Instant responsesystem (IRS) includes the interactive white board (IWT) and personalresponsesystem (PRS). There has been an increasing trend of PRS application inTaiwan’ s higher education. However, to our knowledge, there is no related studies outside the continents of Europe, America, and Australia. This is a situation of concern since culture or region has been generally recognized as having a moderating effect in the technology acceptance model (TAM) and related theories. Meanwhile, only a few PRS studies touched upon theories in relation to education, and none on the technology-based theories for establishing students’usage of such educational technology in classroom. In order to shorten the learning curve of PRS applications inTaiwan’ shigher education, it is important to compare how Taiwan’ s college students perceive PRS on those issues that had been reported in UK and USA so that more effective implementation strategies or practices can be adopted. A small-scale study was conducted with over fifty students registered ina course ina university in southern Taiwan.
Second, perceived ease of use was found to be the only significant factor influencing learning performance, which implies that devices as simple as a clicker operation could contribute to students’ learning performance. The reason could be that PRS allows the students to compare their answers with peers in anonymity which helps students realize misconceptions instantly and motivate students to focus more and work harder to be competitive. Third, among the six motivation factors of MSLQ, only students’preference of intrinsic goal orientation and self-efficacy for learning and performance were found to significantly impact PRS continuance usage. This may imply that when facing students with other motivational preferences, the instructors may need to adjust their PRS instructional design. The school administration will also need to apply a larger-scale PRS implementation so that the classroom environment, learning and assessment benefits summarized by Kay and LeSage (2009) can be reinforced. Fourth, the finding that the incentives in Agency theory significantly influenced the PRS continuance usage implies that with proper incentives, students can be allured to continue the PRS usage. Therefore, the instructors are encouraged to give creative or generous incentives to stimulate students’acceptance and continuous use in order to achieve intended benefits of PRS usage.
This should guide them in increasing support and facilitating student adjustment on PRS learning approach.
Two insignificant hypotheses, H 1-3 and H 2-2 , are related to benefits and challenges, respectively. For the assessment benefits, our observations suggest that the teachers inTaiwan failed to facilitate PRS at a level that would have allowed them to obtain regular feedback from students. Moreover, Taiwanese students did not receive enough motivation to know peer responses. Since these three measurement items are positive benefits to the teacher-student dynamic relationship identified in Western literature, gaps in PRS implementations and promotion may exist in the Taiwan context. At present, almost all higher educational institutions inTaiwan have established teachers’
Our exposure assessment was based on residential zip-code rather than on address during pregnancy, and we used a geographic information system to integrate monthly air pollutant data from 72 EPA monitoring stations which was interpolated to pollutant surfaces using inverse distance weighting method. A previous study reported that using municipal level exposures obtained from air pollution monitoring stations as a proxy for personal exposure results in smaller effect estimates than estimates based on individual-level exposure. (Navidi and Lurmann 1995). A plausible source of information bias is that pregnant women may change residential location, which will lead to exposure misclassification. Based on reports from the United States (13%), Canada (12%) and Australia (19%), a substantial proportion of the population moves during pregnancy (Chen et al. 2010; Fell et al. 2004; Raynes-Greenow et al.
The dependence on imported fossil-based energy is up to 99.34 % inTaiwan. To ensure national security and mitigate CO 2 emission problem, Taiwan government regards bioenergy as one of the primary alternative energy, especially in agricultural-waste utilizations. However, restricted by dispersed distribution of cultivation land, the objective of this research is to establish an optimal biomass using policy, including the location and collecting route decision of bioenergy plant. Analytical Hierarchy Process, Geographical Information System and mathematical programming model have been used to obtain the optimal locations and their collection routes; finally, acasestudy has been accomplished in the research.
The composition of industrialized countries’ machine tool industries in terms of the low, medium, and high-class products that they make is about 25:65:10, respectively, while the composition for newly developing countries is 80:19:1 (PMC and MIRL, 1996). In Asia, Taiwan’s main competitors are Japan, Korea, and Mainland China. Taiwan’s machine tools, second only to Japan’s in terms of quality and sales in Asia, are offered at much lower prices than Japan’s. Consequently, they are attractive to the Southeast Asian market. The current car parts market structure will change after local car parts plants, using machine tools other than those produced by Japan, emerge. Besides, the vigorously growing semiconductor industry, the high-potential aerospace industry, and the health care industry are all machine tool markets for high-precision and processing technology. Consequently, the Taiwan machine tool industry will likely develop in the direction of mid-class machine tools.
3. Questionnaire and results
Two questionnaires are used to illicit information on experienced and inexperienced consumers, and to obtained data regarding consumer characteristics and preferences in purchasing HEVs. The questionnaire consists of two sections. The ﬁrst, asked questions related to responders’ socioeconomic status such as age, gender, income, residence, vehicle possession and environment awareness. A quasi-stated preference experiment is also contained included asking respondents to choose from hypothetical choice sets. The choices are described by bundles of attributes values including gasoline price, acceleration per- formance, 1 vehicle prices and WOM inﬂuences. The second collected data for calibrating the parameters in the small-world net- work and the WOM function. The respondents are asked how many people, as well as the social relationships they discussed their choices before purchasing a vehicle. The respondents were also asked for what they thought was the level of inﬂuence exerted by various social relationships such as strong or weak ties and social media. The level of inﬂuence was measured on a ﬁve-point scale, ranging from extremely important, very important to unimportant with scores of 100, 75, 50, 25 and 0. Max- imum likelihood estimation is used to estimate ^ a ; ^ b; ^ h; ^ c and ^ d in Eq. (1) and ^ a 0 ; ^ b 0 ; ^ h 0 ; ^ c 0 and ^ d 0 in Eq. (2).
methods only had the difference in input data. The individual fore- cast by ANFIS adopted the training data as the inputs directly. The nonlinear combining forecast by ANFIS selected the estimated val- ues from three foresting model as the inputs to build the nonlinear combining forecasting system. The three forecasting models can be selected from three nonlinear forecasts models and four combining forecasts models which mentioned above in Section 2.1. The MSE, MAPE, ASRE values of three forecasting model were the lowest of three values than other models. The ﬁrst-order Sugeno fuzzy model has become a common practice on ANFIS implements in the past. Thus, we used the same model. The ﬁve steps process shows as follows: (1) In layer 1, each node is called an input lin- guistic node and corresponds to one input linguistic variable. The nodes transmit input forecasts to the next layer directly. Each node function can be modeled by fuzzy membership function. Here, the generalized bell membership function and Gaussian membership function are used; (2) in layer 2, each node in this layer calculates the ﬁring strength of a rule via multiplication; (3) in layer 3: The ith node in this layer calculates the ratio of the nth rule’s ﬁring strength to the sum of all the rules’ ﬁring strengths. The result would be the normalized ﬁring strengths. For convenience, the output of this layer will be called the normalized ﬁring strengths;
Running head: Esophagus cancer and diabetes mellitus
Kao-Chi Cheng, MD and MPH 1 ; Yu-Lung Chen, MD and MPH 1 ; Shih-Wei Lai, MD 1,2 ; Pang-Yao Tsai, MSPH 3,4 ; Fung-Chang Sung, PhD and MPH 3,4
1 Department of Family Medicine and 3 Management Office for Health Data, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung 404, Taiwan
From a methodological viewpoint, our study design surpassed previous studies in several as- pects. First, a hospital-basedcase-control studyin our study provided an opportunity to identify risk factors that cannot be found using data on case series due to a lack of comparison. Another ad- vantage was the use of two control groups, which enabled us to assess recall bias for some variables that have been commonly observed in retrospec- tive studies since those who had the disease are more able to recall relevant events than those who had not. If one can get consistent results from the two series of controls, the result will be more accurate and convincing. For example, the associ- ation of febrile seizures with IS is of borderline statistical significance for both Normal Control and Disease Control group. This suggests that recall bias may be a minor problem. As shown in Table 2, the identical distribution of family his- tory of psychiatric disease, seizure, or epilepsy for the two groups may partially clear the doubt of this problem. In addition, the use of Disease Control group provides an opportunity to investi- gate the effect of TS or other brain insults on IS.
The present study shows a dose–response relationship between polypharmacy and dementia among patients without cerebrovascular disease.
In addition, we found dementia also has a significant association with chronic kidney disease (OR 1.21). Only limited studies have explored this relationship. The REGARDS Study has suggested that impaired renal function is associated with a dementia-like state for USA adults after adjustment for cardiovascular risk fac- tors. 36 Two other studies carried out by Elias et al. and by Etgen et al. also showed a similar trend. 37,38 Madero et al. have reviewed several studies on dementia and concluded that patients in all stages of chronic kidney disease are at an elevated risk of dementia with a sig- nificant impact on their quality of life. 39 Therefore, early detection of dementia in the early course for patients with chronic kidney disease is highly recommended.
(4) A new niche in the home appliance market. This study found that the digital home product development of all scenario products share two characteristics. The first is the promotion of energy-saving technologies and innovation, and the other is the integration of home appliances and central control systems to control product use. As shown in Table VII, healthcare has the most inconsistent number of patent applications and is the least targeted aspect of the digital home. Therefore, this is the research direction M should take. Products in the healthcare scenario include electric beds, smart toilets, and virtual watches. Based on analyses of the patent applications for these technologies, inventory control, position monitoring, and hospital bed control are currently the least focused on applications. This study therefore recommends additional research and development to generate more applications for patents of these three fields.
It can be used to forecast technological market growth or decline, In addition, when more than one technology ina single market is analyzed by the Norton and Bass model, the substitution point of the older technology by the newer technology can be identified and used in subsequent market planning. Yet a major shortcoming of the Norton and Bass model is that it can not exhibit the dynamic competition between two technologies . In early literatures, papers of competition in PC were almost in qualitative research. The term competition is often used in the innovation and industry of management field. The meaning of competition is generally understood but is not usually given description clearly. Many researchers applied the Bass model to explore the diffusion marketing of PCs, but did not consider that the diffusion of DT would threaten the diffusion of NB. Hence many researchers tried to find a better method to solve this kind of problem.
Medical Decision Support System is an essential issue for the current healthcare system management base on the reason of large-scaling of hospital, raising cost of medical treatment and the establishing of healthcare insurance, which composed of a
complex healthcare systeminTaiwan. Hence, it soon raised the question how to integrate public satisfaction with promoting hospital management efficiency and medical quality effectiveness, and improving the effects of government healthcare policy at the same time we have considered. Since the implementation of NHI in March 1995, it covers 99% of insured population until 2004. However, with the financial bankruptcy of the Bureau of National Health Insurance, the government soon under financial pressure to increase the tax premium and limits the amount for health providers that finally leads into the reduction of healthcare quality and service satisfaction. In fact, the NHI is a dynamic complexity issue, our research use system dynamics as a methodology to construct a NHI decision support model, and then explain its system behavior and process a set of related analysis of policy to propose a specific suggestion for the government administration.
1 Graduate Institute of Building and Planning, National Taiwan University, Taipei City 106, Taiwan, ROC; 2 National Science & Technology Center for Disaster Reduction (NCDR), 6F., No. 200, Sec. 3, Sinhai Rd., Da-an District, Taipei City 106, Taiwan, ROC
Abstract. Taiwan has long made eﬀorts to increase community emergency response capability, due to its vulnerability to earthquakes, typhoons, landslides and debris ﬂows. Not until recent major natural disasters, such as the 1999 Chi–Chi Earthquake, Typhoon Toraji and Typhoon Nari, has the government reformed its policy toward empowering the community to take actions in hazard mitigation, emergency preparedness and emergency response. A new initi- atve, Integrated Community-Based Disaster Management Program (ICBDM), was launched in 2001 by the Executive Yuan to achieve the goal of strengthening community resistance. The paper, taking Shang-An Village as an example, describes Taiwan’s new community-based disaster management program. Through a participatory process, community residents have learned how to analyze vulnerable conditions, discover problems, develop solutions and establish an organization to implement disaster management tasks. Further, basic response training courses and a disaster scenario were held in order to improve their emergency response capability. Based on the casestudy, a phased process, including initiation, assessment, plan- ning and practice, is generalized.
3 M ETHOD
This study is an exploratory research. Chung-Hwa Telecom, one of the most famous cloud service firms inTaiwan, is selected as the subject. The method of data collection concerns secondary data from 2002 to 2011 in Digitimes database and in-depth interviews, official website of the case, related studies etc. Finally the study has collected 274 events of service innovations. Each event is treated as an analysis unit. Furthermore, the study bases on the framework of cloud service consisting of PaaS、IaaS、SaaS、CaaS and DaaS to analyze the collected data. The data analysis strategies include pattern matching, explanation building, time series and program logic model. The study was divided into three stages according to the critical development events of Department of Health of Taiwan.
Altogether, 3 different fact-to-face interviews were conducted with an average duration of approximately 2 hours for reach interview. Besides, another six top and senior managers from other three banks were also consulted during the project implement period in order to validate and complement the AJ bank information. The collection of multiple types of data from different sources provided triangulation of evidence (Stake 1994). This also ensures that facts state by one organization could be verified by the other, and this provides multiple perspectives on issues and increases the reliability of the study. All informants were selected and scrutinize carefully to ensure the quality of the data collection. The interviews were unstructured and all interviewees were encouraged to speak freely about their innovation strategies experiences. The standard set of questions used was designed only to help initiate and guide the interview process. The study drew deeply on the perceptions of the interviewees, as revealed through their interview comments. All the interviews were tape recorded and transcribed, and notes were taken when necessary. Additional observations were noted immediately after each on-site interview was completed. These texts became the main data used for subsequent analysis.
Traditional financial planning procedures began from taking into account the planner’s initial financial situation, his/her financial goals, and expectations for the future, etc. and then calculating the future cash flows for different time periods under variant scenarios. If the planning result cannot meet the planner’s expectation, then the planner has to adjust the tunable parameters continuously until obtaining an acceptable financial arrangement. Such a “trial-and- error” or so-called “what-if analysis” method does not promise to achieve an optimal planning result, and cannot afford to analyze how the financial plan will be modified when the parameters change. This paper proposes a generalized personal financial planning programming model with fuzzy multiple goals to solve the personal financial planning problem under a different way compared to the traditional methodology.