The purpose of this study was to explore the contents of the related theories ofstudents’ healthtechnologyliteracy, assess their literacy situation by using a scale, and construct aninnovativecontentmodelofhealthtechnologyliteracy to enhance their innovative capability. The healthtechnologicalliteracy scale forstudents in technologicalcolleges was constructed by consulting with experts and Delphi survey. By means of the structure equation modeling (SEM) with two-order confirmatory factor analysis, validity and reliability analysis, the model was tested with good fit, and the contents were certainly second-order factor ofhealthtechnologicalliteracy, including first-order factors, which include the following items: cognition, innovation propensity, health belief and knowledge sharing. Then, using survey method with cluster and stratified random sampling from 16 technological and vocational colleges in Taiwan, 3,600 questionnaires were sent out, and 3,012 of effective questionnaires were returned, with a survey reaching 83.67% of return-ratio. The results indicated that the students’ literacycontentofhealthtechnology consisted of cognition, innovation propensity, belief and knowledge sharing, according to the theories of planning behavior, social cognition, innovative diffusion, technology acceptance and health belief; also, there were very significant correlations and predictabilities with one another. The modelofstudents’ literacy contents was tested with good fit through SEM with statistical software of AMOS and LISREL. This model revealed that there were some positive correlations of path relationship: sharing toward belief, cognition and innovation propensity; belief toward cognition and innovation propensity; cognition toward innovation propensity. The contents ofstudents’ literacy in health technology were regarded as a part of liberal education, and would enhance their health and innovative capability. Finally, conclusions and suggestions could serve as references for the university teaching and further research.
literature review, Delphi survey, professional interview and sampling questionnaire survey. Through the structure equation modeling (SEM) with two-order confirmatory factor analysis, validity and reliability analysis, the model was tested with good fit, and the contents were certainly a second-order factor ofhealthtechnologyliteracy, including first-order factors, that is, cognition, innovation propensity, health belief and knowledge sharing. And then, by using a survey method with cluster and stratified random sampling from 16 technologicalcolleges in Taiwan, 3,600 questionnaires were sent out, and 3,012 effective questionnaires were returned; the survey reached 83.67% of return-ratio. The results indicated that the students’ literacycontentofhealthtechnology consisted of cognition, innovation propensity, belief and knowledge sharing, according to the theories of planning behavior, social cognition, innovative diffusion, technology acceptance and health belief.
4 Research Methodology 4.1 Main Methods
4.11 .Documentary Review
We carried out documentary review to construct the basis of theories which knowledge sharing ofhealthtechnology and learning ofstudents in technological and vocational colleges, and the indicators and scale of measurement. When we reviewed the related documents, we searched the related articles from Electronic Theses and Dissertations System in Taiwan and electronics periodical of SDOS of Elsevier, including healthtechnology, knowledge sharing, learning style, career type and healthtechnology teaching, etc. Through the documentary analysis, we developed a questionnaire, acquired the quantitative data, and analyzed a statistical result. This research reviewed the related factor ofhealthtechnology, and showed that the theories of basis, such as theory of planned behavior, social cognitive theory, innovative diffusion theory, technology acceptance model and health belief model. Then we drew up a scale with which the content was manufactured according to the related factor or indicators and appropriately described
H E number oftechnological and professional colleges in Taiwan increased to 78 in the 2007-2008 school year and
has been increasingly expanded. Since the higher technological and vocational education deregulated, current studentsof higher education place themselves to the modern technological environment; they use and depend on technology more than the students in the past. The technology is helpful for their learning and training, but it’s better not to impact of their health. And the technology is originally one kind of process of question- solving in modern society, and the people use it with resources and creativity to solve effectively the practical questions. Then mobile learning is the exciting art of using mobile technologies to enhance the learning experience. However, the students face all kinds oftechnological environments, and they addict themselves to it and extricate themselves with difficulty. The survey discovered 11% of college students who spent over six hours on the Internet every day, and thus they were stricken by headache, sleep disorder, and anxiety, and also could agitate restlessly when they were not on the Internet. They lost all interests in life and addicted themselves to network which threatened seriously their health. The current healthtechnology had the direct and indirect influence to users' healthof mind, body, physiological and psychological wound or psychogenic diseases and so on. The college students contact frequently the technology, but they often lack actually the healthtechnologicalliteracy and do not understand the pros and cons of both sides oftechnology to impact of the health. Then they pursue constantly the innovative products, and neglect the fact that it would initiate the serious problems in mind and body health and hoodwink their advantages.
5 Conclusions and Suggestions
This study discovered the background factors oftechnology universities students, such as: gender, educational system, department, using technology, social relationship, family relationship and awareness ofhealth; besides the age, revealing the significant differences on scale contents of knowledge sharing ofhealthtechnology. Then the modelof knowledge sharing structure ofhealthtechnologyfor university students had a good suitably fit through structural equation modeling (SEM). The hypotheses derived from literature review were proved just as TPB had conform. It meant that the sharing attitude had a positive correlation toward behavioral intention;
This paper constructs a modelfor evaluating the performance of after-school institutions in Taiwan by adopting the AHP. The results show that factors from the service qu ality dimension are highly emphasized. In the educational services market, how to provide effective services and incorporate quality into marketing strategy enable institutions to offer superior service quality. The use of promotional activities to sell their services and to increase the interests of potential customers is also important. Government should, through evaluation and reward systems, help after-school care institutions to set up good-quality childcare and to create a happy learning environment. The management and operation ofan institution, in addition to consider the parents’ expectations and the market trend, needs to focus more on the needs ofstudents in order to provide students the best after- school care services. Finally, the developed evaluation model can be used or tailored by interested parties as an effective and objective mechanism for evaluating after-school programs. The proposed model can be tailored in the aspects studied or the factors being considered to suit the different after- school needs and after-school programs in different countries. In addition, children of different age categories may require different after-school cares; therefore, different after-school programs can be categorized, and evaluating hierarchies can be revised accordingly to meet the needs of different age groups.
2 Documentary Review
2.1 Spiritual health and depression tendency The assessment of spiritual health could include some indicators, such as connecting to others, meaning derived from living, transcendence, religion attachment and introspection for oneself and etc. The spiritual health may be acted as a power and resource to a person. By means of transcendence, the spiritual health may assist a person to enjoy their meaningful life. Research showed that there was a negative significant correlation between spiritual health and depressive tendency. Participants who reported lower scores ofhealth status were more likely to reported lower scores in spiritual health . We should further explore the relationship between spiritual health and depression tendency. Depression is an abnormal and persistent state of very low mood, sufficient to interfere with enjoyment of life. Typical accompanying signs are slowness of speech and movement, loss of interest and appetite, disturbed sleep pattern and feelings of guilt, low self-esteem, and pessimism. Depression also has a large impact on the spiritual healthof a person.