one family nucleus without other related persons.

Household with one extended nuclear family - A household comprising one family nucleus with other related persons.

Household with multi-nuclear families - A household comprising two or more family nuclei whose members may or may not be related.

Household with related persons forming no nuclear family - A household comprising related persons who do not form any family nucleus. Unrelated persons may be included.

Household with unrelated persons - A household comprising unrelated persons.

Disability - Congenital or acquired physical, mental, intellectual or psychological deficiency and/or impairment that hinder a person’s capability from exercising normal daily activities according to his/her age, sex, general social and cultural standards.

Living quarter - An area that is structurally separated with independent entrance for the purpose of human habitation, including quarter that is built or converted for human habitation and, during the reference period, not used entirely for other purposes. It also includes quarter that is not designated for habitation, but during the reference period, is used for human habitation.

Living quarter is classified as follows:

- Domestic living quarter.

- Collective living quarter.

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Domestic living quarter - Non-collective living quarter occupied by one or more households for habitation.

Domestic living quarter includes the following types:

- Conventional living quarters (e.g. living quarters in residential buildings and quarters inside industrial and commercial buildings that are used entirely for human habitation)

- Temporary living quarters (e.g. squatter huts, immovable boat-houses)

- Conventional living quarters not solely used for habitation (e.g. garage, care-taker’s room, warehouse, office and factory used for habitation)

- Mobile living quarters (e.g. boats or vessels, caravans) - Other living quarters not elsewhere classified

Collective living quarter - Living quarter that occupies one or more buildings that is managed by a specific organization to accommodate a group of people.

Collective living quarter includes the following types:

- Hotels and similar establishments - Institutions

- Staff quarters - Camps

- Other collective living quarters Usable floor area of

living quarter

- Sum of all usable areas of rooms and divisions not exclusively used for commercial purposes, it is measured from the interior walls of the living quarter.

Division - Space within a living quarter with a minimum area of 4 m2 (43 ft2) and separated by walls or partitions of at least 2 meters high.

Living room - Division such as sitting room, dining room or room for similar purposes. The number of living room is counted according to its practical use.

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Room - Division in a living quarter that is not exclusively used for commercial purpose, including bedroom, study room, etc.

Tenure of the living quarter

- The legal status of a living quarter held by a household.

Tenure of the living quarter includes the following categories:

- Owner-occupier - Provided by employer - Sole tenant

- Main tenant - Co-tenant - Sub-tenant - Others

Rent - The monthly amount paid by a household for occupying a part or whole of a living quarter.

Mortgage - The amount of monthly loan repayment made to a bank or similar institution by owner-occupiers, to redeem the living quarter they owned.

Parking spot for automobile at night

- The place where households put their cars at night.

Included:

- Public car-park – Free or charged parking space in public car-park where no user restrictions applied.

- Private car-park – Parking that is restricted to specific groups of users (e.g. owners or tenants of parking space in residential buildings).

- Street parking – Free or charged parking space in streets.

Present population - Total number of people in Macao at the census moment, regardless if Macao was their usual place of residence.

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9. Symbols and abbreviations

- Absolute value equals zero

.. Not applicable

Not available

M Male

F Female

MF Male and female

MOP Macao pataca

o Less than half of the unit employed

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10. Lists of classifications

Classification 1

Census 2001 - Classification of Industry

Section Sector Industry

A Primary sector Agriculture, farming of animals, hunting and forestry B Primary sector Fishing

C Secondary sector Mining and quarrying D Secondary sector Manufacturing

E Secondary sector Electricity, gas and water supply F Secondary sector Construction

G Tertiary sector Wholesale and retail trade, repair of motor vehicles, motorcycles and personal and household goods H Tertiary sector Hotels, restaurants and similar activities

I Tertiary sector Transport, storage and communications J Tertiary sector Financial intermediation

K Tertiary sector Real estate, renting and business activities

L Tertiary sector Public administration, defense and compulsory social security

M Tertiary sector Education

N Tertiary sector Health and social welfare

O Tertiary sector Other community, social and personal services P Tertiary sector Households with employed persons

Q Tertiary sector International and extra-territorial organizations and bodies Note: The classification of industry used in Census 2001 was based on the “Classification of

Economic Activities of Macao – Revision 1” (CAM-Rev.1).

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Classification 2

Census 2001 - Classification of Occupations

Category Occupation

Group 1

Legislators, senior officials of government and associations, directors and managers of companies

Group 2

Professionals

Group 3

Technicians and associate professionals

Group 4

Clerks

Group 5

Service and sales workers

Group 6

Skilled workers of agriculture and fishery

Group 7

Craft and similar workers

Group 8

Plant and machine operators, drivers and assemblers

Group 9

Unskilled workers

Note: The classification of occupations used in Census 2001 was based on the “Classification of Occupations of Macao” (COPM).

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Classification 3

Census 2001 – Classification of Fields of Study

Field of study Content

Education Teacher training and education science

Humanities and arts Language, history, philosophy, religion and theology, fine arts, performing arts, graphic and audio-visual arts, design

Social science, business

and law Economics, sociology, psychology, human behaviour science, journalism and information, administration and business, law Science Biology, botany, astronomy, physics, chemistry, mathematics

and statistics, computing Engineering,

manufacturing and architecture

Mining, electronics, telecommunications, manufacturing, architecture and building, mechanics, energy and chemical engineering

Medicine Anatomy, epidemiology, cytology, medicine pharmacy, nutrition

Others Agriculture, forestry and fishery, veterinary, social services, transport services, environmental protection, security services

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I. Resident population

1. General demographic characteristics

1.1 Population size... 25 1.2 Sex and age structure... 25 1.3 Place of birth ... 29 1.4 Geographical distribution... 29 1.5 Population density ... 31 1.6 Marine population ... 32

2. Other socio-demographic characteristics

2.1 Marital status ... 33 2.2 Nationality... 34 2.3 Descent ... 35 2.4 Total years of residence in Macao ... 35 2.5 Migration... 36 2.6 Usual language ... 37 2.7 Education characteristics

l Educational attainment and literacy ... 38

l Field of study... 39

l School attendance ... 40

3. Economic characteristics

3.1 Economic activity status ... 41 3.2 Employed population... 42

l Industry and occupation ... 43

l Employment earnings ... 44

l Place of work... 44 3.3 Unemployed population ... 45

4. Population with disability ...

47

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II. Household and housing 5. Household

5.1 Household size ... 49 5.2 Household composition ... 49 5.3 Computer usage ... 50 5.4 Possession of motor vehicles ... 51

6. Housing

6.1 Occupancy of housing units ... 53 6.2 Tenure of living quarters ... 54 6.3 Rent and mortgage ... 55

III. Comparison of principal Census results

... 57

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I. Resident population

1 General demographic characteristics

1.1 Population size

Census 2001 showed that the Macao resident population in late August 2001 was 435,235. Among them, 414,047 were usual residents and 21,188 were mobile residents.

In comparison with Census 91, resident population increased by 22.4%, with an average annual growth rate of 2.04% over the past decade. Compared with by-census 96, the average annual growth rate was 1.0% during the past 5 years, representing a slow-down in population growth.

Graph 1: Resident population (1991-2001)

1.2 Sex and age structure

Among the resident population, 208,865 (48%) were males and 226,370 (52%) were females. The excess of female over the male population was due to the high proportion (over 70%) of female in more than 20,000 non-resident workers; furthermore, female accounted for over 60% of the legal immigrants to Macao.

414,128

355,693

435,235

330,000 360,000 390,000 420,000 450,000

Census 91 By-census 96 Census 2001

Person

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Table 1: Resident population by sex (1991-2001)

Persons Year

Sex 1991 1996 2001

Total 355,693 414,128 435,235

M 172,492 199,257 208,865

F 183,201 214,871 226,370

The population continued to grow old as a result of the decline in fertility rate and the increase in life expectancy over the past 10 years. The median age rose from 28.8 in Census 91 to 33.3 in Census 2001. According to the results of Census 2001, population aged 0-14 took up 21.6% of the total, dropped 2.9 percentage points compared with Census 91. The proportion of residents aged 65 and above was 7.3%, increased by of 0.7 percentage point over the last Census.

Graph 2: Resident population by age (1991-2001)

Census 91 By-census 96 Census 2001

24.55 25.76 21.65

68.84 67.37 71.07

6.61 6.87 7.28

0 20 40 60 80

0-14 years 15-64 years 65 years and above

%

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With the decrease in residents aged 0-14 and increase in those aged 65 years and above; the child dependency ratio, the percentage of residents aged 0-14 per 100 residents aged 15-64, dropped from 35.7% in Census 91 to 30.5%

in Census 2001. On the contrary, the elderly dependency ratio, the percentage of residents aged 65 and above per 100 residents aged 15-64, increased from 9.6% in Census 91 to 10.2% in Census 2001.

Table 2: Dependency ratio (1991-2001)

% Year

Dependency ratio a 1991 1996 2001

Child dependency ratio 35.7 38.2 30.5

Elderly dependency ratio 9.6 10.2 10.2

Overall dependency ratio 45.3 48.4 40.7

aChild dependency ratio : Proportion of residents aged 0-14 per 100 residents aged 15-64.

Elderly dependency ratio : Proportion of residents aged 65 and above per 100 residents aged 15-64.

Overall dependency ratio : Proportion of residents aged 0-14 and residents aged 65 and above per 100 residents aged 15-64.

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Graph 3: Population pyramid, 1991

Graph 4: Population pyramid, 1996

Graph 5: Population pyramid, 2001

30000 20000 10000 0 10000 20000 30000

0-4 1 0 - 1 4 2 0 - 2 4 3 0 - 3 4 4 0 - 4 4 5 0 - 5 4 6 0 - 6 4 7 0 - 7 4 8 0 - 8 4

Age group

30000 20000 10000 0 10000 20000 30000

0-4 1 0 - 1 4 2 0 - 2 4 3 0 - 3 4 4 0 - 4 4 5 0 - 5 4 6 0 - 6 4 7 0 - 7 4 8 0 - 8 4

M F

Age group

Person

30000 20000 10000 0 10000 20000 30000

0-4 1 0 - 1 4 2 0 - 2 4 3 0 - 3 4 4 0 - 4 4 5 0 - 5 4 6 0 - 6 4 7 0 - 7 4 8 0 - 8 4

M F

Age group

Person

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1.3 Place of birth

Census 2001 showed that 206,384 (47.4%) of the resident population were born in Mainland China, of which 78.5% were born in Guangdong province and 14.9% in Fujian province. Meanwhile, 43.9% of the residents were born in Macao, 3.3% in Hong Kong and 0.4% in Portugal. Compared with Census 91, the proportion of residents born in Macao increased by 3.8 percentage points, while the proportion of residents born in other places dropped, ranging from 0.1 to 2.9 percentage points.

Table 3: Resident population by place of birth(1991-2001)

% Year

Place of birth 1991 1996 2001

Macao 40.1 44.1 43.9

Mainland China 50.3 47.1 47.4

Hong Kong 3.4 3.0 3.3

Portugal 1.0 0.9 0.4

Others 5.1 4.9 5.0

Note: Due to rounding, percentages may not add up to 100%.

1.4 Geographical distribution

Among the different parishes, Nossa Senhora de Fátima parish had the largest share, with 180,499 residents (41.5% of the total); followed by Santo António parish (23.9%), São Lourenço parish (9.8%) and Taipa Island (9.6%).

Compared with Census 91, the population in Taipa Island increased significantly by 4.8 times over the past 10 years, its proportion to the total resident population increased by 7.6 percentage points.

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Graph 6: Resident population by parish (1991-2001)

Distribution of the resident population by age groups differed among parishes. Nossa Senhora de Fátima parish had the largest proportion of residents aged 0-14. For Taipa Island, its population mainly comprised of residents aged 0-14 and 15-64, while its proportion of elderly residents aged 65 and above was the lowest among all parishes (excluding maritime area).

On the contrary, Coloane Island had the largest share of elderly residents, which accounted for 11.7% of its total. Meanwhile, in Sé and São Lázaro parish, the proportions of elderly residents also exceeded 10.0%.

Graph 7: Resident population by parish and age group (2001)

Santo António 23.9%

Coloane 0.7%

Maritime Area 0.4%

Taipa 9.6%

São Lázaro 6.2%

São Lourenço 9.8%

7.9%

N. S. de Fátima 41.5%

Santo António 30.5%

Coloane 0.9%

Maritime Area 0.8%

Taipa 2.0%

N. S. de Fátima 35.5%

8.2%

São Lourenço 12.9%

São Lázaro 9.2%

Census 91 Census 2001

12.3%

19.7%

24.2%

17.3%

20.5%

17.7%

4.8%

21.5% 69.6%

71.8%

69.6%

72.1%

70.5%

76.2%

76.0%

94.4% 0.8%

11.7%

4.1%

5.3%

10.6%

9.9%

10.5%

8.9%

Maritim e Area Colo ane Taipa N. S. de Fátima São Lou renço São Lázaro San to Antón io

0-14 years 15-64 years 65 years and above

Maritime area

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1.5 Population density

Census 2001 showed that the population density in Macao was 16,870 persons per km2. Due to continual reclamation, the total area of Macao had been expanded 43.3%, from 18.0 km2 to 25.8 km2 over the last decade, surpassing its population growth rate. Consequently, population density decreased by 14.6% when compared with 19,761 persons per km2 in Census 91.

Santo António parish was the most densely populated area in Macao, with 94,743 persons per km2; followed by Nossa Senhora de Fátima parish, with 60,166 people per km2. Compared with Census 91, population density in Taipa Island increased by 2.9 times, with 6,740 persons per km2, while the population density was lowest in Coloane Island, with only 382 persons per km2.

Table 4: Population density (1991-2001)

Persons / Km2

Year

Parish 1991 1996 2001

Total 19,761 19,352 16,870

Macao Peninsula 51,127 50,119 45,723

Santo António 98,776 100,095 94,743

São Lázaro 54,370 53,582 44,857

São Lourenço 50,904 54,600 47,601

20,881 14,337 11,785

N. S. de Fátima 46,750 54,654 60,166

Taipa 1,748 3,058 6,740

Coloane 437 317 382

Note: Population density is not applicable to maritime area. Population density of Taipa and Coloane Islands excluded the Co-Tai reclamation zone.

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1.6 Marine population

The marine population Census collected information from 426 vessels that berthed in Macao’s custom maritime area, among which 370 vessels and 1,898 residents were enumerated. Compared with Census 91, the number of vessels and residents dropped by 161 units and 933 persons, equivalent to decreases of 30.3% and 33.0% respectively.

Among the marine population, males and females accounted for 77.1%

and 22.9% respectively; besides, 94.4% of the marine population aged 15-64.

A major proportion (54.4%) of the marine population was born in Mainland China, while those born in Macao dropped by 6 percentage points compared with Census 91.

Table 5: Marine population (1991-2001)

Person

Year 1991 1996 2001

Total 2,831 2,995 1,898

Male 1,691 2,273 1,463

Female 1,140 722 435

Age group

0-14 481 247 92

15-64 2,314 2,713 1,791

≥65 36 35 15

Place of birth

Macao 1,107 1,063 628

Mainland China 948 1,480 1,033

Others 776 452 237

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Summary Findings

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2. Other socio-demographic characteristics

2.1 Marital status

Census 2001 showed that the overall married ratio of the resident population was 49.6%, increased by 1.5 percentage points over the last Census. For the male population, 51.0% were married; for the female population, 48.3% were married. Meanwhile, the proportion of the separated/divorced was 1.6%, up 0.8 percentage point compared with Census 91.

Graph 8: Resident population by marital status (1991-2001)

An analysis by age group revealed that 88.4% of the residents aged 45-59 were married, down 0.7 percentage point compared with Census 91. On the other hand, 30.3% of the residents aged 60 and above were widowed, a decrease of 1.5 percentage point over the last 10 years. Among the population aged 15-29, 82.3% were never married, up 13.1 percentage points compared with Census 91.

%

100

80

60

40

20

0

4 9 .3 4 5 .7 4 8 .4 4 4 .6 4 6 .8 4 3 .7

4 8 .8

4 7 .3 4 9 .7

4 8 .2 5 1 .0

4 8 .3

0 .7 0 .9 0 .7

1 .1 1 .1

2 .1 6 .0 1 .2

1 .3 6 .0 1 .2 5 .9

M F M F M F

Never married Married Separated / Divorced Widowed

Census 91 By-census 96 Census 2001

%

100

80 60

40 20

0

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Graph 9: Resident population by age group and marital status (1991-2001)

2.2 Nationality b

In Macao, 95.2% of the resident population were of Chinese nationality, 2.0% of Portuguese nationality; the rest included Filipino, American/Canadian, Thai and others. In comparison with Census 91, the proportion of Chinese nationality increased by 0.8 percentage point, while the proportion of Portuguese nationality dropped by 1.3 percentage points.

Graph 10: Resident population by nationality (1991-2001)

b In Census 2001, classification of “nationality” was based on the “Explanation of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress on interpreting a few questions about the application of the Nationality Law in the Macao Special Administrative Region”. Using this classification, data related to nationality of Census 91 was re-compiled to facilitate statistical comparison.

6 9 . 2 8 2 . 3

1 2 . 1 1 3 . 5 3 0 . 4

1 7 . 3

8 6 . 0 8 2 . 9

8 9 . 1 8 8 . 4

6 3 . 3 6 4 . 2

3 .8

3 .8 5 .2 3 .4

0 .3 0 .4

2 . 9

2 .0 3 . 1

1 .5 1 . 8

1 .4

O O 0 . 5 0 . 7 5 . 1 3 . 2 3 1 . 8 3 0 . 3

Census 91

Census 2001

Census 91

Census 2001

Census 91

Census

2001 Census

91 Census

2001

15-29 years 30-44 years 45-59 years 60 years and above

%

100

80

60

40

20

0

Never married Married Separated / Divorced Widowed

Census 91

Portuguese 3.36%

Others 2.26%

Chinese 94.38%

Census 2001

Portuguese 2.02%

Others 2.81%

Chinese 95.17%

(35)

__________________________________________________________________________

2.3 Descent

Results from Census 2001 showed that 95.7% of the resident population in Macao were of Chinese descent, increased by 0.6 percentage point compared with Census 91. On the other hand, residents who were of Portuguese, Chinese/Portuguese or Chinese/Portuguese and other descent accounted for 1.8% of the total.

Table 6: Resident population by descent (1991-2001)

% Year

Descent 1991 2001

Chinese 95.1 95.7

Chinese and Portuguese 1.3 1.0

Chinese, Portuguese and others 0.2 0.1

Portuguese 1.5 0.6

Others 2.0 2.6

Of which: Portuguese and others 0.1

Note 1 : Data on descent was not collected in By-census 96.

Note 2 : Due to rounding, percentages may not add up to 100%.

2.4 Total years of residence in Macao c

Among the land population, 39.0% of the residents were born in Macao who had never left Macao for more than six months. Besides, 56.0% of the residents were born outside Macao, among which 6.7% had resided in Macao for less than 5 years, 8.7% for 5-9 years and 28.8% for 20-24 years.

When analyzed by the place of birth of the land population born outside Macao, 84.6% were born in Mainland China. Among them, 31.3% had resided in Macao for 20-24 years. Furthermore, 30.1% of those who were born in Portugal had resided in Macao for 5-9 years.

c “Total years of residence in Macao” was not applicable to marine population.

(36)

Table 7: Resident population born outside Macao by total years of residence in Macao c (2001)

Total years of

residence in Macao No. of persons Proportion(%)

0-4 years 40,528 16.7

5-9 years 21,220 8.7

10-14 years 32,869 13.5

15-19 years 36,701 15.1

20-24 years 70,000 28.8

25-29 years 8,468 3.5

30-39 years 12,870 5.3

40 years and above 20,170 8.3

Note : Due to rounding, percentages may not add up to 100%.

2.5 Migration

Census 2001 showed that 11.5% of the resident population had lived outside Macao 5 years ago (i.e. August 1996), whereas 73.4% had lived in Mainland China, 8.3% in Hong Kong and 3.8% in Taiwan.

The main reasons for living outside Macao 5 years ago included “not immigrated or returned to Macao” (69.4%), “working/seeking work” (16.3%) and “studying/on training” (10.1%).

Owing to immigration to Macao or internal migration, 41.3% of the residents (excluding marine population and persons born in the last 5 years) had changed their residence during the last 5 years. In Taipa Island, 60.6% of its current residents moved to the island during this 5-years period, at the same time, 8.7% had changed their residence within the island.

(37)

Summary Findings

___________________________________________________________________________

An analysis by parish showed that São Lázaro parish had the largest proportion (72.5%) of residents who lived in the same residence in the last 5 years; followed by São Lourenço parish (71.3%) and Nossa Senhora de Fátima parish (55.4%). For Coloane and Taipa Islands, they accounted for 41.3% and 30.8% respectively.

Graph 11: Resident population by place of residence 5 years ago and parish

Note: Excluding marine population and persons born in the past 5 years.

2.6 Usual language

Among the resident population aged 3 and above, 87.9% of them mostly spoke Cantonese at home, 1.6% spoke Mandarin, 7.6% spoke other Chinese dialects and 0.7% spoke Portuguese.

Parish of Residence:

66.7 72.5 71.3

59.3 55.4

30.8 41.3

25.0 19.4 20.3

28.2 29.7

53.6 33.7

12.4 14.9 15.6

24.9 8.1 8.4

8.3

Santo António São Lázaro São Lourenço N.S. de Fátima Taipa Coloane

Current residence

Other residences in Macao

Residence outside Macao Place of residence 5 years ago :

% 100

80

60

40

20

0

(38)

Table 8: Usual language spoken at home (1991-2001)

% Year

Usual language 1991 1996 2001

Cantonese 85.8 87.1 87.9

Mandarin 1.2 1.2 1.6

Other Chinese dialects

(including Hokkien) 9.6 7.8 7.6

Portuguese 1.8 1.8 0.7

English 0.5 0.8 0.7

Others 1.1 1.3 1.7

Note : Due to rounding, percentages may not add up to 100%.

Apart from the usual language spoken at home, 30.6% of the resident population had the ability to speak another language and most of them could speak Mandarin (45.2%). In addition, 11.8% were able to speak two other languages, and 1.8% could speak three or more other languages. Compared with By-census 96, the proportions of residents who had the ability to speak one, two, three or more languages soared by 3.2, 3.7 and 0.6 percentage points respectively.

2.7 Education characteristics

l Educational attainment and literacy

For the residents aged 3 and above, 28.8% with no schooling or had not completed primary education, 25.8% with primary education, 22.3% with junior secondary education, 15.6% with senior secondary education and 7.4%

with tertiary education.

(39)

__________________________________________________________________________

Compared with Census 91, the proportion of residents by levels of education lower than senior secondary decreased, ranging from 0.1 to 7.1 percentage points. On the contrary, the proportion of residents with senior secondary education or tertiary education grew by 7.1 and 3.0 percentage points respectively.

For resident population aged 15 and above, the literacy rate was 91.3%.

Table 9: Resident population aged 3 and above by educational attainment

(1991-2001)

% Year

Educational attainment 1991 1996 2001

No schooling / Pre-primary education 17.0 13.9 9.9

Primary education, incomplete 21.0 20.4 18.9

Primary education, complete 26.7 25.4 25.8

Junior secondary education 22.4 22.5 22.3

Senior secondary education 8.5 12.2 15.6

Tertiary education 4.4 5.5 7.4

Special education - 0.1 0.1

Note : Due to rounding, percentages may not add up to 100%.

l Field of study

Among the resident population aged 3 and above, 31,425 (7.4%) had tertiary education, 76.2% were graduated with degree courses and 23.8% with non-degree courses.

The more popular field of study included “Social science, business and law” (36.4%), followed by “Engineering, manufacturing and architecture”

(13.6%) and “Humanities and arts” (12.8%).

An analysis by the sex composition and field of study revealed that in

“Education”, 83.6% were females, while in “Engineering, manufacturing and architecture”, 85.5% were males.

(40)

Graph 12: Resident population with tertiary education by field of study (2001)

In addition, among the residents with tertiary education, 34.7% obtained their qualifications from local tertiary institutions and 33.1% from Mainland China.

For those who obtained their qualifications from local tertiary institutions, the more popular field of study was “Social sciences, business and law”

(44.0%), followed by “Education” (16.0%) and “Humanities and arts”

(12.0%). On the other hand, for those who obtained their qualifications from Mainland China, the more popular field of study were “Social sciences, business and law”, “Engineering, manufacturing and architecture” and

“Health”, accounted for 26.8%, 17.9% and 16.8% respectively.

l School attendance

According to the results of Census 2001, 29.8% of the residents aged 3 and above claimed that they would be attending formal education in the coming academic year, up 4.5 percentage points over Census 91. This ratio was particularly high among those aged 3-24 (80.5%), increased by 14.4 percentage points over the last Census.

1 0 . 8

1 2 . 8

3 6 . 4

9 . 3

1 3 . 6

1 0 . 5

6 . 6

0 1 0 2 0 3 0 4 0

E d u c a t i o n H u m a n i t i e s a n d a r t s

S o c i a l s c i e n c e s , b u s i n e s s a n d l a w

S c i e n c e E n g i n e e r i n g , m a n u f a c t u r i n g a n d c o n s t r u c t i o n

H e a l t h O t h e r s

%

(41)

__________________________________________________________________________

3. Economic characteristics

3.1 Economic activity status

Census 2001 showed that there were 349,745 residents aged 14 and above in late August 2001. Among the active population (labour force) of 231,266, the proportion of male and female accounted for 53.5% and 46.5%

respectively. Compared with Census 91, the labour force increased by 32,496 persons (16.3%), the average annual growth rate was 1.5% over the past decade. The inactive population was 118,479, while females shared 65.5% of the total. Besides, 89.8% of the residents aged 65 and above were inactive.

In Macao Peninsula, the proportion of the labour force to the total resident population varied from 61.9% to 67.3%. In Taipa Island, it accounted for 74.0% and reached 98.3% of the marine population. On the contrary, 63.7% of the resident population in Coloane were inactive.

Graph 13: Labour Force (1991-2001)

The labour force comprised mainly of residents aged 35-39 and 40-44, which accounted for 16.0% and 16.7% of active population. The median age of the labour force rose from 32.5 in Census 91 to 37.8 in Census 2001.

198,770

218,221

231,266

190,000 200,000 210,000 220,000 230,000 240,000

Census 91 By-census 96 Census 2001

Persons

(42)

According to the educational attainment, 11.9% of the labour force had no schooling or had not completed primary education, 25.4% with primary education, 28.7% with junior secondary and 34.0% with senior secondary or above. Meanwhile, the proportion of the labour force with senior secondary education and tertiary education increased by 9.9 and 5.6 percentage points respectively over Census 91.

Table 10: Labour force by educational attainment (1991-2001)

% Year

Educational attainment 1991 1996 2001

No schooling / Pre-primary education 4.9 3.5 2.2

Primary education, incomplete 14.0 10.8 9.7

Primary education, complete 31.6 28.0 25.4

Junior secondary education 30.9 31.0 28.7

Senior secondary education 12.0 17.8 21.9

Special education 6.6 8.9 12.1

Note : Due to rounding, percentages may not add up to 100%.

3.2 Employed population

In late August 2001, the size of the employed population was 215,059, of which 52.7% were males and 47.3% were females. Compared with Census 91, the proportion of male dropped by 2.9 percentage points.

According to the status in employment, 88.7% of the employed population were “employees”, 6.1% were “own-account workers” and 4.1% were

“employers”. Compared with By-census 96, the proportions of “employees”

and “own-account workers” grew by 0.9 and 0.8 percentage point respectively, while the proportion of “employers” dropped by 1.4 percentage points.

According to the sex composition, results showed that 83.3% of the

“employers” were males, an equal share of 50% each for “employees”, while 77.1% of the “unpaid family workers” were females.

(43)

Summary Findings

___________________________________________________________________________

Industry and occupation

With regard to the distribution of employed population by industry,

“Manufacturing” took up 19.8% of the total, followed by “Wholesale and retail trade, repair of motor vehicles, motorcycles and personal and household goods” (15.1%) and “Other community, social and personal services” (11.6%).

When analyzed by principal industrial sectors, the primary sector (fishing and agriculture) shared only 1.1% of the employed population. At the same time, 27.6% were working in the secondary sector (manufacturing, construction and others) and 71.3% in tertiary sector (wholesale and retail trade, restaurant, tourism, gambling, financial activities and others).

Compared with Census 91, the proportion of employed population in the secondary sector dropped by 13.0 percentage points, while the tertiary sector increased by 13.3 percentage points.

Graph 14: Employed population by principal industrial sector (1991-2001)

According to the occupational distribution of the employed population, 19.8% were “Service and sales workers”, 18.5% were “Clerks” and 16.5%

were “Unskilled workers”. Compared with Census 91, the first two categories increased by 6.8 and 4.1 percentage points, while the proportion of

“Unskilled workers” dropped by 3.0 percentage points.

Census 91 By-census 96 Census 2001

1.4 1.4 1.1

40.6

27.4 27.6 58.0

71.1 71.3

0 20 40 60 80

Primary sector Secondary sector Tertiary sector

%

(44)

Table 11: Employed population by occupation (1991-2001)

% Year

Occupation

1991 1996 2001

Group 1 - Legislators, senior officials of government and associations, directors and managers of companies

9.0 7.3 6.5

Group 2 - Professionals 1.6 2.7 3.3

Group 3 - Technicians and associate

professionals 6.6 8.7 9.6

Group 4 - Clerks 14.4 17.3 18.5

Group 5 - Service and sales workers 13.1 18.6 19.8

Group 6 - Skilled workers of agriculture

and fishery 1.5 1.5 1.2

Group 7 - Craft and similar workers 15.0 14.6 12.1

Group 8 - Plant and machine operators,

drivers and assemblers 19.4 13.6 12.5

Group 9 - Unskilled workers 19.5 15.6 16.5

Note : Due to rounding, percentages may not add up to 100%.

l Employment earnings

Census 2001 showed that the median earnings from “main employment”

and “all employment” in July 2001, were MOP5,110 and MOP5,144 respectively. “Manufacturing”, which shared the largest proportion of the employed population, the median earnings from main employment was MOP3,212. For the “Service and sales workers”, the leading occupation among the employed population, the median earnings from main employment was MOP4,927.

l Place of work

Among the employed population, 81.3% of them worked in Macao Peninsula, 8.3% in Taipa Island, 2.1% in Coloane Island, and 3.8% in Mainland China, Taiwan and others.

(45)

Summary Findings

___________________________________________________________________________

For the employed population who lived in Macao Peninsula, 6.1%

worked in Taipa Island and 1.4% in Coloane Island. On the other hand, 62.4%

and 33.6% of those living in Taipa and Coloane Islands worked in Macao Peninsula.

Graph 15: Employed population by place of work (2001)

3.3 Unemployed population

In late August 2001, the size of the unemployed population was 16,207, of which male and female accounted for 62.8% and 37.2% respectively.

Among the unemployed, 13.7% were looking for the first job and 86.3% were searching for a new job. Most of the unemployed (38.7%) spent 1-3 months looking for jobs. When analyzed by their educational attainment, 76.4% of them had junior secondary education or lower levels.

Macao

Peninsula Taipa Coloane Others

84.7%

6.1% 1.4%

7.8%

62.4%

26.1% 6.2%

5.3%

33.6%

10.1% 52.8%

3.5%

Macao Peninsula

Taipa Coloane

Place of residence

Place of work :

(46)

Graph 16: Unemployed population by job search duration (2001)

11.6

38.7

17.8 16.5 15.3

0 10 20 30 40

<1 1-3 4-6 7-12 >12

%

Month

(47)

__________________________________________________________________________

4. Population with disability

For the first time in Macao, Census 2001 collected information on the population with physical and/or mental disability from the households. Based on the information provided, the size of the population with disability was 5,713, corresponding to 1.3% of the resident population. Among them, 51.1%

were male and 48.9% were female. An analysis by age group showed that the disabled accounted for 0.5% of the population aged 14 and below, 1.0% of those aged 15-64 and 6.7% of those aged 65 and above.

Results also showed that 84.1% of the disabled had one disability, 14.0%

had two and 2.0% had three or more disabilities. For those who had one disability, 34.0% had “Impaired limbs or trunk”, 18.1% had “Psychiatric conditions”, 11.9% had “Vision disorder” and 11.3% had “Mental retardation”. For those who had two disabilities, 50.4% had “Speech disorder”, for those who had three or more disabilities, 69.4% had “Speech disorder”.

Most of the disabled (83.5%) lived in domestic living quarters and 16.5%

lived in collective living quarters such as institutions. Among those who lived in domestic living quarters, 88.1% lived with other household members and 11.9% lived alone.

According to the information of the disabled interviewed, 63.7% claimed they had used the services catered for the disabled. For those who had

“Psychiatric conditions”, 83.9% answered that they had used these service, followed by those who had “Psychiatric conditions” (76.4%), and those who had “Hearing impairment” (52.7%).

When analyzed by the type of living quarters, 81.8% of the disabled who lived in collective living quarters or institutions reported that they had used the services catered for the disabled. For those who lived in domestic living quarters, the proportion was only 44.5%.

(48)

Table 12: Population with disability by type of living quarter and utilization of services catered for the disabled

Population with disability Living quarter

Total Proportion

Proportion of using services catered for the disabled

Total 5,713 100.0% 63.7%

Domestic living quarters 4,771 83.5% 44.5%

of which: one-person households 678 (11.9%)

Collective living quarters 942 16.5% 81.8%

Figure

Updating...

References

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