Top PDF Effects of Biodiesel and Engine Load on Nanoparticle Emissions from a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

Effects of Biodiesel and Engine Load on Nanoparticle Emissions from a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

Effects of Biodiesel and Engine Load on Nanoparticle Emissions from a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

Diesel engine exhaust contains large numbers of fine particles that degrade air quality and contribute to adverse human health effects. This study aims to characterize the changes of nanoparticle number emission characteristics from a heavy-duty diesel engine, operating with selected blends of low-sulfur biodiesel (B2_S50, B10, and B20) and engine loads (0%, 25%, 50%, 75%) under steady cycle. Raw exhaust were sampled with a rotating disc thermo-dilution system, followed by measurements of number size distributions of 10 – 1000 nm non-volatile particles using a scanning mobility particle sizer and condensation particle counter (SMPS) system. The results show that the particle number emission concentrations decrease with
Show more

6 Read more

Emissions of Regulated Pollutants and PAHs from Waste-cooking-oil Biodiesel-fuelled Heavy-duty Diesel Engine with Catalyzer

Emissions of Regulated Pollutants and PAHs from Waste-cooking-oil Biodiesel-fuelled Heavy-duty Diesel Engine with Catalyzer

2 Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan ABSTRACT The development of biodiesels is being driven by the need for reducing emissions from diesel engines without modifying engines and for saving energy. The major obstacle to biodiesel commercialization is the high cost of raw materials. Biodiesel from waste cooking oil is an economical source and an effective strategy for reducing the raw material cost. Although biodiesels made from waste cooking oil have been previously investigated, PAH emissions from heavy-duty diesel engines (HDDEs) with catalyzer fueled with biodiesel from waste cooking oil and its blend with ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) for the US-HDD transient cycle have seldom been addressed. Experimental results indicate that ULSD/WCOB (biodiesel made from waste cooking oil) blends had lower PM, HC, and CO emissions but higher CO 2 and NO x emissions when compared with that of ULSD. Using ULSD/WCOB blends instead of ULSD decreased PAHs by 14.1%–53.3%, PM by 6.80%–15.1%, HC by 6.76%–23.5%, and CO by 0.962%–8.65% but increase CO 2 by 0.318–1.43% and NO x by 0.384–1.15%. Using WCOB is an economical source and an effective strategy for reducing cost, and solves the problem of waste oil disposal.
Show more

5 Read more

Emission Characteristics of Carbonaceous Particulate Matter from A Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Under Transient And Steady Cycles

Emission Characteristics of Carbonaceous Particulate Matter from A Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Under Transient And Steady Cycles

and hence the OC absorbed on the EC. Substantially higher OC/EC ratios (> 3) were observed at idle and low load, compared to that of < 1 at medium and high load. The relatively higher OC emissions are likely due to the less complete combustion and hence lower combustion temperature at idle and low load. In addition, the OC emissions decreased significantly from low to medium load and then remained relatively unchanged from medium to high load. Unlike OC, the EC emissions increased with increasing load. Overall, the present study shows that fuels, aftertreatments and engine load can lead to compositional changes in the carbonaceous PM, of which need to be taken into account for assessing their impact on atmospheric chemistry and human health.
Show more

2 Read more

Carbonaceous composition changes of heavy-duty diesel engine particles in relation to biodiesels, aftertreatments and engine loads

Carbonaceous composition changes of heavy-duty diesel engine particles in relation to biodiesels, aftertreatments and engine loads

combustion temperature but decreased post-flame soot oxidation at higher engine speed, respectively. The overall results indicate that the relative importance of particulate OC and EC varies largely with engine load and the use of aftertreatments such as the DOC and DPF and, to a lesser extent, for low-percentage (10%) biodiesel. Specifically, the semivolatile OC in PM is significantly more important at idle and low load or when the DPF is in place, whereas nonvolatile EC is more prominent at medium and high load or when aftertreatments are not in place. It is notable that the OC in PM are strongly associated with cell toxicity. On the other hand, the reduction of fuel sulfur content from <50 ppmw to <10 ppmw has negligible effects on the carbonaceous composition in diesel engine particles, though its relation with SO 2 and sulfate emissions was not evaluated in the present work. Finally, the high-efficiency DPF may not be enough for high-PM emitting diesel engines to meet the current standards, particularly for those uncontrolled or poorly maintained engines. As diesel engine, emission control technology and biodiesel are finding increasing worldwide application in abating air pollution and global warming, such carbonaceous composition changes would impact the roles of PM in adverse human health and atmospheric chemistry, and its use in source apportionment.
Show more

32 Read more

Effects on aerosol size distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from the heavy-duty diesel generator fueled with feedstock palm-biodiesel blends

Effects on aerosol size distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from the heavy-duty diesel generator fueled with feedstock palm-biodiesel blends

2.2. Sample collection A MOUDI equipped with aluminum filters (with diam- eters of 37 mm) was used to collect size-resolved samples. Particles with diameter less than 0.056 m m were collected but gas phase PAHs may be adsorbed when the exhaust gas goes through the Teflon filter. Therefore, this research is focused on particles with diameter between 0.056 w 18 m m. Therefore, the sum of MOUDI mass is less than total GPM mass. These impactors effectively sepa- rated the particulate matters into 9 ranges with the fol- lowing equivalent cut-off diameters; 18–10 m m (stage 9), 10–5.6 m m (stage 8), 5.6–3.2 m m (stage 7), 3.2–1.8 m m (stage 6), 1.8–1.0 m m (stage 5), 1.0–0.52 m m (stage 4), 0.52–0.31 m m (stage 3), 0.31–0.166 m m (stage 2) and 0.166–0.056 m m (stage 1). Silicon grease was applied to the surface of each filter installed in the MOUDI. Before sampling, the greased filter-strips were baked in a 60  C oven for 90 min to stabilize the silicon grease. Thus, parti- cle bounce between the different stages of the MOUDI dur- ing the sampling could be minimized. Before and after each sampling, the filters were dried for 24 h in a desicca- tor at 25  C with 40% relative humidity. They were then weighed again. The suspended GPM concentration is determined by dividing the mass by the volume of sam- pled air.
Show more

5 Read more

THE EMISSION CHARACTERISTICS OF A SMALL D.I. DIESEL ENGINE USING BIODIESEL BLENDED FUELS

THE EMISSION CHARACTERISTICS OF A SMALL D.I. DIESEL ENGINE USING BIODIESEL BLENDED FUELS

treament system, or development of alternative fuels technology. Due to increasing environmental awareness, biodiesel is gaining recognition in the advanced nations, such as U.S.A., France and Austria, as a renewable fuel and it may be used as an alternative to diesel fuel with no engine modifications. Biodiesel can be made from alcohol and vegetable oils, which are both agriculturally derived products. Biodiesel made from such renewable resources is safer due to increased flash point, biodegrad- able, containing little or no sulfur, tending to reduce visible smoke from the exhaust, and an environmentally innocuous nature. Currently, biodiesel is very expensive to make from new feedstocks. One way to reduce the cost of biodiesel is to use less expensive feedstocks such as waste fryer oil from the food processing industry [1–3]. Methyl esters from vegetable oils (biodiesel) have many characteristics that make them attractive as a fuel for combus- tion in direct injection compression ignition engines [4–6]. Compared with diesel fuel, combustion of methyl esters was known to reduce smoke opacity, particulate matter (PM), hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide emissions while slightly increasing NO x emissions and delivering comparable engine performance [2, 3, 7–9]. Likewise biodiesel/diesel blends have also shown similar performance and emissions to diesel fuel while burned in unmodified diesel engines [4–6]. The 20/80 and 30/70 blends of biodiesel to diesel fuel are used in this study because they were determined to be the optimum ratio for a biodiesel/diesel blends by many studies [3, 9, 10].
Show more

17 Read more

Electron Microscopy Observations of Diesel Engine and Workplace Aerosols

Electron Microscopy Observations of Diesel Engine and Workplace Aerosols

2011 International Conference on Aerosol Science and Technology ELECTRON MICROSCOPY OBSERVATIONS OF DIESEL ENGINE AND WORKPLACE AEROSOLS Pei-Hsuan Chen, Yi-Jyun Liou, Wei-Lun Chang, Yun-Hua Lin, Li-Hao Young * Department of Occupational Safety and Health, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan

2 Read more

Study of Effects for Diesel Engine Operation Parameters on Soot Emission 顧英志、林海平

Study of Effects for Diesel Engine Operation Parameters on Soot Emission 顧英志、林海平

Keywords : Diesel engine, Smoke emission, Taguchi Methods ; Optimization, Relevance. Table of Contents 封面內頁 簽名頁 博碩士論文電子檔案上網授權書 iii 博碩士論文授權書 iv 中文摘要 v 英文摘要 vi 誌謝 viii 目錄 ix 圖目錄 xi 表目錄 xiii 第一章 緒論 1 1.1研究背景與動機 1 1.2研究目標 4 1.3研究方法 7 第二章 文獻探討 8 2.1引擎運轉狀態對黑煙 及NOx污染物生成影響 9 2.2油品特性對黑煙及NOx污染物生成影響 10 2.3噴射正時對對黑煙及NOx污染物生成影響 14 2.4 進氣溫度對黑煙及NOx污染物生成影響 15 第三章 柴油引擎廢氣污染物形成概論 16 3.1氮氧化物之形成機制 16 3.2粒狀污 染物之形成機制 18 第四章 相關理論及研究方法 21 4.1田口實驗計劃法 21 4.1.1田口實驗計劃法 21 4.1.2直交表(Orthogonal Arrays,OA) 28 4.2柴油引擎瞬態循環測試方法 31 4.3柴油汽車排放煙度試驗程序與方法 35 第五章 實驗結果與討論 36 5.1 實驗設備及原理 36 5.1.1引擎動力計 36 5.1.2 NOx分析儀 37 5.1.3廢氣取樣設備 39 5.1.4粒狀污染物取樣設備 44 5.1.5煙度計 46 5.1.6實驗引擎規格 47 5.2實驗規劃 49 5.2.1實驗程序規劃 49 5.2.2特性值因素配置及水準選擇 52 5.3實驗結果 67 5.3.1靜態 特性之引擎操作參數效應影響分析 68 5.3.2動態特性之引擎操作參數效應影響分析 92 第六章 結論與建議 107 6.1結論 107 6.2建議 110 參考文獻 111
Show more

3 Read more

Optimization Control Study of Engine Management System for Direct InjectionCommon Rail Diesel Engine 蘇筵壬、張一屏

Optimization Control Study of Engine Management System for Direct InjectionCommon Rail Diesel Engine 蘇筵壬、張一屏

[12]Y. K. Chin and F. E. Coats, “Engine Dynamics: Time-Based Versus Crank-Angle Based,” SAE Paper No. 860412, 1986. [13]M. Nasu, A. Ohata, and S. Abe, “Model-Based Fuel Injection Control System for SI Engines,” SAE Paper No.961188, 1996. [14]張一屏, "四行程機車氣冷式汽油引擎管理系統參數最佳化分析,"中國機械工程學會第十五屆學術研討會,台南市,1998,11,29. [15]B. A. Giivenp and B. Sencer and M Giray and L. Giivenq, “Use of a Simulink Engine Blockset in Real Time Hardware in the Loop Simulations, ” 0-7803-8599-3/04/$20.00, 2004 IEEE [16]H. M. Koegeler and G. Regner and T. Sams and K. Gschweitl, “Using Simulation and Optimization Tools to Decide Engine Design Concepts, ” SAE Paper No.2000-01-1267, 2000.
Show more

2 Read more

Performance Analysis of an Island Power System Under Diesel Engine Output Variations

Performance Analysis of an Island Power System Under Diesel Engine Output Variations

N recent years, with continuous rise of oil price, how to develop alternative energy source has become a hot topic around the world. After the Kyoto Protocol has been exercised, a new trend of international environment protection has emerged, and various industries in Taiwan have proposed suggestions for new energy policy. Since “The 2nd National Energy Conference,” the government has set CO 2 control mechanism actively and expected decrease of 38 million MT by the end of 2015, 58.68 million MT by 2020, and 78.41 million MT by 2025. The utilization of renewable energy is expected to reach 7,000~8,000MW by 2020 and 8,000~9,000MW by 2025, to attain the goal for total installed capacity penetration 12% or energy structure penetration 4~6%. The renewable energy development projects include biomass, wind power, photovoltaic system, solar heat, hydrogen energy, fuel cell, oceanic energy, geothermal heat, etc. The projects also cover planning offshore wind farms with scale of economy and fostering the development of the domestic wind industry [1].
Show more

5 Read more

New generation cellulosic biofuels and energy saving/pollutant reducing diesel engine system for a sustainable environment

New generation cellulosic biofuels and energy saving/pollutant reducing diesel engine system for a sustainable environment

Please summarize the entire research, teaching, or science and technology R&D and management work process (To be completed by the employee) A diverse range of research and educational activities were carried out during my stay at the Environmental Engineering Department at NCKU. The main focus was joint-research with Professor Wen-Jyh Lee’s group on alternative energy development and air toxic emissions characterization. I discussed with Professor Lee and his students several ideas and I reviewed/commented manuscripts the students prepared. Professor Lee and I also brainstormed many ideas how to promote the Aerosol and Air Quality Journal, of which he is the chief editor and I am an editor. We also exchange opinions on various academic issues, such as lab safety, vision for the department, and young faculty mentoring. I also spent quality time with Professor Hsin Chu and his students to discuss research in carbon dioxide capture and conversion. Similarly, I reviewed manuscripts prepared by his students. We also discussed in length about inviting him giving lectures in my class at University of Florida in Fall 2013 as a way of mutual scholarly exchange. Professor Chih-Hua Chang asked me to comment on his manuscript, which I gladly provided my suggestions. I also discussed with him about visiting research at various institutions having research programs in his research direction. I also met with the majority of faculty in the department individually and as a group to introduce each other’s research expertise. Many ideas were exchanged regarding the challenges the Department is facing and how to move the Department to the next stage.
Show more

1 Read more

A Study of Methods of Engine Knock Detection and the Engine Operating Parameters that Affect Engine Knock 謝明原、鄭錕燦

A Study of Methods of Engine Knock Detection and the Engine Operating Parameters that Affect Engine Knock 謝明原、鄭錕燦

ABSTRACT Knock control systems are widly used in cars to enhance engine performance and numerous methods of determining engine knock are developed.It is important to know how closely these methods are correlated.In the present thesis,evaluation and correlation of these methods are performed. The results show : the integration of squared pressure oscillation has the highest sensitivity among the methods using cylinder pressure for knock detection.Among the methods using accelerometer for knock detection,the integration of rectified vibration signal is the one best correlated with the method using cylinder pressure for knock detection.So when an
Show more

2 Read more

Pollutant constituents of exhaust emitted from light-duty diesel vehicles

Pollutant constituents of exhaust emitted from light-duty diesel vehicles

Table 2 Exhaust emission factor (g km -1 ) of light-duty diesel vehicle 690. Table 3 Chemical constituents (mg km -1 ) of particulate matter of light-duty 691[r]

26 Read more

Effects of Diesel Vehicle Characteristics on Soot Emissions-Nantou County 吳春生、林啟文

Effects of Diesel Vehicle Characteristics on Soot Emissions-Nantou County 吳春生、林啟文

The purpose of this research was first to investigate the vehicle characteristics for diesel cars in a bedrock dynamometer smoke examination station. Secondly, the effects of engine size and age, odometer reading on mean smoke opacity at no load and full loads (smoke 100%, 60%, and 40%) conditions were examined. Moreover, the vehicle characteristics and smoke check data were examined by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). The specific objectives were to explore the smoke emissions under various examining stages and determine the relationship between vehicle characteristics and smoke opacity. Results show vehicle age was a significant factor affecting the smoke emissions under no load and full load conditions. It was found the mean smoke opacity increases with an increase in vehicle ages. The mean no-load smoke opacities for roadside inspection diesel vehicles were significant higher those of at dynamometer smoke examination station. Because the fact that smoke emissions from roadside vehicles reflect the real situation, high smoke emissions from roadside vehicles were observed. In contrast, the lower smoke emissions for vehicles examining at dynamometer smoke examination station were attributed to the vehicle sources from either by visual determination or
Show more

2 Read more

MetaSearch Engine

MetaSearch Engine

資料來源:Gens, Mahowald, Villars, Bradshaw, & Morris, 2009.. 資料安全的標準[r]

29 Read more

The Influences of Diesel Particulate Filter Installation on Air Pollutant Emissions for Used Vehicles

The Influences of Diesel Particulate Filter Installation on Air Pollutant Emissions for Used Vehicles

The above traditional air pollutants were measured only for HDVs in this study. Particulate PAHs were collected by Pallflex filters. Before taking the samples, the filters were placed in an oven at 450°C for 8 h to burn up any organic compounds that might be present in the filters. The PAH sampling system was equipped with a sampling probe, a cooling device, a glass cartridge, a pump and a flow meter. A PAH sampling system with a tube-type glass fiber filter (cleaned by heating to 450°C) was used to collect particulate matter and particle-phase PAHs. A glass cartridge packed with XAD-16 resin and supported by a polyurethane foam (PUF) plug was used to collect the gas phase PAHs. After each sampling cycle the sampling train was rinsed with n-hexane. Breakthrough tests were conducted by two stages of XAD-16/PUF cartridge. Each stage of cartridge was analyzed individually and compared for the PAH mass collected. Breakthrough tests results showed that there was little PAH mass found in the cartridge of the second stage. After sampling, each PAH- containing sample was Soxhlet extracted with a mixed solvent (n-hexane and dichloromethane, 500 mL/L each) for 24 h. The extract was then concentrated by purging with ultra-pure nitrogen to 2 mL for the cleanup procedure and then reconcentrated to 0.5 mL with ultra-pure nitrogen.
Show more

6 Read more

The design and implementation of the NCTUns network simulation engine

The design and implementation of the NCTUns network simulation engine

readers have had the required background, we will use a one-hop network as an example to present how to combine the discrete-event methodology with the kernel re-entering methodology. 3.1. Tunnel network interface Tunnel network interfaces is the key facility in the kernel re-entering methodology. A tunnel network inter- face, available on most UNIX machines, is a pseudo network interface that does not have a real physical net- work attached to it. The functions of a tunnel network interface, from the kernel’s point of view, are no different from those of an Ethernet network interface. A network application program can send out its packets to its destination host through a tunnel network interface or receive packets from a tunnel network interface, just as if these packets were sent to or received from a normal Ethernet interface. Currently, the NCTUns installation script automatically creates 4,096 tunnel interfaces by default. Since a tunnel network interface is a software object and occupies little memory space in the kernel, this number can be further increased with- out any problem.
Show more

25 Read more

Multiphysics simulations of rocket engine combustion

Multiphysics simulations of rocket engine combustion

include correlations for the transport properties. This was conve- nient since much of the methodology was similar. 2.4. Real-fluid model computational speed In assessing the computational overhead associated with using the real-fluid property sub-model, numerical experiments of simu- lating some converging–diverging pipe flows with ideal gas and li- quid oxygen working fluids were conducted to quantify the CPU time overhead when the real-fluid model is activated. The results show an overall CPU time increase of about 85% for the real-fluid cases. These results indicate that there are rooms for improvement in order to enhance the turnaround time of running multi-phase flow problems. To improve the computational efficiency, a real- fluid table lookup procedure was developed for the present CFD model. This method is much more efficient than the original real-fluid model which involves the inversion of curve-fit data describing the equation of state. In average, the real-fluid table lookup model is only 15% slower than its ideal-gas counterpart.
Show more

8 Read more

Gujarat THE GROWTH ENGINE OF INDIA

Gujarat THE GROWTH ENGINE OF INDIA

→ Established a business unit in Gujarat in 1972 through a joint venture with the Indian company, Lakhanpal. Manufacturing unit located at Vadodara where it manufactures dry cell batteries. Panasonic → Founded in 1908, GM is among the world’s largest automobile makers. Headquartered in Detroit (USA), GM manufactures cars and trucks in 158 facilities and offer a comprehensive range of vehicles in more than 120 countries. GM has been the global automotive sales leader since 1931 and employs about 202,000 people globally.

80 Read more

Multi-Injection Performance Optimization Study for a High Pressure Direct Injection Common Rail Diesel Engine 林秉彥、張一屏

Multi-Injection Performance Optimization Study for a High Pressure Direct Injection Common Rail Diesel Engine 林秉彥、張一屏

ABSTRACT The main purpose of this study is to establish the multiple injection performance optimization methodology for a high pressure Direct Injection Common Rail (DICR) diesel engine. The hardware and software of the engine control system were combined with the engine dynamometer display real-time performance parameters so that the engine control parameter tuning and multi-objective optimization rules can be integrated and the engine performance be verified at the same time by dynamometer experiments. This study has built the fuel consumption and pollution models of vehicle driving cycle which then was converted into engine torque and speed by using the real vehicle parameters. Several key points were sorted from the corresponding map data for steady state estimation measurement. The selected key points control parameters were changed to reduce the overall exhaust emissions.
Show more

3 Read more

Show all 10000 documents...