TAIWAN, REPULIC OF CHINA
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Abstract: - The focal point of the revolution in information technology was undoubtedly a popular tendency ofInternet. The effect ofInternettechnology on medical health could enhance the human material civilization, longevity and livelihood quality, but its impact on our spiritualhealth was very strong. It caused human addiction to technologyand sometimes mental disorder. The purpose of this paper was to explore the impact ofInternettechnology on students‟spiritualhealth, and to develop a scale of measuring spiritualhealth for students from a target university. In order to fulfill this purpose, we adopted the method of literature review, consulting with experts, and sampling survey. We designed a new scale called CollegeStudents‟ SpiritualHealth Scale (CSSHS) to examine the current situation ofstudents‟ spiritualhealth, and factors, reliability and validity were analyzed. This scale consisted of 67 items, classified into nine factors, such as life stress, stress coping, self-intrinsic exploration, emotion management, spiritual care, spiritual well-being, daily spiritual experience, interpersonal relationship and life meaning. There were 1360 participants, comprised of first-year students from the two-year and four-year collegiate programs and the five-year associate degree programs at Fooyin University in Taiwan. We implemented the CSSHS test in January 2006, and the responses to the spiritualhealth scale ofcollegestudents were subjected to statistical analysis through means of SPSS software for Window.
Abstract: - The popular tendency ofInternet was undoubtedly a focal point of revolution in information technology. The effect ofInternettechnology on medical health could enhance the human material civilization, longevity and livelihood quality, but its impact was so strong to our spiritualhealth. It caused human addiction to technologyand sometimes mental disorder.The purpose of this article was to explore the impact ofInternettechnology on students‟spiritualhealth, and to develop a scale about measuring spiritualhealth for collegestudents. In order to fulfill this purpose, we adopted the method of literature review, consulting with experts, and sampling survey. We designed a new scale of which name was CollegeStudents‟ SpiritualHealth Scale (CSSHS) to examine the current situation ofstudents‟ spiritualhealth, and factors, reliability and validity were analyzed.
H E number of technological and professional colleges in Taiwan increased to 78 in the 2007-2008 school year and
has been increasingly expanded. Since the higher technological and vocational education deregulated, current studentsof higher education place themselves to the modern technological environment; they use and depend on technology more than the students in the past. The technology is helpful for their learning and training, but it’s better not to impact of their health. And the technology is originally one kind of process of question- solving in modern society, and the people use it with resources and creativity to solve effectively the practical questions. Then mobile learning is the exciting art of using mobile technologies to enhance the learning experience. However, the students face all kinds of technological environments, and they addict themselves to it and extricate themselves with difficulty. The survey discovered 11% ofcollegestudents who spent over six hours on the Internet every day, and thus they were stricken by headache, sleep disorder, and anxiety, and also could agitate restlessly when they were not on the Internet. They lost all interests in life and addicted themselves to network which threatened seriously their health. The current healthtechnology had the direct and indirect influence to users' healthof mind, body, physiological and psychological wound or psychogenic diseases and so on. The collegestudents contact frequently the technology, but they often lack actually the health technological literacy and do not understand the pros and cons of both sides oftechnology to impact of the health. Then they pursue constantly the innovative products, and neglect the fact that it would initiate the serious problems in mind and body healthand hoodwink their advantages.
Risk ranking, on the other hand, provides information about the relative riskiness among the hazards, and its differences between different participant groups are indicative of potential risk perception gaps. The interpretation of rank difference, however, needed to be exercised with caution, especially when the differences in rank and/or mean risk ratings are small. In this study, we identified a number of risk perception similarities as well as gaps between the studentsand professors. Amongst, a notable similarity is that both groups ranked virus and bacteria infectious diseases as the second and fifth risky hazards, while they ranked nano- products and caffeinated drinks as the least risky hazards. The high perceived risk of infectious diseases may due in part by the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic in 2003, resulting in 346 cases and 37 deaths in Taiwan (WHO, 2004). A phone-interview studyof 1,028 Taiwan residents showed that 75.1 % of the respondents consider SARS of high or very high fatal risk (Liu et al. 2005). Perception gaps, on the other hand, are of special interests from educational and research perspectives. For example, the students perceive contaminated groundwater, nuclear power plant, contaminated soil, and electromagnetic radiation of significantly higher risk (by mean risk rating and by risk rank) than the professors; on the other hand, they perceive environmental tobacco smoke, tobacco smoking, indoor air pollution, outdoor air pollution, and alcohol hazard of lower relative risk (only by rank) than the professors. In the latter case, the perception gaps may be larger than the data indicated considering the students are generally more sensitive to the hazards. These gaps highlight areas of interest for additional educational and risk communication efforts. More specifically, the students should be informed that certain hazards existed in their daily chronic exposure may be more risky than they perceive, while others do not.
3.2.2 Research tool
The completion of scale about knowledge sharing ofhealthtechnology for collegestudents functions as a measuring tool which is derived from the process of literature analysis, by way of consulting with 10 experts and the Delphi questionnaire survey of which 16 experts‟ opinions tend to be consistent with and develop the official scale. Using the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), this study supposes that the knowledge sharing ofhealthtechnology (second-order factor) for collegestudents contains 5 variables: behavioral norm, sharing attitude, behavioral control, sharing intention and sharing behavior (first order factor). This scale consists of 18 items and analyzes with tow-order CFA by using AMOS6.0 statistics software as shown in Figure 2.
Noteworthy, perhaps, is Subject N-1’s refer- ence to “normal life,” which, in this case, refers to using the Internet as excessively as before.
How did people around subjects, such as par- ents, teachers, friends, and any significant oth- ers view this “normal” life of excessive Inter- net use? Subject N-1 answered that his/her parents encouraged him/her to go out with friends, instead of staying at home online for whole days during summer breaks. Many sub- jects gave similar answers: their parents were often more concerned about their computer use than their friends were, mainly because of psy- chological as well as physical health consider- ations. Subject P-1 said that his/her mother censured him/her for being too lazy. By con- trast, subject E-3 said that his/her mother was jealous of his/her Internet use.
How about the worlds of their parents and teachers? The results showed that the addict and non-addict groups both rated these two dimensions in the middle-to-positive range. One respondent said her family was proud of her ability to use the Internet. ``They think I use my computer because I am working hard on my studies.'' Parents may only know that their children are on the net, but do not know what they are actually doing with it. Taiwan's parents may not be aware of the Internet's possible negative impacts on their children, partially because the majority ofcollegestudents use the Internet when they are on campus, and the Internet itself is highly appraised and promoted by society in general. Young's study (Young, 1998) reported that Internet dependents gradually spent less time with family and friends in exchange for solitary time in front of their computers. This may be true of some of Taiwan Internet users, however, the data in this study did not report disrupted relationships with parents, due to time con¯icts or others reasons.
Through the learning, we could continuously promote the ability of the organization members, and in the meantime, make the organizational skill accelerate promptly, strengthen the organization operation day by day, and can also have more flexibility to respond to the fast changeable environment through the knowledge sharing. In order to respond to the "challenging Taiwanese digital modern eras planning in 2008", the learners had to hold a characteristic of large multidimensional learning. At present if collegestudents had individually a learning style, for example they used the digital tool to obtain the digital teaching material through the wired or wireless network and carried out an activity of on-line or off-line digital learning or electronical learning, then they could easily obtain the knowledge needed. The learning which facilitated knowledge innovation could raise the industry value about fundamental scientific knowledge of colleges and reach the target of "national science technique development project"(2005-2008) to cultivate the talented persons oftechnology who emphasized learning curriculum and matched the industry needs and let them have the career vision. The educators established the fortress of happy learning, and let the learners leisurely visit the treasure house of information to share learning fun. The learners could appropriately control the approach of digital times, learning type of more multidimensional and getting away from the restriction of time and space. The digital technology
Indeed, the results of the current study support empirically what many college professors and student-affairs administrators have observed anecdotally to be true: some male students spend most of their time in their residence, avoid face-to-face communication, and may have a hard time expressing themselves in a face-to-face environment. Therefore, the results herein have some implications for universities ’ student-affairs authorities. It is important for universities to ensure that their efforts serving both to increase (or to limit) students ’ access to information technologyand to enhance students’ campus life are evidence-based and empirically informed. For instance, the Of ﬁces of Student Affairs at some universities in Taiwan have proposed a campus-wide “No Internet Day” to encourage all students, including RBMs, to go outdoors and to enjoy non-digital forms of musical and artistic activities and face-to-face social interactions. Some universities have been shouldering more responsibility for identifying, describing, and preventing the possibility of harmful room-bound situations, especially among freshmen, by having “student mentors”dusually seniors or graduatesdlive with newer students residing in dormitories.
however, 60 percent ofstudents were not as confident in properly recognizing early signs of breast cancer.
Third, students? knowledge about BSE was primarily from mass media, followed by relevant health flyers, pamphlets or Internet.Also, teachers, physicians and family members were also sources of BSE knowledge.
Fourth, nearly half of the students either knew but had insufficient knowledge about BSE or were not sure about applying BSE.Only forty percent ofstudents were firm about practicing BSE.
This can make the study more sophisticated than ever before. And then the result can be presented in international journals or academic conferences.
In addition, we can put an eye on the current state of the healthtechnology literacy ofcollegestudents across the strait. Through means of consulting with experts, sampling investigation, and interviews, we can conduct cross strait academic research. This may enhance the competitiveness, and be more concerned about the physical and psychological growth of the students in these two areas. Brushing aside the enmity, we can enhance the interests and harmonious development of the body and mind of the students on both sides of the strait, and encourage students to participate in an equitable online operation through curriculum articulation 
The main purpose of the higher vocational education in Taiwan is to cultivate studentsof capability, who will devote themselves to the society. However, the vocational colleges are up against a stiff competition due to the increasing college number and upgrading in this decade. To become competitive, vocational colleges need to constructively develop their core competitive advantages. This study aims at investigating the present situations and the future trends of vocational colleges. Acasestudy method was applied with the use ofa questionnaire and in depth interviews with 21 investigated school executive superintendents as well. After data analyzed, the critical success factors of school strategies are summarized as follows: 1. The critical success factors of studied university a. Sound financial status. b. Development of departmental core curriculum. c. Leaders of foresight. d. Excellent management system;
nationwide ?DOTS program? was born, in which special case carers were officially hired, and hopefully we would reach the DOTS goals set by WHO in the foreseeable future. The purpose of this study was to find out the DOTS program?s cost-effectiveness in two consecutive years, i.e. one year (2005/4/1-2006/3/31) immediately prior to the launch of the new DOTS program, and the one (2006/4/1-2007/3/31) that followed, through the expenditures for the implementation of the DOTS program, indices of therapeutic effectiveness in the two years, and at various stages of its implementation anda cost-benefit analysis of the treatments involved. The figures used in this study were mainly obtained from a Taiwan CDC database for registration of TB case notifications. The individual notified cases studied took place either in. There were 5679 notified TB cases studied. Meanwhile, we also got access to a Department ofHealth database of death causes and the relevant medical expenditure records from Central Regional Branch, Bureau of National Health Insurance (NHI) for necessary data using the ID number of the patient involved.
Purpose: The main purpose of this study was to explore the health promoting lifestyles and the related variables among university students.
Methods: A structural questionnaire was used for data collection which containing demography sheet, the scale ofhealth promoting lifestyles (HPLP?), and the SF36 of self-perceived health status.
2. Methods 2.1. Probands
Probands of both simplex and multiplex families were recruited from two studies on schizophrenia. The first study, the Multidimensional Psychopathology Group Research Project, aimed to recruit schizophrenic patients and their first-degree relatives. From August 1993 to June 1998, patients consecutively admitted to the acute inpatient wards of the National Taiwan University Hospital, the Taipei City Psychiatric Center and the Provincial Tao-Yuan Psychiatric Center were included if they met the DSM-III criteria for schizo- phrenic disorders (Chang et al., 2002; Chen et al., 1998b). During the study period, the diagnostic criteria were shifted to DSM-IV and earlier subjects were re- diagnosed with the updated criteria. The second study, the Multidimensional Psychopathological Study on Schizophrenia, aimed to collect sib-pairs who were co- affected with schizophrenia and had at least two alive first-degree relatives. The affected sib-pair probands, who met the DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders, depressed type, were identi- fied from either the inpatient wards or outpatient clinics of the National Taiwan University Hospital and the Provincial Tao-Yuan Psychiatric Center from July 1998 to December 2001. Written informed consent was obtained from all subjects after complete description of the study. Both studies were approved by the institutional review boards of the participating hospitals.
Department of Nursing, Fooyin University Ta-Liao District, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan
Nursing is the profession of holistic care, including physical, psychological, social, andspiritual care. However, nurses often lack the ability to give spiritual care a skill that should be cultivated starting during nursing education. The effectiveness ofspiritual nursing education has been identified in the literature. The purpose of this study was to use reflection teaching to help nursing students improve their grasp of how to practically apply concepts ofspiritual nursing. This study was conducted with 46 nursing students who took a course on spiritual nursing from September, 2010 to January, 2011. This reflection teaching was accomplished by having nursing students write their reflections in a journal each week responding to probing questions for each teaching unit in the course. It was projected that through using reflection journals, nursing students would enhance both their individualized learning experiences as well as group assignments. Results showed that more than 90% of the 46 nursing students improved in their reflection levels to become critical reflectors, with themes such as realization, adjustment, changing, adaptation, positivism, and application, which intertwined with the themes generated from the weekly reflection journals. Both quantitative and qualitative data from this study have empirically validated the effectiveness of reflection teaching in spiritual nursing for promoting nursing
The purpose of this study was to explore the oral health knowledge, attitude, practice and their related factors of elementary schoolchildren. It also studied the relationship between the support and satisfaction of teachers and the oral health knowledge, attitude, practice ofstudents. The research is the questionnaire survey from Yaw-Jang Chiou who made for Keelung City and Chayi City elementary school?s fifth and sixth studentsand teachers on November, 2002. The sampling methods are as follow: general sampling for teachers and systematic sampling for students. Total effective samples for analysis in this study are amounted to 356 teachers and 1721 students respectively.
4. Discussion 4.1. Latent PW proﬁles
There was a clear order of PW groups according to the 4-class model for the freshman year students as follows: good PW, norma- tive, minor-disadvantageous, and severe-disadvantageous. Individ- uals in the severe-disadvantageous group displayed relatively high scores on nearly all of the negative PW indicators, particularly depression. Members of the good PW group exhibited the lowest negative psychological indicator scores. The largest difference be- tween the good PW and severe-disadvantageous groups was in negative attitude. Students with severe PW disadvantages were more pessimistic than their good PW counterparts. The data also indicate that students with good PW had relatively low emotional loneliness scores compared to all other students, implying that col- lege freshmen with good PW enjoy quality relationships with friends and family despite entering a new environment.
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Chinese version of the Modified Schedule of Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Lifetime Short form (CMSADS-L)
Interviews were conducted by trained graduate-level examiners using the CMSADS-L short form, a semi-structured diagnostic interview based on SADS-L, and personality disorders were incorporated in reference to Structured Clinical Interviews for DSM-IV (SCID II). The inter-rater reliability of the CMSADS-L was good (Huang et al., 2004). Familiarity of the CMSADS-L was a requirement by each interviewers. Each trainee had to view a minimum of 6 CMSADS-L training videos ofcase vignettes, which was followed by consensus ratings. To be certified, the trainee had to achieve good to excellent agreement with the consensus diagnosis, and inter-rater reliability was good. During the actual diagnostic interview, in order to confirm a PD diagnosis, participants were asked a series of PD core symptoms. Questions were asked pertaining to how they behaved, felt or thought most of the time throughout their lifetime.